Ja'far al-Sadiq

Ja'far al-Sadiq

Overview
Jaʿfar ibn Muhammad al-Sādiq (702–765 C.E.
Common Era
Common Era ,abbreviated as CE, is an alternative designation for the calendar era originally introduced by Dionysius Exiguus in the 6th century, traditionally identified with Anno Domini .Dates before the year 1 CE are indicated by the usage of BCE, short for Before the Common Era Common Era...

 or 17th Rabī‘ al-Awwal
Rabi' al-awwal
Rabi' al-awwal is the third month in the Islamic calendar. During this month, Muslims around the world celebrate Mawlid - the birthday of the Islamic prophet Muhammad. Sunni Muslims believe the exact date of birth of Muhammad to have been on the twelfth of this month, whereas Shi'a Muslims believe...

 83 AH
Islamic calendar
The Hijri calendar , also known as the Muslim calendar or Islamic calendar , is a lunar calendar consisting of 12 lunar months in a year of 354 or 355 days. It is used to date events in many Muslim countries , and used by Muslims everywhere to determine the proper day on which to celebrate Islamic...

 – 25th Shawwāl
Shawwal
Shawwāl is the tenth month of the lunar Islamic calendar. Shawwāl means to ‘lift or carry’; so named because she-camels normally would be carrying a fetus at this time of year.-Fasting during Shawwāl:...

 148 AH
Islamic calendar
The Hijri calendar , also known as the Muslim calendar or Islamic calendar , is a lunar calendar consisting of 12 lunar months in a year of 354 or 355 days. It is used to date events in many Muslim countries , and used by Muslims everywhere to determine the proper day on which to celebrate Islamic...

) was a descendant of Muhammad
Muhammad
Muhammad |ligature]] at U+FDF4 ;Arabic pronunciation varies regionally; the first vowel ranges from ~~; the second and the last vowel: ~~~. There are dialects which have no stress. In Egypt, it is pronounced not in religious contexts...

 and a prominent Muslim jurist
Ulema
Ulama , also spelt ulema, refers to the educated class of Muslim legal scholars engaged in the several fields of Islamic studies. They are best known as the arbiters of shari‘a law...

. He is revered as an Imam
Imam
An imam is an Islamic leadership position, often the worship leader of a mosque and the Muslim community. Similar to spiritual leaders, the imam is the one who leads Islamic worship services. More often, the community turns to the mosque imam if they have a religious question...

 by the adherents of Shi'a Islam and as a renowned Islamic scholar and personality by Sunni Muslims. The Shi'a Muslims consider him to be the sixth Imam or leader and spiritual successor to Muhammad. The internal dispute over who was to succeed Ja'far as Imam led to schism within Shi'a Islam.
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Quotations

Be careful to have truthful friends and try to obtain them, for they are your support when you are in welfare, and your advocator when you have misfortune.

Majlisi, Bihārul Anwār, vol.74, p.187

Immorality and surliness makes the human's life miserable and bitter.

Ibn Shu’ba al-Harrani, Tuhaf al-'Uqul, p.392

There are three things that signify the magnanimity of a person: good temper, patience, and to avoid aggressive gaze.

Majlisi, Bihārul Anwār, vol.78, p.232

Whenever the mind of a person is rectified, he becomes strong and powerful in appearance.

Majlisi, Bihārul Anwār, vol.78, p.208

Paying visits to ones own relatives prolongs the life of a person and prevents poverty and indigence.

Majlisi, Bihārul Anwār, vol.74, p.58

The person who is aware of the present situations of his time, will never get involved with falsifying and wrongdoing.

Muhammad Kulayni, Usūl al-Kāfī, vol.1, p.31

Having the foresight to plan to earn a living, is half of the peace and leisure in life.

Majlisi, Bihārul Anwār, vol.78, p.204

A learned person among ignorant people, is like a live person among the dead.

Shaykh al-Mufīd, Al-Amali, p.40

To acquire knowledge is neccessary at all times.

Majlisi, Bihārul Anwār, vol.1, p.172

Write knowledge since you can’t memorize unless with writing. Heart confides to written.

Majlisi, Bihārul Anwār, vol.1, p.202
Encyclopedia
Jaʿfar ibn Muhammad al-Sādiq (702–765 C.E.
Common Era
Common Era ,abbreviated as CE, is an alternative designation for the calendar era originally introduced by Dionysius Exiguus in the 6th century, traditionally identified with Anno Domini .Dates before the year 1 CE are indicated by the usage of BCE, short for Before the Common Era Common Era...

 or 17th Rabī‘ al-Awwal
Rabi' al-awwal
Rabi' al-awwal is the third month in the Islamic calendar. During this month, Muslims around the world celebrate Mawlid - the birthday of the Islamic prophet Muhammad. Sunni Muslims believe the exact date of birth of Muhammad to have been on the twelfth of this month, whereas Shi'a Muslims believe...

 83 AH
Islamic calendar
The Hijri calendar , also known as the Muslim calendar or Islamic calendar , is a lunar calendar consisting of 12 lunar months in a year of 354 or 355 days. It is used to date events in many Muslim countries , and used by Muslims everywhere to determine the proper day on which to celebrate Islamic...

 – 25th Shawwāl
Shawwal
Shawwāl is the tenth month of the lunar Islamic calendar. Shawwāl means to ‘lift or carry’; so named because she-camels normally would be carrying a fetus at this time of year.-Fasting during Shawwāl:...

 148 AH
Islamic calendar
The Hijri calendar , also known as the Muslim calendar or Islamic calendar , is a lunar calendar consisting of 12 lunar months in a year of 354 or 355 days. It is used to date events in many Muslim countries , and used by Muslims everywhere to determine the proper day on which to celebrate Islamic...

) was a descendant of Muhammad
Muhammad
Muhammad |ligature]] at U+FDF4 ;Arabic pronunciation varies regionally; the first vowel ranges from ~~; the second and the last vowel: ~~~. There are dialects which have no stress. In Egypt, it is pronounced not in religious contexts...

 and a prominent Muslim jurist
Ulema
Ulama , also spelt ulema, refers to the educated class of Muslim legal scholars engaged in the several fields of Islamic studies. They are best known as the arbiters of shari‘a law...

. He is revered as an Imam
Imam
An imam is an Islamic leadership position, often the worship leader of a mosque and the Muslim community. Similar to spiritual leaders, the imam is the one who leads Islamic worship services. More often, the community turns to the mosque imam if they have a religious question...

 by the adherents of Shi'a Islam and as a renowned Islamic scholar and personality by Sunni Muslims. The Shi'a Muslims consider him to be the sixth Imam or leader and spiritual successor to Muhammad. The internal dispute over who was to succeed Ja'far as Imam led to schism within Shi'a Islam. Al-Sadiq was celebrated among his brothers and peers and stood out among them for his great personal merits. He is highly respected by both Sunni
Sunni Islam
Sunni Islam is the largest branch of Islam. Sunni Muslims are referred to in Arabic as ʾAhl ūs-Sunnah wa āl-Ǧamāʿah or ʾAhl ūs-Sunnah for short; in English, they are known as Sunni Muslims, Sunnis or Sunnites....

 and Shi'a Muslims for his great Islamic scholarship, pious character, and academic contributions.

Although he is perhaps most famous as the founder of Shi'a Islamic fiqh
Fiqh
Fiqh is Islamic jurisprudence. Fiqh is an expansion of the code of conduct expounded in the Quran, often supplemented by tradition and implemented by the rulings and interpretations of Islamic jurists....

, known as Ja'fari jurisprudence
Ja'fari jurisprudence
Jaʿfarī school of thought, Ja`farite School, Jaʿfarī jurisprudence or Jaʿfarī Fiqh is the school of jurisprudence of most Shi'a Muslims, derived from the name of Jaʿfar as-Ṣādiq, the 6th Shi'a Imam...

, he had many other accomplishments. He was the teacher of many subsequent Muslim scholars such as the founders of both Sunni and Shi'a Islamic schools of jurisprudence. As well as being considered an Imam of the Shi'a, he is revered by the Naqshbandi
Naqshbandi
Naqshbandi is one of the major Sufi spiritual orders of Sufi Islam. It is considered to be a "Potent" order.The Naqshbandi order is over 1,300 years old, and is active today...

 Sunni Sufi
Sufism
Sufism or ' is defined by its adherents as the inner, mystical dimension of Islam. A practitioner of this tradition is generally known as a '...

 chain. He was a polymath
Polymath
A polymath is a person whose expertise spans a significant number of different subject areas. In less formal terms, a polymath may simply be someone who is very knowledgeable...

: an astronomer, alchemist
Alchemy and chemistry in medieval Islam
Alchemy and chemistry in Islam refers to the study of both traditional alchemy and early practical chemistry by scholars in the medieval Islamic world. The word alchemy was derived from the Arabic word كيمياء or kīmīāʾ...

, Imam
Imam
An imam is an Islamic leadership position, often the worship leader of a mosque and the Muslim community. Similar to spiritual leaders, the imam is the one who leads Islamic worship services. More often, the community turns to the mosque imam if they have a religious question...

, Islamic scholar
Ulema
Ulama , also spelt ulema, refers to the educated class of Muslim legal scholars engaged in the several fields of Islamic studies. They are best known as the arbiters of shari‘a law...

, Islamic theologian
Kalam
ʿIlm al-Kalām is the Islamic philosophical discipline of seeking theological principles through dialectic. Kalām in Islamic practice relates to the discipline of seeking theological knowledge through debate and argument. A scholar of kalām is referred to as a mutakallim...

, writer
Islamic literature
Islamic literature is literature written with an Islamic perspective, in any language.The most well known fiction from the Islamic world was The Book of One Thousand and One Nights , which was a compilation of many earlier folk tales told by the Persian Queen Scheherazade...

, philosopher
Early Islamic philosophy
Early Islamic philosophy or classical Islamic philosophy is a period of intense philosophical development beginning in the 2nd century AH of the Islamic calendar and lasting until the 6th century AH...

, physician, physicist and scientist. He was also the teacher of the famous chemist
Chemist
A chemist is a scientist trained in the study of chemistry. Chemists study the composition of matter and its properties such as density and acidity. Chemists carefully describe the properties they study in terms of quantities, with detail on the level of molecules and their component atoms...

, Jābir ibn Hayyān (Geber), and of Abū Ḥanīfa, the founder of the Hanafi
Hanafi
The Hanafi school is one of the four Madhhab in jurisprudence within Sunni Islam. The Hanafi madhhab is named after the Persian scholar Abu Hanifa an-Nu‘man ibn Thābit , a Tabi‘i whose legal views were preserved primarily by his two most important disciples, Abu Yusuf and Muhammad al-Shaybani...

 school of Sunni Islamic jurisprudence.

Birth and family life


Ja'far al-Sadiq was born in Medina
Medina
Medina , or ; also transliterated as Madinah, or madinat al-nabi "the city of the prophet") is a city in the Hejaz region of western Saudi Arabia, and serves as the capital of the Al Madinah Province. It is the second holiest city in Islam, and the burial place of the Islamic Prophet Muhammad, and...

 to Umm Farwah
Farwah bint al-Qasim
Farwah bint al-Qasim was the mother of Ja'far al-Sadiq, the sixth Shi'a imam. Her father was Al-Qasim ibn Muhammad ibn Abi Bakr. Her grandfather was Muhammad ibn Abi Bakr. Her great-grandfather was Abu Bakr, the first caliph of the early Islamic state....

 bint Al-Qasim ibn Muhammad ibn Abi Bakr on 20 April 702 AD (17 Rabi' al-Awwal, 83 Anno Hegirae
Hijra (Islam)
The Hijra is the migration or journey of the Islamic prophet Muhammad and his followers from Mecca to Medina in 622 CE. Alternate spellings of this Arabic word are Hijrah, Hijrat or Hegira, the latter following the spelling rules of Latin.- Hijra of Muhammad :In September 622, warned of a plot to...

).

Ja'far Al-Sadiq has three titles; they are As-Sadiq, Al-Fadil, and At-Tahir. His father, Muhammad al-Baqir
Muhammad al-Baqir
Muḥammad ibn ‘Alī al-Bāqir was the Fifth Imām to the Twelver Shi‘a and Fourth Imām to the Ismā‘īlī Shī‘a. His father was the previous Imām, ‘Alī ibn Ḥusayn, and his mother was Fatimah bint al-Hasan...

 is considered by the Shi'a to be the fifth Shi’a Imam. His mother, Umm Farwa, was the grand-daughter of Muhammad ibn Abi Bakr
Muhammad ibn Abi Bakr
Muhammad ibn Abi Bakr was the son of Abu Bakr, who was the senior companion of the Islamic prophet Muhammad and first Rashidun Caliph. His mother was Asma bint Umais...

, who was the son of Abu Bakr Siddiq
Abu Bakr
Abu Bakr was a senior companion and the father-in-law of the Islamic prophet Muhammad. He ruled over the Rashidun Caliphate from 632-634 CE when he became the first Muslim Caliph following Muhammad's death...

, the first Caliph in Islam.

Ja'far al-Sadiq was 34 years old when his father was poisoned upon which, according to Shi'a tradition, he inherited the position of Imam
Imamate
The word Imamate is an Arabic word with an English language suffix meaning leadership. Its use in theology is confined to Islam.-Theological usage:...

.

Marriage and offspring


Jaf'ar married Fatima Al-Hasan, a descendant of Hasan ibn Ali
Hasan ibn Ali
Al-Hasan ibn ‘Alī ibn Abī Tālib ‎ is an important figure in Islam, the son of Fatimah the daughter of the Islamic prophet Muhammad, and of the fourth Caliph Ali ibn Abi Talib. Hasan is a member of the Ahl al-Bayt and Ahl al-Kisa...

, who bore him two sons Isma'il ibn Jafar (the Ismaili Imām-designate) and Abdullah al-Aftah
Abdullah al-Aftah ibn Ja'far al-Sadiq
Abdullah al-Aftah ibn Ja'far al-Sadiq was the eldest surviving son of Ja'far al-Sadiq and the full-brother of Isma'il ibn Jafar...

.

Following his wife's death Al-Sadiq purchased a slave of Berber
Berber people
Berbers are the indigenous peoples of North Africa west of the Nile Valley. They are continuously distributed from the Atlantic to the Siwa oasis, in Egypt, and from the Mediterranean to the Niger River. Historically they spoke the Berber language or varieties of it, which together form a branch...

 origin named Hamidah Khātūn , freed her, trained her as an Islamic scholar, and then married her. She bore Mūsá al-Kāżim
Musa al-Kadhim
' was the seventh of the Twelve Imams of Twelver Shi'a Islam. He was the son of Imam and his mother was Hamidah Khātūn, a student and former Zanjiyyah slave...

 (the seventh Shi’ah Imam) and Muhammad al-Dibaj
Muhammad ibn Ja'far al-Sadiq (Al-Dibaj)
Muhammad ibn Ja'far al-Sadiq , the younger full brother of Musa al-Kadhim, appeared in Mecca in the year 200 A.H. / 815 C.E. claiming that he was the Awaited Mahdi. He believed in a Zaydl Shia type of Imamate and declared himself as the Caliph of the Muslims and took the oath of allegiance from...

 and was revered by the Shī‘ah, especially by women, for her wisdom.

Scholarly attainments


As a child, Ja'far Al-Sadiq studied under his grandfather, Zayn al-Abidin. After his grandfather's death, he studied under and accompanied his father, Muhammad al-Baqir, until Muhammad al-Baqir died in 733.

Ja'far Al-Sadiq became well versed in Islamic sciences, including Qur'an
Qur'an
The Quran , also transliterated Qur'an, Koran, Alcoran, Qur’ān, Coran, Kuran, and al-Qur’ān, is the central religious text of Islam, which Muslims consider the verbatim word of God . It is regarded widely as the finest piece of literature in the Arabic language...

 and Hadith
Hadith
The term Hadīth is used to denote a saying or an act or tacit approval or criticism ascribed either validly or invalidly to the Islamic prophet Muhammad....

. In addition to his knowledge of Islamic sciences, Ja'far Al-Sadiq was also an adept in natural sciences, mathematics, philosophy, astronomy, anatomy, alchemy and other subjects.

The foremost Islamic alchemist, Abu Musa Jabir ibn Hayyan, known in Europe as Geber, was Ja'far Al-Sadiq's most prominent student. Ja'far Al-Sadiq was known for his liberal views on learning, and was keen to have discourse with Scholars of other views.

Abū Ḥanīfa was an Islamic scholar and Jurist. He was a student of Ja'far Al-Sadiq, as was Malik ibn Anas
Malik ibn Anas
Mālik ibn Anas ibn Mālik ibn Abī 'Āmir al-Asbahī is known as "Imam Malik," the "Sheikh of Islam", the "Proof of the Community," and "Imam of the Abode of Emigration." He was one of the most highly respected scholars of fiqh in Sunni Islam...

, who quotes 12 hadiths from Jafar Sadiq in his famous Al-Muwatta.

Allamah ash-shibli writes in his book Siratu'n- Nu'man: "Abu Hanifah remained for a considerable period in the attendance of Ja'far as-Sadiq, acquiring from him a great deal of precious research on fiqh and hadith. Both the sects – Shi'ah and Sunni – believe that the source of Abu Hanifah's knowledge was mostly derived from his association with Ja'far as-Sadiq." He devoted his whole life to the cause of religious preaching and propagation of the teachings of Muhammed and never strove for power.
  • Scholars believed to have learned extensively from Ja'far Al-Sadiq:
  1. Jābir ibn Hayyān – known in Europe as Geber, a great alchemist.
  2. Isma'il ibn Jafar – his son, the seventh Shi'ah Imam
    Imam
    An imam is an Islamic leadership position, often the worship leader of a mosque and the Muslim community. Similar to spiritual leaders, the imam is the one who leads Islamic worship services. More often, the community turns to the mosque imam if they have a religious question...

     according to the Ismailis.
  3. Musa al-Kadhim
    Musa al-Kadhim
    ' was the seventh of the Twelve Imams of Twelver Shi'a Islam. He was the son of Imam and his mother was Hamidah Khātūn, a student and former Zanjiyyah slave...

     – his son, the seventh Shi’ah Imam according to the Twelvers
  4. Ali al-Uraidhi ibn Ja'far al-Sadiq
    Ali al-Uraidhi ibn Ja'far al-Sadiq
    Ali al-Uraidhi ibn Ja'far al-Sadiq, better known simply as Ali al-Uraidhi, was the son of Ja'far al-Sadiq and the brother of Musa al-Kadhim, Isma'il, Abdullah al-Aftah, and Muhammad Al-Dibaj. He was known by the title al-Uraidhi, because he lived in an area called Uraidh, about 4 miles from...

    - his youngest son.
  5. Mufadhal ibn Amr- his Gate keeper and a prominent student.

  • Sunni scholars who either attended Ja'far Al-Sadiq's lectures or learnt from him:
  1. Abū Ḥanīfa – founder of the Hanafi
    Hanafi
    The Hanafi school is one of the four Madhhab in jurisprudence within Sunni Islam. The Hanafi madhhab is named after the Persian scholar Abu Hanifa an-Nu‘man ibn Thābit , a Tabi‘i whose legal views were preserved primarily by his two most important disciples, Abu Yusuf and Muhammad al-Shaybani...

     school of thought.
  2. Malik ibn Anas
    Malik ibn Anas
    Mālik ibn Anas ibn Mālik ibn Abī 'Āmir al-Asbahī is known as "Imam Malik," the "Sheikh of Islam", the "Proof of the Community," and "Imam of the Abode of Emigration." He was one of the most highly respected scholars of fiqh in Sunni Islam...

     – founder of the Maliki
    Maliki
    The ' madhhab is one of the schools of Fiqh or religious law within Sunni Islam. It is the second-largest of the four schools, followed by approximately 25% of Muslims, mostly in North Africa, West Africa, the United Arab Emirates, Kuwait, and in some parts of Saudi Arabia...

     school of thought.

  • Others that attended lectures by Ja'far Al-Sadiq:
  1. Wasil ibn Ata
    Wasil ibn Ata
    Wasil ibn Ata was an important Muslim theologian and jurist of his time, and by many accounts is considered to be the founder of the Mutazilite school of Islamic thought....

     – founder of the Mu'tazili
    Mu'tazili
    ' is an Islamic school of speculative theology that flourished in the cities of Basra and Baghdad, both in present-day Iraq, during the 8th–10th centuries. The adherents of the Mu'tazili school are best known for their having asserted that, because of the perfect unity and eternal nature of God,...

     school of thought.

Jurisprudence


Ja'far al-Sadiq developed Ja'fari jurisprudence at about the same time its Sunni legal fiqh counterparts were being codified. It was distinguished from Sunni law "on matters regarding inheritance, religious taxes, commerce, and personal status."

Under the Umayyad rulers


Ja'far Al-Sadiq lived in violent times. Ja'far Al-Sadiq was considered by many Shia 'Ali ibn Abi Talib to be the sixth Shi'a imam
Imam
An imam is an Islamic leadership position, often the worship leader of a mosque and the Muslim community. Similar to spiritual leaders, the imam is the one who leads Islamic worship services. More often, the community turns to the mosque imam if they have a religious question...

, however, the Shi'ahs were considered heretics and rebels by the Umayyad caliph
Caliph
The Caliph is the head of state in a Caliphate, and the title for the ruler of the Islamic Ummah, an Islamic community ruled by the Shari'ah. It is a transcribed version of the Arabic word   which means "successor" or "representative"...

s. Many of Ja'far Al-Sadiq's relatives had died at the hands of the Umayyad. Shortly after his father's death, Ja'far Al-Sadiq's uncle, Zayd ibn Ali
Zayd ibn Ali
Zayd ibn ‘Alī was the grandson of Husayn ibn Alī, the grandson of Muhammad. Zayd was born in Medina in 695. His father was the Shī‘ah Imam ‘Alī ibn Husayn "Zayn al-Abidīn"...

 led a rebellion against the Umayyads. Ja'far Al-Sadiq did not participate, but many of his kinsmen, including his uncle, were killed, and others were punished by the Umayyad caliph. There were other rebellions during these last years of the Umayyad, before the Abbasids succeeded in grasping the caliphate
Caliphate
The term caliphate, "dominion of a caliph " , refers to the first system of government established in Islam and represented the political unity of the Muslim Ummah...

 and establishing the Abbasid dynasty in 750 CE, when Ja'far Al-Sadiq was 48 years old.

Many rebel factions tried to convince Ja'far al-Sadiq to support their claims. Ja'far Al-Sadiq evaded their requests without explicitly advancing his own claims. He is said to burned their letters (letters promising him the caliphate) commenting, "This man is not from me and cannot give me what is in the province of Allah
Allah
Allah is a word for God used in the context of Islam. In Arabic, the word means simply "God". It is used primarily by Muslims and Bahá'ís, and often, albeit not exclusively, used by Arabic-speaking Eastern Catholic Christians, Maltese Roman Catholics, Eastern Orthodox Christians, Mizrahi Jews and...

". Ja'far Al-Sadiq's prudent silence on his true views is said to have established Taqiyya
Taqiyya
Taqiyya , meaning religious dissimulation, is a practice emphasized in Shi'a Islam whereby adherents may conceal their religion when they are under threat, persecution, or compulsion...

 as a Shi'a doctrine. Taqiyya says that it is acceptable to hide one's true opinions if by revealing them, one put oneself or others in danger.

The incidents and difficulties, which come into human life can, measure and find out the extent of his energy and faith. The difficulties, which cropped up in the life of Ja'far Al-Sadiq and the patience and forbearance, which, he showed towards them, illuminated his personality and worth. Howsoever they (enemies) abused and teased him he showed patience and forbearance and admonished them. He never cursed or used foul language about them.

Under the Abbasid rulers


The new Abbasid rulers, who had risen to power on the basis of their claim to descent from Muhammad's uncle ‘Abbas ibn ‘Abd al-Muttalib, were extremely suspicious of Ja'far, whom many considered to have a better claim to the caliphate. Ja'far was watched closely and, occasionally, imprisoned to cut his ties with his followers. Ja'far endured the persecution patiently and continued his study and writing wherever he found himself.

He died on 14 December 765. He was poisoned by Al-Mansur
Al-Mansur
Al-Mansur, Almanzor or Abu Ja'far Abdallah ibn Muhammad al-Mansur was the second Abbasid Caliph from 136 AH to 158 AH .-Biography:...

. He is buried in Medina, in the famous Jannatul Baqee' cemetery.

Succession


After Ja'far al-Sadiq's death during the reign of the ‘Abbāsids, various Shī‘ī groups organised in secret opposition to their rule. Among them were the supporters of the proto-Ismā‘īlī community, of whom the most prominent group were called the "Mubārakiyyah".

There are hadīth which state that Ismā‘īl ibn Ja‘far "al-Mubārak" would be heir to the Imamate, as well as those that state Musa al-Kadhim was to be the heir. However, Ismā‘īl predeceased his father.

Some of the Shī‘ah claimed Ismā‘īl had not died, but rather gone into hiding
The Occultation
The Occultation in Shia Islam refers to a belief that the messianic figure, or Mahdi, who in Shi'i thought is an infallible male descendant of the founder of Islam, Muhammad, was born but disappeared, and will one day return and fill the world with justice. Some Shi'is, such as the Zaidi and...

, but the proto-Ismā‘īlī group accepted his death and therefore that his eldest son, Muḥammad ibn Ismā‘īl
Muhammad ibn Ismail
Muhammad ibn Ismail was the son of Ismail ibn Jafar and an Ismaili Imam. The majority of Ismaili follow his descendants through his son Wafi Ahmad / Abdullah ibn Mohammad who founded the Fatimid Empire, including the Nizari and Mustaali.- Biography :...

, was now Imām. Muḥammad remained in contact with this "Mubārakiyyah" group, most of whom resided in Kūfah
Kufa
Kufa is a city in Iraq, about south of Baghdad, and northeast of Najaf. It is located on the banks of the Euphrates River. The estimated population in 2003 was 110,000....

.

In contrast, Twelvers don't believe that Isma'il ibn Jafar was ever given the nass
Nass (Islam)
Nass is an arabic word meaning "a known, or clear, legal injunction". In Twelver Shi`ah Islam, nass is used to reference the nomination of an Imam by a previous Imam....

("designation of the Imamate"), but they acknowledge that this was the popular belief among the people at the time. Both Shaykh Tusi
Shaykh Tusi
Shaykh Tusi , full name: Abu Jafar Muhammad Ibn Hassan Tusi , known as Shaykh al-Taʾifah was a prominent Persian scholar of the Shi'a Twelver Islamic belief.-Birth:...

 and Shaykh al-Sadūq
Al-Shaykh al-Saduq
Al-Shaykh al-Saduq is the title given to Abu Ja'far Muhammad ibn 'Ali ibn Babawaih al-Qummi. He was the leading traditionist of his time and one of the most outstanding traditionists of Shi'ite Islam. He earned the title of al-Shaykh al-Saduq on account of his great learning and his reputation for...

 did not believe that the divine designation was changed (called Bada'
Bada'
Badā is a Shia concept regarding God. It refers to God revealing His true will about a decision, wherein the people thought His will had already been made on that issue...

), arguing that if matters as important as Imāmate were subject to change, then the basic fundamentals of belief should also be subject to change. Thus Twelvers accept that Mūsá al-Kāżim was the only son who was ever designated for Imāmate.

This is the initial point of divergence between the proto-Twelvers and the proto-Ismā‘īlī. This disagreement over the proper heir to Ja‘far has been a point of contention between the two groups ever since. The split among the Mubārakiyyah came with Muḥammad's death. The majority of the group denied his death; they recognised him as the Mahdi. The minority believed in his death and would eventually emerge in later times as the Fāṭimid Ismā‘īlī, ancestors to all modern groups.

Another Shia branch that emerged around the figure of Ja'far al-Sadiq was the Tawussite Shia
Tawussite Shia
The Tawussite Shia were a Shia group who were a section of the supporters of Imam Ja'far al-Sadiq who denied admitting that he died...

. Following the death of al-Sadiq, the Tawussite's denied that he died and instead believed in his Mahdism.

Another Shia branch claimed that al-Sadiq's eldest surviving son Abdullah al-Aftah
Abdullah al-Aftah ibn Ja'far al-Sadiq
Abdullah al-Aftah ibn Ja'far al-Sadiq was the eldest surviving son of Ja'far al-Sadiq and the full-brother of Isma'il ibn Jafar...

 was the Imam to succeed his father. This branch was known as the Fathites, some of whom believed that Abdullah also had a son, though most believed he died without issue.

Anecdotes


Someone once asked Ja'far Al-Sadiq to show him God. Ja'far Al-Sadiq replied, "Look at the sun." The man replied that he could not look at the sun because it was too bright.

Ja'far Al-Sadiq replied: "If you cannot see the created, how can you expect to see the creator?"

Timeline


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See also


  • Husayn ibn Ali
    Husayn ibn Ali
    Hussein ibn ‘Alī ibn Abī Ṭālib ‎ was the son of ‘Alī ibn Abī Ṭālib and Fātimah Zahrā...

  • Ali al-Rida
    Ali al-Rida
    ‘Alī ibn Mūsā al-Rizā was the seventh descendant of the Islamic prophet Muhammad and the eighth of the Twelve Imams, according to Shia sect of Islam...

  • Muhammad al-Taqi
    Muhammad al-Taqi
    Muhammad al-Taqī or Muhammad al-Jawād was the ninth of the Twelve Imams of Twelver Shi'ism. His given name was Muhammad ibn ‘Alī ibn Mūsā, and among his titles, al-Taqī and al-Jawād are the most renowned...

  • Ali al-Hadi
    Ali al-Hadi
    ‘Alī al-Hādī , also known as ‘Alī an-Naqī was the tenth of the Twelve Imams. His full name is ‘Alī ibn Muhammad ibn ‘Alī. The exact date of his birth and death are unknown, but it is generally accepted that he was born between 827–830 CE and he died in 868 CE.- Early years :‘Alī al-Hādī was born...

  • Hasan al-Askari
    Hasan al-Askari
    Hasan al-‘Askarī was the eleventh of the Twelve Imams. His given name was Hasan ibn ‘Alī ibn Muhammad...

  • Muhammad al-Mahdi
    Muhammad al-Mahdi
    Muḥammad ibn al-Ḥasan al-Mahdī is believed by Twelver Shī‘a Muslims to be the Mahdī, an ultimate savior of humankind and the final Imām of the Twelve Imams...

  • Al-Abbas ibn Ali
  • Qasim ibn Hasan
  • Muhammad ibn al-Hanafiyyah
    Muhammad ibn al-Hanafiyyah
    Muhammad ibn al-Hanafiyyah surnamed Abu'l-Qasim was an early Muslim leader. He was a son of Ali ibn Abi Talib, the first Shi'ite Imam and the fourth Sunni Caliph.-Biography:...

  • Aban ibn abi-Ayyash
    Aban ibn abi-Ayyash
    Aban ibn Abi-Ayyash was a Persian companion of Sulaym ibn Qays and several Shi'a Imams. He also treasured the book of Sulaym ibn Qays.-Biography:...

  • Waqifite Shia
    Waqifite Shia
    The Waqifite Shia were a Shia sect who accepted the Imamate of Musa al-Kadhim, but refused to accept the Imamate of his successor Ali ar-Ridha.-Beliefs:The Waqifites believed in the Mahdism and the occultation of Imam Mūsà ibn Ja‘far al-Kāẓim...


External links


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