Jean Pictet

Jean Pictet

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Jean Simon Pictet was a Swiss jurist, expert in international humanitarian law
International humanitarian law
International humanitarian law , often referred to as the laws of war, the laws and customs of war or the law of armed conflict, is the legal corpus that comprises "the Geneva Conventions and the Hague Conventions, as well as subsequent treaties, case law, and customary international law." It...

 and senior staff member and Vice President of the International Committee of the Red Cross
International Committee of the Red Cross
The International Committee of the Red Cross is a private humanitarian institution based in Geneva, Switzerland. States parties to the four Geneva Conventions of 1949 and their Additional Protocols of 1977 and 2005, have given the ICRC a mandate to protect the victims of international and...

. He was the main architect of the 1949 Geneva Conventions
Geneva Conventions
The Geneva Conventions comprise four treaties, and three additional protocols, that establish the standards of international law for the humanitarian treatment of the victims of war...

 and Additional Protocol I
Protocol I
Protocol I is a 1977 amendment protocol to the Geneva Conventions relating to the protection of victims of international armed conflicts. It reaffirms the international laws of the original Geneva Conventions of 1949, but adds clarifications and new provisions to accommodate developments in modern...

 and Protocol II
Protocol II
Protocol II is a 1977 amendment protocol to the Geneva Conventions relating to the protection of victims of non-international armed conflicts. It defines certain international laws that strive to provide better protection for victims of internal armed conflicts that take place within the borders...

. He also proposed the Red Cross Movement
International Red Cross and Red Crescent Movement
The International Red Cross and Red Crescent Movement is an international humanitarian movement with approximately 97 million volunteers, members and staff worldwide which was founded to protect human life and health, to ensure respect for all human beings, and to prevent and alleviate human...

’s seven Fundamental Principles, which were adopted at Vienna in 1965: Humanity, Impartiality, Neutrality, Independence, Voluntary Service, Unity and Universality.

Life


After secondary education in Paris, Pictet completed his study of law at the University of Geneva
University of Geneva
The University of Geneva is a public research university located in Geneva, Switzerland.It was founded in 1559 by John Calvin, as a theological seminary and law school. It remained focused on theology until the 17th century, when it became a center for Enlightenment scholarship. In 1873, it...

, earning a doctorate in 1935 and then practiced law in Vienna and Geneva. In 1937 he began working as a legal assistant at the International Committee of the Red Cross. During the Second World War he wrote most of the ICRC's appeals on behalf of prisoners of wars and civilian victims of the war. and was one of the key staff of the Committee and worked directly with ICRC President Max Huber. Even before the war ended, he embarked on a project for a complete overhaul of the Geneva Conventions, in particular including the protection of civilians, despite Huber's pessimism about its prospects. 1946 he became Director in the Directorate and the ICRC. In 1966 he became Director General of the ICRC Directorate and thus held the highest office in the administration of the committee. From 1967 to 1979 he was a member of the ICRC (restricted to 25 Swiss citizens) and from 1971 to 1979 was the Vice President.

He was also responsible for directing the establishment of the general report on the work of the ICRC during the global conflict. He ran for the ICRC, the work and negotiations that led to the revision of the Regulations of the Red Cross International in 1952, and agreements with the League of Red Cross. He also chaired the conference of experts to prepare for the negotiation of the two Protocols Additional to the Geneva Conventions of 1977.

The four volume commentary on the Conventions under his general editorship is in constant use by those applying the convention. His short 1955 volume Les Principes de la Croix-Rouge (Red Cross Principles) was a decisive step in formulating common principles of the different organizations of the Red Cross Movement, and led to the unanimous adoption by the 1965 XXth International Conference of the Red Cross in Vienna, of the seven Fundamental Principles of the Red Cross. He was also involved in drafting the statutes of the Movement.

Jean Pictet was appointed lecturer at the University of Geneva and Professor of International Humanitarian Law at the Faculty of Law and Associate Professor 1974 to 1979. He also lectured at the Academy of International Law (1950) and the International Institute of Human Rights (1971, 1972, 1982). From 1975 to 1981 he was director and president of the Henry Dunant Institute, research center, training and teaching of the International Red Cross.

Jean Pictet was the main author of the commentary on the four Geneva Conventions of 1949 and 1977 completed two additional protocols. He has also published the 1948 "Report of the International Committee of the Red Cross on its activities during the Second World War (1 September 1939-30 June 1947)" and later presented with the basis for publications in 1965 adopted seven principles of the International Red Cross - and Rothalbmond movement. Among his other works include several works on international humanitarian law and about the Native Americans.

1950 he taught at the Hague Academy of International Law in The Hague. In the years 1971, 1972 and 1982 he held lectures at the International Institute for Human Rights, from 1974 to 1979 he was Professor of international humanitarian law at the Law Faculty of the University of Geneva. From 1975 to 1981 he worked as director and later president of the Henry Dunant Institute. [2]

In his later years, his Rousseau
Jean-Jacques Rousseau
Jean-Jacques Rousseau was a Genevan philosopher, writer, and composer of 18th-century Romanticism. His political philosophy influenced the French Revolution as well as the overall development of modern political, sociological and educational thought.His novel Émile: or, On Education is a treatise...

ian faith in humanity declined, and he emphasized the necessity of legal compulsion. He wrote several books on the conquest of North America from the Indians.

Honors


Pictet received honorary doctorates from the Universities of Leiden, Zurich, and Leuven, as well as several awards from the International Red Cross and Red Crescent Movement, including posthumously in 2005 the Henry Dunant Medal
Henry Dunant Medal
The Henry Dunant Medal is the highest World Red Cross award. It is named after Henry Dunant.-Winners:*Pierre Tacier, 1969. Former ICRC Delegate "for gallantry on a battlefield"....

, the highest award of the movement. The bilingual, international Jean-Pictet Competition
Moot court
A moot court is an extracurricular activity at many law schools in which participants take part in simulated court proceedings, usually to include drafting briefs and participating in oral argument. The term derives from Anglo Saxon times, when a moot was a gathering of prominent men in a...

, which focuses on international humanitarian law, was named after him.

Jean-Pictet Competition


The Jean-Pictet competition was founded in 1989 by Christophe Lanord and Michel Deyra. Originally, the competition was run only in French with four members in each team. In 1997, the competition was changed so that each team had three members. In 2000, an English-speaking round was introduced. From 2007 to 2009, a Spanish-speaking round was also included; however, this has since discontinued.

Since 2000, nine of the Jean-Pictet champions have been teams from the English-speaking round, three have been from the French-speaking round. Three universities have won the Jean-Pictet Competition two years in a row: (Barreau de Montréal
Bar of Montreal
The Bar of Montreal is the bar association for lawyers in the city of Montreal, Canada. . It has it beginnings in 1693 when, as a Royal Province of the French colonial empire, Canadien lawyers first tried to obtain official recognition but were refused by Governor General of New France Louis de...

 in 1991 and 1992, Université catholique de Louvain
Université catholique de Louvain
The Université catholique de Louvain, sometimes known, especially in Belgium, as UCL, is Belgium's largest French-speaking university. It is located in Louvain-la-Neuve and in Brussels...

 in 2000 and 2001, and Interdisciplinary Center, Herzliya
Interdisciplinary Center
The Interdisciplinary Center, Herzliya is a private Israeli college located in Herzliya, Israel.The languages of instruction in the Interdisciplinary Center are Hebrew and English.-History:...

 in 2010 and 2011. In fact, there are more winners who have won two or more times than there are winners who have won only once. Universities from Belgium have won the Jean-Pictet Competition five times.

Table of Honours


Year Location Number of teams French-speaking Round Winners French-speaking Round Finalists English-speaking Round Winners English-speaking Round Finalists Gilbert Apollis Award Winners Jean Pictet Champion Champion's Country
2012 Winterton/Drakensberg, South Africa
South Africa
The Republic of South Africa is a country in southern Africa. Located at the southern tip of Africa, it is divided into nine provinces, with of coastline on the Atlantic and Indian oceans...

 
2011 Najac
Najac
Najac is a commune in the Aveyron department in southern France.Najac is a picturesque village set along a ridge above a bend in the Aveyron River. In the earlier part of the last century the village had around 2000 people but it suffered marked population decline as workers migrated to towns and...

, France
48 Université de Lomé (Togo)
University of Lomé
The University of Lomé is the largest university in the African country of Togo. Located in the city of Lomé, it was originally founded in 1970 as University of Benin before changing its name.-2011 student riots:...

 
Université de Buenos Aires
University of Buenos Aires
The University of Buenos Aires is the largest university in Argentina and the largest university by enrollment in Latin America. Founded on August 12, 1821 in the city of Buenos Aires, it consists of 13 faculties, 6 hospitals, 10 museums and is linked to 4 high schools: Colegio Nacional de Buenos...

 (Argentina
Argentina
Argentina , officially the Argentine Republic , is the second largest country in South America by land area, after Brazil. It is constituted as a federation of 23 provinces and an autonomous city, Buenos Aires...

), Université de Montréal
Université de Montréal
The Université de Montréal is a public francophone research university in Montreal, Quebec, Canada. It comprises thirteen faculties, more than sixty departments and two affiliated schools: the École Polytechnique and HEC Montréal...

 (Canada), Université Paris II - Panthéon-Assas (France
France
The French Republic , The French Republic , The French Republic , (commonly known as France , is a unitary semi-presidential republic in Western Europe with several overseas territories and islands located on other continents and in the Indian, Pacific, and Atlantic oceans. Metropolitan France...

)
Académie de droit international humanitaire et de droits humains (Switzerland) and Interdisciplinary Center, Herzliya
Interdisciplinary Center
The Interdisciplinary Center, Herzliya is a private Israeli college located in Herzliya, Israel.The languages of instruction in the Interdisciplinary Center are Hebrew and English.-History:...

 (Israel)
New York University
New York University
New York University is a private, nonsectarian research university based in New York City. NYU's main campus is situated in the Greenwich Village section of Manhattan...

 (USA), Utrecht University
Utrecht University
Utrecht University is a university in Utrecht, Netherlands. It is one of the oldest universities in the Netherlands and one of the largest in Europe. Established March 26, 1636, it had an enrollment of 29,082 students in 2008, and employed 8,614 faculty and staff, 570 of which are full professors....

 (Netherlands), University of Essex
University of Essex
The University of Essex is a British campus university whose original and largest campus is near the town of Colchester, England. Established in 1963 and receiving its Royal Charter in 1965...

 (UK), University of Athens (Greece), University of Michigan
University of Michigan
The University of Michigan is a public research university located in Ann Arbor, Michigan in the United States. It is the state's oldest university and the flagship campus of the University of Michigan...

 (USA), University of the Philippines
University of the Philippines
The ' is the national university of the Philippines. Founded in 1908 through Act No...

 (Philippines
Philippines
The Philippines , officially known as the Republic of the Philippines , is a country in Southeast Asia in the western Pacific Ocean. To its north across the Luzon Strait lies Taiwan. West across the South China Sea sits Vietnam...

)
Etienne Quillet (Université Paris II - Panthéon-Assas), Levan Asatiani (Tbilisi State University
Tbilisi State University
Ivane Javakhishvili Tbilisi State University , better known as Tbilisi State University , is a university established on 8 February 1918 in Tbilisi, Georgia. TSU is the oldest university in the whole Caucasus region...

), and Halim Shebaya (University of Nottingham
University of Nottingham
The University of Nottingham is a public research university based in Nottingham, United Kingdom, with further campuses in Ningbo, China and Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia...

)
Interdisciplinary Center, Herzliya
Interdisciplinary Center
The Interdisciplinary Center, Herzliya is a private Israeli college located in Herzliya, Israel.The languages of instruction in the Interdisciplinary Center are Hebrew and English.-History:...

 
Israel
Israel
The State of Israel is a parliamentary republic located in the Middle East, along the eastern shore of the Mediterranean Sea...

2010 Orford
Orford
-Places:* Orford, Cheshire, a suburb of Warrington, England* Orford, Suffolk, England, the location of:** Orford Castle** Orford Ness* Orford, Quebec, in the Eastern Townships of Quebec, Canada** Mont Orford, a ski resort in Quebec, Canada...

, Canada
45 Interdisciplinary Center, Herzliya, New York University
New York University
New York University is a private, nonsectarian research university based in New York City. NYU's main campus is situated in the Greenwich Village section of Manhattan...

 
Jeremy Etkind (University of New South Wales) Interdisciplinary Center, Herzliya Israel
2009 Évian-les Bains, France 55 Université de Caen (France) Académie de droit international humanitaire et de droits humains (Switzerland) University of Essex
University of Essex
The University of Essex is a British campus university whose original and largest campus is near the town of Colchester, England. Established in 1963 and receiving its Royal Charter in 1965...

 (United Kingdom) and National University of Singapore (Singapore
Singapore
Singapore , officially the Republic of Singapore, is a Southeast Asian city-state off the southern tip of the Malay Peninsula, north of the equator. An island country made up of 63 islands, it is separated from Malaysia by the Straits of Johor to its north and from Indonesia's Riau Islands by the...

)
Maëlle Audoin (Université de Caen), Zoe Richards (Pakistan
Pakistan
Pakistan , officially the Islamic Republic of Pakistan is a sovereign state in South Asia. It has a coastline along the Arabian Sea and the Gulf of Oman in the south and is bordered by Afghanistan and Iran in the west, India in the east and China in the far northeast. In the north, Tajikistan...

 - National Team) and Samuel Njoroge Njeri (University of Nairobi
University of Nairobi
The University of Nairobi is the largest university in Kenya. Although its history as an educational institution goes back to 1956, it did not become an independent university until 1970 when the University of East Africa was split into three independent universities: Makerere University in...

)
Université de Caen  France
2008 Schwarzenburg, Switzerland 56 Université de Liège (Belgium) Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais
Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais
Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais is a federal university located in Belo Horizonte, state of Minas Gerais, Brazil. The students are admitted through yearly exams called vestibular....

 (Brazil) and University of Nairobi (Kenya
Kenya
Kenya , officially known as the Republic of Kenya, is a country in East Africa that lies on the equator, with the Indian Ocean to its south-east...

)
Manon Ballestero (Université Libre de Bruxelles), Diego Valadares (Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais) and Ben Winks (University of Johannesburg
University of Johannesburg
The University of Johannesburg came into existence on 1 January 2005 as the result of a merger between the Technikon Witwatersrand and the Rand Afrikaans University . Prior to the merger, the Daveyton and Soweto campuses of the former Vista University had been incorporated into RAU...

)
Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais
Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais
Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais is a federal university located in Belo Horizonte, state of Minas Gerais, Brazil. The students are admitted through yearly exams called vestibular....

 
Brazil
Brazil
Brazil , officially the Federative Republic of Brazil , is the largest country in South America. It is the world's fifth largest country, both by geographical area and by population with over 192 million people...

2007 University of New South Wales
University of New South Wales
The University of New South Wales , is a research-focused university based in Kensington, a suburb in Sydney, New South Wales, Australia...

 
Australia
2006 Université Libre de Bruxelles
Université Libre de Bruxelles
The Université libre de Bruxelles is a French-speaking university in Brussels, Belgium. It has 21,000 students, 29% of whom come from abroad, and an equally cosmopolitan staff.-Name:...

 
Belgium
2005 London School of Economics
London School of Economics
The London School of Economics and Political Science is a public research university specialised in the social sciences located in London, United Kingdom, and a constituent college of the federal University of London...

 
United Kingdom
2004 University of Cambridge
University of Cambridge
The University of Cambridge is a public research university located in Cambridge, United Kingdom. It is the second-oldest university in both the United Kingdom and the English-speaking world , and the seventh-oldest globally...

 
United Kingdom
2003 University of New South Wales Australia
2002 Université de Fribourg
University of Fribourg
The University of Fribourg is a university in the city of Fribourg, Switzerland.The roots of the University can be traced back to 1582, when the notable Jesuit Peter Canisius founded the Collège Saint-Michel in the City of Fribourg. In 1763, an Academy of law was founded by the state of Frobourg...

 
Switzerland
2001 Université catholique de Louvain
Université catholique de Louvain
The Université catholique de Louvain, sometimes known, especially in Belgium, as UCL, is Belgium's largest French-speaking university. It is located in Louvain-la-Neuve and in Brussels...

 
Belgium
2000 Université catholique de Louvain Belgium
1999 Université de Fribourg Switzerland
1998 Université Libre de Bruxelles Belgium
1997 University of Auvergne
University of Auvergne
The University of Auvergne , also known as “Universite d'Auvergne Clermont-Ferrand I” or Clermont-Ferrand I, is a French public university, based in Clermont-Ferrand, in the region of Auvergne. It is under the Academy of Clermont-Ferrand. It is the head of PRES Clermont Université consortium; PRES...

 
France
1996 Université du Québec à Montréal
Université du Québec à Montréal
The Université du Québec à Montréal is one of four universities in Montreal, Quebec, Canada.-Basic facts:The UQAM is the largest constituent element of the Université du Québec , a public university system with other branches in Gatineau , Rimouski, Rouyn-Noranda, Quebec City, Chicoutimi, and...

 
Canada
1995 Graduate Institute of International Studies
Graduate Institute of International Studies
The Graduate Institute of International Studies, best known as HEI , was founded in 1927 as one of the first institutions in the world dedicated to the study of international relations...

 
Switzerland
1994 Collège militaire royal du Canada
Royal Military College of Canada
The Royal Military College of Canada, RMC, or RMCC , is the military academy of the Canadian Forces, and is a degree-granting university. RMC was established in 1876. RMC is the only federal institution in Canada with degree granting powers...

 
Canada
1993 Essex University  United Kingdom
1992 Barreau de Montréal
Bar of Montreal
The Bar of Montreal is the bar association for lawyers in the city of Montreal, Canada. . It has it beginnings in 1693 when, as a Royal Province of the French colonial empire, Canadien lawyers first tried to obtain official recognition but were refused by Governor General of New France Louis de...

 
Canada
1991 Barreau de Montréal Canada
1990 Aix-Marseille III France
1989 Université Libre de Bruxelles Belgium

External links