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Janya

Janya

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Janya is a term meaning "derived". In Carnatic
Carnatic music
Carnatic music is a system of music commonly associated with the southern part of the Indian subcontinent, with its area roughly confined to four modern states of India: Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Kerala, and Tamil Nadu...

 (South Indian) music a janya raga
Raga
A raga is one of the melodic modes used in Indian classical music.It is a series of five or more musical notes upon which a melody is made...

is one derived from one of the 72 melakarta
Melakarta
Melakarta is a collection of fundamental ragas in Carnatic music . Melakarta ragas are parent ragas from which other ragas may be generated. A melakarta raga is sometimes referred as mela, karta or sampurna as well.In Hindustani music the thaat is equivalent of Melakarta...

ragas (fundamental melodic structures). Janya ragas are classified into various types based on a variety of features.

Varjya ragas


Ragas that omit one or more of the notes of the scale (swara
Swara
The seven notes of the scale , in Indian music are named shadja, rishabh, gandhar, madhyam, pancham, dhaivat and nishad, and are shortened to Sa, Ri or Re , Ga, Ma, Pa, Dha, and Ni and written S, R, G, M, P, D, N. Collectively these notes are known as the sargam...

s
) of their parent melakarta raga, in the ascending or descending scale or in both, fall into this category. Different notes may be omitted from the ascending arohana
Arohana
Arohana, Arohanam or Arohan, in the context of North Indian Classical Music and South Indian Classical Music, is the ascending scale of notes in a raga...

and descending avarohana
Avarohana
An Avarohana, Avarohanam or Avarohan in Indian classical music terminology is the descending scale of any raga. Each raga has an avarohana and arohana. The notes descend in pitch from the octave tonic down to the lower tonic...

scale. Such scales are given the names listed below;.
  • Sampurna - 7 note scale
  • Shadava - 6 notes
  • Audava - 5 notes
  • Svarantara - 4 notes


Since these terms are applicable both to the ascending and the descending scale, ragas can be classified as Audava-Sampurna - 5 notes in and 7 in the - Shadava-Sampurna - 6 notes in and 7 in the , as in Kambhoji raga and so forth.

Sampurna-Sampurna ragas are not necessarily Melakarta because they may use notes not in the parent scale or vakra prayoga, a "zig-zag" scale instead of sequential ascent and descent). Such ragas are termed vakra ragas. Examples are Nalinakanti, Kathanakuthuhalam, Darbaru, Janaranjani and Kedaram. See full List of Janya Ragas for more examples.
  • Nalinakanti - S G3 R2 M1 P N3 S, S N3 P M1 G3 R2 S
  • Kathanakuthuhalam - S R2 M1 D2 N3 G3 P S, S N3 D2 P M1 G3 R2 S


(see
swaras of Carnatic music for explanation of above notation)

Upanga/Bhashanga ragas


Upanga ragas are strictly derived from their parent melakarta raga and do not use any note not found in the parent raga's scale. Examples of upanga ragas are Shuddha Saveri
Shuddha Saveri
Shuddha Saveri , , ) is a rāgam in Carnatic music . It is an audava rāgam . It is a janya rāgam , as it does not have all the seven swaras .The equivalent of Shuddha Saveri in Hindustani music is Durga.Raganidhi by P. Subba Rao, Pub...

, Udayaravichandrika
Udayaravichandrika
Udayaravichandrika is a rāgam in Carnatic music . It is an audava rāgam , and is also known as Shuddha Dhanyasi . It is a janya rāgam , as it does not have all the seven swaras...

and Mohanakalyani. Bhashanga ragas have anya swara(s) (external note; note not found in parent scale) in their or both. Examples of Bhashanga ragas are Kambhoji, Bhairavi
Bhairavi (ragam)
Bhairavi is a janya rāgam in Carnatic music . Though it is a sampoorna rāgam , it has two different dhaivathams in its scale, and hence is not classified as a melakarta rāgam .This is one of the ancient rāgams, said to have been prevalent about 1500 years ago...

, Bilahari
Bilahari
Bilahari is a rāgam in Carnatic music . It is a janya rāgam from the 29th melakarta scale Shankarabharanam. It is a janya scale, as it does not have all the seven swaras in the ascending scale...

, Saranga, Behag and Kāpi
Kapi
The Kapi was a Spanish automobile manufactured by Automóviles y Autoscooter Kapi in Barcelona from 1950 until 1955. Designed by Captain Federico Saldaña, the first car was a light three-wheeled two door runabout powered by a 125 cc 2 cv single-cylinder two-stroke engine made by Montessa...

.

Single octave


Some janya ragas are sung in only one octave. Moreover, the highest note is not the shadjam (sa), at which the base sruthi (drone
Drone (music)
In music, a drone is a harmonic or monophonic effect or accompaniment where a note or chord is continuously sounded throughout most or all of a piece. The word drone is also used to refer to any part of a musical instrument that is just used to produce such an effect.-A musical effect:A drone...

) of a performance is set. The classifications in this category are as follows.
  • Nishadantya - highest note is the nishadam (ni)
    example Nadanamakriya derived from Mayamalavagowla
    Mayamalavagowla
    Mayamalavagowla , is a raga of Carnatic Music . It is classified as 15thmelakarta raga under Venkatamakhin's melakarta system. Originally known as malavagowla, "maya" was prefixed to it after the advent of the scheme of the 72 melas. The number 15 was assigned to it following the Katapayadi sankhya...

    scale ( S R1 G3 M1 P D1 N3, N3 D1 P M1 G3 R1 S N3)
  • Dhaivathantya - highest note is the dhaivatham (dha)
    example Kurinji derived from Shankarabharanam
    Dheerasankarabharanam
    Dheerashankarābharanam , commonly known as Shankarābharanam, is a rāga in Carnatic music . It is the 29th Melakarta rāga in the 72 melakarta rāga system of Carnatic music....

    scale ( S N3 S R2 G3 M1 P D2, D2 P M1 G3 R2 S N3 S )
  • Panchamantya - highest note is the panchamam (pa)
    example Navaroj ( P D2 N3 S R2 G3 M1 P, M1 G1 R3 S N2 D2 P)

Karnataka/ Desya ragas


Karnataka ragas are those that are considered to have originated in Carnatic music. Examples are Shankarabharanam
Dheerasankarabharanam
Dheerashankarābharanam , commonly known as Shankarābharanam, is a rāga in Carnatic music . It is the 29th Melakarta rāga in the 72 melakarta rāga system of Carnatic music....

, Lalitha and Shuddha Saveri
Shuddha Saveri
Shuddha Saveri , , ) is a rāgam in Carnatic music . It is an audava rāgam . It is a janya rāgam , as it does not have all the seven swaras .The equivalent of Shuddha Saveri in Hindustani music is Durga.Raganidhi by P. Subba Rao, Pub...

.

Desya ragas are those ragas that have their origins in other music, majority of them originating in Hindustani music. Examples are Yamunakalyani, Desh, Behag and Sindhu Bhairavi.

Other classifications


There are various other classifications of janya ragas. These are based on relationships with other ragas (they give a feel of a different but similar raga), presence of gamaka
Gamaka
Gamaka also known as Kaavya Vaachana is a unique form of storytelling by singing. This originated in Karnataka, India. One person reads a stanza of a poem with highest emphasis on meaning, applying suitable raga or a Dhaati usually matching the emotion of the poem. Another person then explains...

s
(oscillations and graces around the note), stresses on notes or lack of them, the time of day when a raga is sung, rasa or mood that they evoke, etc.

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