Johann Leonhard Hug
was a German
Germany , officially the Federal Republic of Germany , is a federal parliamentary republic in Europe. The country consists of 16 states while the capital and largest city is Berlin. Germany covers an area of 357,021 km2 and has a largely temperate seasonal climate...
Roman Catholic theologian.
In 1783 he entered the University of Freiburg
The University of Freiburg , sometimes referred to in English as the Albert Ludwig University of Freiburg, is a public research university located in Freiburg im Breisgau, Baden-Württemberg, Germany.The university was founded in 1457 by the Habsburg dynasty as the...
, where he became a pupil in the seminary for the training of priests, and soon distinguished himself in classical and Oriental philology
Philology is the study of language in written historical sources; it is a combination of literary studies, history and linguistics.Classical philology is the philology of Greek and Classical Latin...
as well as in biblical exegesis and criticism. In 1787 he became superintendent of studies in the seminary, and held this appointment until the breaking up of the establishment in 1790. In the following year he was called to the Freiburg chair of Oriental languages and Old Testament
The Old Testament, of which Christians hold different views, is a Christian term for the religious writings of ancient Israel held sacred and inspired by Christians which overlaps with the 24-book canon of the Masoretic Text of Judaism...
Exegesis is a critical explanation or interpretation of a text, especially a religious text. Traditionally the term was used primarily for exegesis of the Bible; however, in contemporary usage it has broadened to mean a critical explanation of any text, and the term "Biblical exegesis" is used...
; to the duties of this post were added in 1793 those of the professorship of New Testament
The New Testament is the second major division of the Christian biblical canon, the first such division being the much longer Old Testament....
Declining calls to Breslau, Tübingen, and thrice to Bonn
The University of Bonn is a public research university located in Bonn, Germany. Founded in its present form in 1818, as the linear successor of earlier academic institutions, the University of Bonn is today one of the leading universities in Germany. The University of Bonn offers a large number...
, Hug continued at Freiburg for upwards of thirty years, taking an occasional literary tour to Munich
Munich The city's motto is "" . Before 2006, it was "Weltstadt mit Herz" . Its native name, , is derived from the Old High German Munichen, meaning "by the monks' place". The city's name derives from the monks of the Benedictine order who founded the city; hence the monk depicted on the city's coat...
Paris is the capital and largest city in France, situated on the river Seine, in northern France, at the heart of the Île-de-France region...
Italy , officially the Italian Republic languages]] under the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages. In each of these, Italy's official name is as follows:;;;;;;;;), is a unitary parliamentary republic in South-Central Europe. To the north it borders France, Switzerland, Austria and...
. In 1827 he resigned some of his professorial work, but continued in active duty until in the autumn of 1845 he fell ill and died on 11 March 1846. Johann Martin Augustin Scholz was his pupil.
Hug's earliest publication was the first installment of his Einleitung
; in it he argued against Johann Gottfried Eichhorn
Johann Gottfried Eichhorn was a German Protestant theologian of Enlightenment and early orientalist.-Education and early career:...
in favour of the borrowing hypothesis of the origin of the synoptical gospels
The gospels of Matthew, Mark, and Luke are known as the Synoptic Gospels because they include many of the same stories, often in the same sequence, and sometimes exactly the same wording. This degree of parallelism in content, narrative arrangement, language, and sentence structures can only be...
, maintaining the priority of Matthew, the present Greek text having been the original.
His subsequent works were dissertations on the origin of alphabetical writing (Die Erfindung der Buch stabenschrift
, 1801), on the antiquity of the Codex Vaticanus
(1810), and on ancient mythology (Uber den Mythos der alien Volker
, 1812); a new interpretation of the Song of Solomon
The Song of Songs of Solomon, commonly referred to as Song of Songs or Song of Solomon, is a book of the Hebrew Bible—one of the megillot —found in the last section of the Tanakh, known as the Ketuvim...
(Des hohe Lied in einer noch unversuchten Deutung
, 1813), to the effect that the lover represents King Hezekiah, while by his beloved is intended the remnant left in Israel
The State of Israel is a parliamentary republic located in the Middle East, along the eastern shore of the Mediterranean Sea...
after the deportation of the ten tribes; and treatises on the indissoluble character of the matrimonial bond (De conjugii cheistiani vinculo indissolubili commentatio exegetica
, 1816) and on the Alexandrian version of the Pentateuch (1818).
His Einleitung in die Schriften des Neuen Testaments
, his major work, was completed in 1808 (fourth German edition, 1847; English translations by Daniel Guilford Wait
Daniel Guilford Wait was an English clergyman, Hebrew scholar and religious writer.-Life:He was the son of Daniel Wait of Bristol. He matriculated from University College, Oxford, on 20 October 1809, and moved over to St. John's College, Cambridge, where he graduated LL.B. in 1819 and LL.D. in 1824...
, London, 1827, and by David Fosdick and Moses Stuart, New York, 1836; French partial translation by J. E. Cellerier, Geneva, 1823). In the portion relating to the history of the text he holds it to have been current up to the middle of the 3rd century only in a common edition, of which recensions were afterwards made by Hesychius, an Egyptian bishop, by Lucian of Antioch
Saint Lucian of Antioch , known as Lucian the Martyr, was a Christian presbyter, theologian and martyr. He was noted for both his scholarship and ascetic piety.-History:...
, and by Origen
Origen , or Origen Adamantius, 184/5–253/4, was an early Christian Alexandrian scholar and theologian, and one of the most distinguished writers of the early Church. As early as the fourth century, his orthodoxy was suspect, in part because he believed in the pre-existence of souls...
From 1839 to his death Hug was a regular contributor to the Freiburger Zeitschrift fur kathol. Theologie
- Die mosaische Geschichte des Menschen, Frankfurt 1793;
- Die Ursprünge der menschlichen Erkenntnis, Basel 1796;
- Einleitung in die Schriften des Neuen Testaments, 2 Te., 1808 (18472);
- De antiquitate Codicis Vaticani commentatio, Freiburg: Herder 1810;
- Untersuchungen über den Mythos der berühmtern völker der alten welt Vorzüglich der Griechen; dessen entstehen, veränderungen und innhalt, Freiburg 1812 (18232);
- Das hohe Lied einer noch unversuchten Deutung, 1813;
- J. L. M., Schutzschr. f. seine Deutung des Hhld. u. dessen weitere Erl., Freiburg 1815;
- De conjugii christiani vinculo indissolubili commentatio exegetica, 1816;
- De Pentateuchi versione Alexandrina commentatio, 1818;
- Gutachten über das Leben Jesu v. David Friedrich Strauß (1835), 2 Te., 1840-44 (l8542)
- Gedachtnisrede auf J. L. Hug (1847)
- Wolfgang Müller, Hug, Johann Leonhard, in: Neue Deutsche Biographie (NDB). Band 10, Duncker & Humblot, Berlin 1974, p. 8.
- K. Werner, Geschichte der kath. Theol. in Deutschland, 527-533 (1866).
- Works of Hug at the Internet Archive