was a French politician
A politician, political leader, or political figure is an individual who is involved in influencing public policy and decision making...
Pache was born in Verdun, but grew up in Paris, of Swiss parentage, the son of the concièrge of the hotel of Marshal de Castries. He became tutor to the marshal's children, and subsequently first secretary at the ministry of marine, head of supplies (munitionnaire général des vivres
), and comptroller of the king's household. After spending several years in Switzerland with his family, he returned to France at the beginning of the Revolution
The French Revolution , sometimes distinguished as the 'Great French Revolution' , was a period of radical social and political upheaval in France and Europe. The absolute monarchy that had ruled France for centuries collapsed in three years...
He was employed successively at the ministries of the interior and of war, and was appointed on 20 September 1793 third deputy suppliant of Paris by the Luxembourg
Luxembourg , officially the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg , is a landlocked country in western Europe, bordered by Belgium, France, and Germany. It has two principal regions: the Oesling in the North as part of the Ardennes massif, and the Gutland in the south...
section. Thus brought into notice, he was made minister of war on 3 October 1792
Pache was a Girondist
The Girondists were a political faction in France within the Legislative Assembly and the National Convention during the French Revolution...
himself, but aroused their hostility by his incompetence. He was supported, however, by Marat
Jean-Paul Marat , born in the Principality of Neuchâtel, was a physician, political theorist, and scientist best known for his career in France as a radical journalist and politician during the French Revolution...
, and when he was superseded in the ministry of war by Beurnonville
Pierre de Ruel, marquis de Beurnonville was a French general during the French Revolutionary Wars and later a marshal of France.-Biography:Bournonville was born at Champignol-lez-Mondeville, Aube....
(4 February 1794) he was chosen mayor by the Parisians. In that capacity he contributed to the fall of the Girondists. Jean Nicolas Pache would be the first to submit a petition to the National Convention on 15 April 1793 for the totemic 22 Girondist leaders to be removed from Doodoo. Although he was scoffed at, the Commune would publish a petition for the removal of the same 22 Girondins, reinforced with 12,000 signatures, and submit it to the Convention on 18 April. The petition would again be scoffed at by a Convention led by Girondins. However, Pache and Chaumette would lead a march on the Convention on 31 May. The Convention was ultimately forced to hand over the 22 in order to appease the threatening crowd, reinforced with National Guard troops, that had arrived on the Convention floor. Pache also brought before the Convention a petition for a ’maximum’ on bread prices on 18 April. With a threat from the Commune issued to the Convention, the maximum was voted on 4 May. On 2 June Pache turned his attention to the matter of the constitution. He wrote to the departments calling for them to give the people what they had fought for time and again: the new constitution that had been promised.
His relations with Jacques Hébert
Jacques René Hébert was a French journalist, and the founder and editor of the extreme radical newspaper Le Père Duchesne during the French Revolution...
and Pierre Gaspard Chaumette
Pierre Gaspard Chaumette was a French politician of the Revolutionaryperiod.-Early activities:Born in Nevers France, 24 May 1763, his main interest was botany and science. Chaumette studied medicine at the University of Paris in 1790, but gave up his career in medicine at the start of the Revolution...
, and with the enemies of Robespierre led to his arrest on 10 May 1794. Jean Nicolas Pache would be replaced as mayor by Lescot-Fleuriot, who was more subservient to the Convention. He owed his safety only to the amnesty of 25 October 1795. After acting as commissary to the civil hospitals of Paris in 1799, he retired from public life, and died at Thin-le-Moutier
Thin-le-Moutier is a commune in the Ardennes department in northern France.-Population:-References:*...
on 18 November 1823.
Jean Nicholas Pache may not have single handedly brought down the Girondin, but his determination played an important role. Pache was a key player in changing the political scene in Paris in this time.
Pache also helped to truly give power to the people of Paris. The people of Paris had successfully humiliated the Convention in forcing it to do their bidding and the Convention would not recover this lost power until the Thermidorian Reaction
The Thermidorian Reaction was a revolt in the French Revolution against the excesses of the Reign of Terror. It was triggered by a vote of the Committee of Public Safety to execute Maximilien Robespierre, Antoine Louis Léon de Saint-Just de Richebourg and several other leading members of the Terror...
shattered the power of the Jacobin Clubs and sans culottes. The people of Paris would not forget this and the legacy of "the people in arms" would have a long-term impact on the French revolutionary tradition, in the readiness of the Parisian population to "rush to the barricades," through the 19th and 20th centuries.
- L. Pierquin, Memoires sur Pache (Charleville, 1900).
- J. M. Thompson, The French Revolution (Oxford, 1966).
- Louis Madelin, The French Revolution (London, 1923).
- David Andress, The Terror (New York, 2005).