Israel-Jordan Treaty of Peace

Israel-Jordan Treaty of Peace

Overview
The Israel
Israel
The State of Israel is a parliamentary republic located in the Middle East, along the eastern shore of the Mediterranean Sea...

Jordan
Jordan
Jordan , officially the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan , Al-Mamlaka al-Urduniyya al-Hashemiyya) is a kingdom on the East Bank of the River Jordan. The country borders Saudi Arabia to the east and south-east, Iraq to the north-east, Syria to the north and the West Bank and Israel to the west, sharing...

 Treaty of Peace
Peace treaty
A peace treaty is an agreement between two or more hostile parties, usually countries or governments, that formally ends a state of war between the parties...

(full name: Treaty of Peace Between the State of Israel and the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan) ' onMouseout='HidePop("94803")' href="http://www.absoluteastronomy.com/topics/Arabic_transliteration">transliterated
Arabic transliteration
Different approaches and methods for the romanization of Arabic exist. They vary in the way that they address the inherent problems of rendering written and spoken Arabic in the Latin alphabet; they also use different symbols for Arabic phonemes that do not exist in English or other European...

: Mu'ahadat as-Salaam al-'Urdunniyah al-Isra'yliyah, and sometimes referred to as the Wadi Araba Treaty) was signed in 1994.
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Encyclopedia
The Israel
Israel
The State of Israel is a parliamentary republic located in the Middle East, along the eastern shore of the Mediterranean Sea...

Jordan
Jordan
Jordan , officially the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan , Al-Mamlaka al-Urduniyya al-Hashemiyya) is a kingdom on the East Bank of the River Jordan. The country borders Saudi Arabia to the east and south-east, Iraq to the north-east, Syria to the north and the West Bank and Israel to the west, sharing...

 Treaty of Peace
Peace treaty
A peace treaty is an agreement between two or more hostile parties, usually countries or governments, that formally ends a state of war between the parties...

(full name: Treaty of Peace Between the State of Israel and the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan) ' onMouseout='HidePop("94803")' href="http://www.absoluteastronomy.com/topics/Arabic_transliteration">transliterated
Arabic transliteration
Different approaches and methods for the romanization of Arabic exist. They vary in the way that they address the inherent problems of rendering written and spoken Arabic in the Latin alphabet; they also use different symbols for Arabic phonemes that do not exist in English or other European...

: Mu'ahadat as-Salaam al-'Urdunniyah al-Isra'yliyah, and sometimes referred to as the Wadi Araba Treaty) was signed in 1994. The treaty normalized relations between the two countries and resolved territorial disputes. The conflict had cost roughly US$18.3 billion. The treaty was closely linked with the efforts to create peace
Peace process in the Israeli-Palestinian conflict
The peace process in the Israeli–Palestinian conflict has taken shape over the years, despite the ongoing violence in the Middle East and an "all or nothing" attitude about a lasting peace, "which prevailed for most of the twentieth century"...

 between Israel and the Palestinian Authority. The signing ceremony occurred at the southern border crossing of Arabah
Arabah
The Arabah , also known as Aravah, is a section of the Great Rift Valley running in a north-south orientation between the southern end of the Sea of Galilee down to the Dead Sea and continuing further south where it ends at the Gulf of Aqaba. It includes most of the border between Israel to the...

 on October 26, and made Jordan only the second Arab
Arab
Arab people, also known as Arabs , are a panethnicity primarily living in the Arab world, which is located in Western Asia and North Africa. They are identified as such on one or more of genealogical, linguistic, or cultural grounds, with tribal affiliations, and intra-tribal relationships playing...

 country, after Egypt
Egypt
Egypt , officially the Arab Republic of Egypt, Arabic: , is a country mainly in North Africa, with the Sinai Peninsula forming a land bridge in Southwest Asia. Egypt is thus a transcontinental country, and a major power in Africa, the Mediterranean Basin, the Middle East and the Muslim world...

, to normalize relations with Israel.

Background to negotiations


The relationships between Jewish leaders
Jewish Agency for Israel
The Jewish Agency for Israel , also known as the Sochnut or JAFI, served as the organization in charge of immigration and absorption of Jews from the Diaspora into the state of Israel.-History:...

 at the west bank and the Hashemite dynasty in the area was characterized by ambivalence as both parties' prominence grew in the area. Jordan consistently subscribed to an anti-Zionist policy, but made decisions pragmatically. Several factors are cited for this relative pragmatism. Among these are the two countries' geographic proximity, King Hussein's Western orientation, and Jordan's modest territorial aspirations. Nevertheless, a state of war existed between the two countries from 1948 until the treaty was signed.

Memoirists and political analysts have identified a number of "back-channel" and at times clandestine communications between the two countries, often resulting in limited accommodations even during times of war.

After the Fedayeen
Fedayeen
Fedayeen is a term used to describe several distinct militant groups and individuals in West Asia at different times in history. It is sometimes used colloquially to refer to suicide squads, especially those who are not bombers.-Overview:...

 attacks from Jordan decreased after Israel's victory in the 1956 Suez War, the tense relations between Israel and Jordan following the 1948 Arab-Israeli war
1948 Arab-Israeli War
The 1948 Arab–Israeli War, known to Israelis as the War of Independence or War of Liberation The war commenced after the termination of the British Mandate for Palestine and the creation of an independent Israel at midnight on 14 May 1948 when, following a period of civil war, Arab armies invaded...

 eased. In the 1967 Six Day War, Jordan aligned itself with Nasser
Gamal Abdel Nasser
Gamal Abdel Nasser Hussein was the second President of Egypt from 1956 until his death. A colonel in the Egyptian army, Nasser led the Egyptian Revolution of 1952 along with Muhammad Naguib, the first president, which overthrew the monarchy of Egypt and Sudan, and heralded a new period of...

's Egypt
Egypt
Egypt , officially the Arab Republic of Egypt, Arabic: , is a country mainly in North Africa, with the Sinai Peninsula forming a land bridge in Southwest Asia. Egypt is thus a transcontinental country, and a major power in Africa, the Mediterranean Basin, the Middle East and the Muslim world...

 despite an Israeli warning. This resulted in the loss of East Jerusalem
East Jerusalem
East Jerusalem or Eastern Jerusalem refer to the parts of Jerusalem captured and annexed by Jordan in the 1948 Arab-Israeli War and then captured and annexed by Israel in the 1967 Six-Day War...

 and the West Bank
West Bank
The West Bank ) of the Jordan River is the landlocked geographical eastern part of the Palestinian territories located in Western Asia. To the west, north, and south, the West Bank shares borders with the state of Israel. To the east, across the Jordan River, lies the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan...

 to Israel. Besides territorial, it was also an economic loss to the kingdom since much of its economy was based in the West Bank.

In 1970 King Hussein waged the war of Black September
Black September in Jordan
September 1970 is known as the Black September in Arab history and sometimes is referred to as the "era of regrettable events." It was a month when Hashemite King Hussein of Jordan moved to quash the militancy of Palestinian organizations and restore his monarchy's rule over the country. The...

 against the Palestinian Liberation Organization (PLO), eventually ejecting the organization and thousands of Palestinians, who threatened Hussein's rule. During Black September, Syrian troops invaded the kingdom, threatening to further destabilize the regime. In response, the Israeli Air Force made a series of overflights over the Syrian forces, prompting them to return to Syria.

The war against the PLO factions may have strengthened the connections between Israel and Jordan. Some claim that Mossad
Mossad
The Mossad , short for HaMossad leModi'in uleTafkidim Meyuchadim , is the national intelligence agency of Israel....

 warned Hussein about a Palestinian assassination
Assassination
To carry out an assassination is "to murder by a sudden and/or secret attack, often for political reasons." Alternatively, assassination may be defined as "the act of deliberately killing someone, especially a public figure, usually for hire or for political reasons."An assassination may be...

 attempt and that Hussein warned Israeli Prime Minister Golda Meir
Golda Meir
Golda Meir ; May 3, 1898 – December 8, 1978) was a teacher, kibbutznik and politician who became the fourth Prime Minister of the State of Israel....

 in a clandestine face-to-face meeting about Egyptian and Syrian threats prior to the 1973 Yom Kippur War
Yom Kippur War
The Yom Kippur War, Ramadan War or October War , also known as the 1973 Arab-Israeli War and the Fourth Arab-Israeli War, was fought from October 6 to 25, 1973, between Israel and a coalition of Arab states led by Egypt and Syria...

, though his warnings were unheeded by the Israeli leadership. Hussein's intention was to stay out of the war.

In 1987 Israeli Foreign Affairs Minister Shimon Peres
Shimon Peres
GCMG is the ninth President of the State of Israel. Peres served twice as the eighth Prime Minister of Israel and once as Interim Prime Minister, and has been a member of 12 cabinets in a political career spanning over 66 years...

 and King Hussein tried to secretly arrange a peace agreement in which Israel would concede the West Bank to Jordan. The two signed an agreement
Peres-Hussein London Agreement
The London Agreement between King Hussein of Jordan and Israeli Foreign Affairs Minister Shimon Peres, was signed during a secret meeting held at the residence of Lord Mishcon in London on April 11, 1987...

 defining a framework for a Middle Eastern peace conference. The proposal was not consummated due to Israeli Prime Minister Yitzhak Shamir
Yitzhak Shamir
' is a former Israeli politician, the seventh Prime Minister of Israel, in 1983–84 and 1986–92.-Biography:Icchak Jeziernicky was born in Ruzhany , Russian Empire . He studied at a Hebrew High School in Białystok, Poland. As a youth he joined Betar, the Revisionist Zionist youth movement...

's objection. The following year Jordan
Jordan
Jordan , officially the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan , Al-Mamlaka al-Urduniyya al-Hashemiyya) is a kingdom on the East Bank of the River Jordan. The country borders Saudi Arabia to the east and south-east, Iraq to the north-east, Syria to the north and the West Bank and Israel to the west, sharing...

 abandoned its claim to the West Bank in favor of a peaceful resolution between Israel and the PLO.

Negotiations


Discussions began in 1994. Israeli Prime Minister
Prime Minister of Israel
The Prime Minister of Israel is the head of the Israeli government and the most powerful political figure in Israel . The prime minister is the country's chief executive. The official residence of the prime minister, Beit Rosh Hamemshala is in Jerusalem...

 Yitzhak Rabin
Yitzhak Rabin
' was an Israeli politician, statesman and general. He was the fifth Prime Minister of Israel, serving two terms in office, 1974–77 and 1992 until his assassination in 1995....

 and Foreign Minister Shimon Peres
Shimon Peres
GCMG is the ninth President of the State of Israel. Peres served twice as the eighth Prime Minister of Israel and once as Interim Prime Minister, and has been a member of 12 cabinets in a political career spanning over 66 years...

 informed King Hussein that after the Oslo Accords
Oslo Accords
The Oslo Accords, officially called the Declaration of Principles on Interim Self-Government Arrangements or Declaration of Principles , was an attempt to resolve the ongoing Palestinian-Israeli conflict...

 with the PLO, Jordan might be "left out of the big game". Hussein consulted with Egyptian President
President of Egypt
The President of the Arab Republic of Egypt is the head of state of Egypt.Under the Constitution of Egypt, the president is also the supreme commander of the armed forces and head of the executive branch of the Egyptian government....

 Hosni Mubarak
Hosni Mubarak
Muhammad Hosni Sayyid Mubarak is a former Egyptian politician and military commander. He served as the fourth President of Egypt from 1981 to 2011....

 and Syrian President Hafez al-Assad
Hafez al-Assad
Hafez ibn 'Ali ibn Sulayman al-Assad or more commonly Hafez al-Assad was the President of Syria for three decades. Assad's rule consolidated the power of the central government after decades of coups and counter-coups, such as Operation Wappen in 1957 conducted by the Eisenhower administration and...

. Mubarak encouraged him, but Assad told him only to "talk" and not sign any accord. U.S.
United States
The United States of America is a federal constitutional republic comprising fifty states and a federal district...

 President Bill Clinton
Bill Clinton
William Jefferson "Bill" Clinton is an American politician who served as the 42nd President of the United States from 1993 to 2001. Inaugurated at age 46, he was the third-youngest president. He took office at the end of the Cold War, and was the first president of the baby boomer generation...

 pressured Hussein to start peace negotiations and to sign a peace treaty with Israel and promised him that Jordan's debts would be forgiven. The efforts succeeded and Jordan signed a nonbelligerency agreement with Israel. Rabin, Hussein and Clinton signed the Washington Declaration
Washington Declaration
Various documents are known as the Washington Declaration:* 1918, proclaiming the First Czechoslovak Republic* 1994, agreement formally ending the 46-year state of war between Jordan and Israel...

 in Washington, DC, on July 25, 1994. The Declaration says that Israel and Jordan ended the official state of enmity and would start negotiations in order to achieve an "end to bloodshed and sorrow" and a just and lasting peace.

Signing


In July 1994 the Prime Minister of Jordan Abdelsalam al-Majali
Abdelsalam al-Majali
Abdelsalam al-Majali was twice the Prime Minister of Jordan Abd al-Salam received his medical degree from the Syrian University in 1949. He was director of medical services for the Jordanian armed forces, president of Jordan University , and minister of health...

 declared an "end to the age of wars" and Shimon Peres declared that "the moment of peace has arrived". Rabin and King Hussein held a public meeting with Clinton at the White House
White House
The White House is the official residence and principal workplace of the president of the United States. Located at 1600 Pennsylvania Avenue NW in Washington, D.C., the house was designed by Irish-born James Hoban, and built between 1792 and 1800 of white-painted Aquia sandstone in the Neoclassical...

.

On October 26, 1994 Jordan and Israel signed the peace treaty
Peace treaty
A peace treaty is an agreement between two or more hostile parties, usually countries or governments, that formally ends a state of war between the parties...

 in a ceremony held in the Arava valley of Israel, north of Eilat and near the Jordanian border. Prime Minister Rabin and Prime Minister Abdelsalam al-Majali signed the treaty and the President of Israel
President of Israel
The President of the State of Israel is the head of state of Israel. The position is largely an apolitical ceremonial figurehead role, with the real executive power lying in the hands of the Prime Minister. The current president is Shimon Peres who took office on 15 July 2007...

 Ezer Weizman
Ezer Weizman
' was the seventh President of Israel, first elected in 1993 and re-elected in 1998. Before the presidency, Weizman was commander of the Israeli Air Force and Minister of Defense.-Biography:...

 shook hands with King Hussein
Hussein of Jordan
Hussein bin Talal was the third King of Jordan from the abdication of his father, King Talal, in 1952, until his death. Hussein's rule extended through the Cold War and four decades of Arab-Israeli conflict...

. Clinton
Clinton
Clinton is an English family name, indicating one's ancestors came from English places called Glympton or Glinton. Clinton has frequently been used as a given name in the United States since the late 19th century, probably originally in honor of DeWitt Clinton or one of his famous relatives...

 observed, accompanied by US Secretary of State Warren Christopher
Warren Christopher
Warren Minor Christopher was an American lawyer, diplomat and politician. During Bill Clinton's first term as President, Christopher served as the 63rd Secretary of State. He also served as Deputy Attorney General in the Lyndon Johnson administration, and as Deputy Secretary of State in the Jimmy...

. Thousands of colorful balloons released into the sky ended the event.

Egypt
Egypt
Egypt , officially the Arab Republic of Egypt, Arabic: , is a country mainly in North Africa, with the Sinai Peninsula forming a land bridge in Southwest Asia. Egypt is thus a transcontinental country, and a major power in Africa, the Mediterranean Basin, the Middle East and the Muslim world...

 welcomed the agreement while Syria
Syria
Syria , officially the Syrian Arab Republic , is a country in Western Asia, bordering Lebanon and the Mediterranean Sea to the West, Turkey to the north, Iraq to the east, Jordan to the south, and Israel to the southwest....

 ignored it. However, the Lebanese militia group Hezbollah resisted the treaty and 20 minutes prior to the ceremony launched mortar and rocket attacks against northern Galilee
Galilee
Galilee , is a large region in northern Israel which overlaps with much of the administrative North District of the country. Traditionally divided into Upper Galilee , Lower Galilee , and Western Galilee , extending from Dan to the north, at the base of Mount Hermon, along Mount Lebanon to the...

 towns. Israeli residents, who were forced to evacuate the towns for the safety of shelters, took with them radio
Radio
Radio is the transmission of signals through free space by modulation of electromagnetic waves with frequencies below those of visible light. Electromagnetic radiation travels by means of oscillating electromagnetic fields that pass through the air and the vacuum of space...

 transistors and mobile TVs in order not to miss the historical moment of signing a second peace treaty with an Arab
Arab
Arab people, also known as Arabs , are a panethnicity primarily living in the Arab world, which is located in Western Asia and North Africa. They are identified as such on one or more of genealogical, linguistic, or cultural grounds, with tribal affiliations, and intra-tribal relationships playing...

 state.

Following the agreements, Israel and Jordan opened their borders. Several border-crossings were erected, allowing tourists, merchants and workers to travel between the two states. Israeli tourists started to visit Jordan, many to see the sela ha'adom ("Red Rock") of Petra
Petra
Petra is a historical and archaeological city in the Jordanian governorate of Ma'an that is famous for its rock cut architecture and water conduits system. Established sometime around the 6th century BC as the capital city of the Nabataeans, it is a symbol of Jordan as well as its most visited...

 - a stone-carved Nabatean city which had fascinated Israelis during the 50's and the 60's, often luring adventurers to visit it secretly.

1996 Trade treaty


In 1996 the two nations signed a trade treaty. As part of the agreement, Israel assisted in establishing a modern medical center in Amman
Amman
Amman is the capital of Jordan. It is the country's political, cultural and commercial centre and one of the oldest continuously inhabited cities in the world. The Greater Amman area has a population of 2,842,629 as of 2010. The population of Amman is expected to jump from 2.8 million to almost...

.

Main principles

  • Border
    Border
    Borders define geographic boundaries of political entities or legal jurisdictions, such as governments, sovereign states, federated states and other subnational entities. Some borders—such as a state's internal administrative borders, or inter-state borders within the Schengen Area—are open and...

    s
    : The Jordan river became the border. If its flow changed, the border would move accordingly. In addition, Israel gave Jordan 300 square kilometres (115.8 sq mi), including Peace Island
    Peace Island
    The Island of Peace is an Israeli-Jordanian park at the confluence of the Jordan River and Yarmouk River, on the border between Israel and Jordan....

    , and leased 2850 dunam
    Dunam
    A dunam or dönüm, dunum, donum, dynym, dulum was a non-SI unit of land area used in the Ottoman Empire and representing the amount of land that can be plowed in a day; its value varied from 900–2500 m²...

    s (2.85 km²) in the Arabah
    Arabah
    The Arabah , also known as Aravah, is a section of the Great Rift Valley running in a north-south orientation between the southern end of the Sea of Galilee down to the Dead Sea and continuing further south where it ends at the Gulf of Aqaba. It includes most of the border between Israel to the...

     (Muvlaat Tzofar). The border segment from Ein Gedi
    Ein Gedi
    Ein Gedi is an oasis in Israel, located west of the Dead Sea, near Masada and the caves of Qumran.-Etymology:The name En-gedi is composed of two Hebrew words: ein means spring and gdi means goat-kid. En Gedi thus means "Kid spring."...

     to Beit She'an was not marked, because Jordan insisted that the Palestinian Authority should be a partner for setting this border.
  • Normalization: The countries fully normalized relations, established diplomatic relations and opened embassies, granted tourists visa
    Visa (document)
    A visa is a document showing that a person is authorized to enter the territory for which it was issued, subject to permission of an immigration official at the time of actual entry. The authorization may be a document, but more commonly it is a stamp endorsed in the applicant's passport...

    s, opened air travel and seaports, established a free trade
    Free trade
    Under a free trade policy, prices emerge from supply and demand, and are the sole determinant of resource allocation. 'Free' trade differs from other forms of trade policy where the allocation of goods and services among trading countries are determined by price strategies that may differ from...

     zone and an industrial park
    Industrial park
    An industrial park is an area zoned and planned for the purpose of industrial development...

     in the Arava. The agreement prohibits hostile propaganda
    Propaganda
    Propaganda is a form of communication that is aimed at influencing the attitude of a community toward some cause or position so as to benefit oneself or one's group....

    .
  • Security
    Security
    Security is the degree of protection against danger, damage, loss, and crime. Security as a form of protection are structures and processes that provide or improve security as a condition. The Institute for Security and Open Methodologies in the OSSTMM 3 defines security as "a form of protection...

     and Defense
    Defense (military)
    Defense has several uses in the sphere of military application.Personal defense implies measures taken by individual soldiers in protecting themselves whether by use of protective materials such as armor, or field construction of trenches or a bunker, or by using weapons that prevent the enemy...

    : Each country promised respect for the sovereignty and territory of each side, to not enter the other's territory without permission, to cooperate against terrorism
    Terrorism
    Terrorism is the systematic use of terror, especially as a means of coercion. In the international community, however, terrorism has no universally agreed, legally binding, criminal law definition...

    . This included thwarting border attacks, smuggling, preventing any hostile attack against the other and not cooperating with any terrorist organization against the other.
  • Jerusalem: Jordan has preference concerning the status of Muslim holy places in the city (as a guardian or keeper of the holy places) in any future peace agreement with the Palestinians.
  • Water
    Water
    Water is a chemical substance with the chemical formula H2O. A water molecule contains one oxygen and two hydrogen atoms connected by covalent bonds. Water is a liquid at ambient conditions, but it often co-exists on Earth with its solid state, ice, and gaseous state . Water also exists in a...

    : Israel agreed to give Jordan 50000000 cubic metres (1,765,733,310.6 cu ft) of water each year and for Jordan to own 75% of the water from the Yarmouk River
    Yarmouk River
    The Yarmouk River is the largest tributary of the Jordan River. It drains much of the Hauran Plateau. It is one of three main tributaries which enter the Jordan between the Sea of Galilee and the Dead Sea. To the south, are the Jabbok/Zarqa and the Arnon/Wadi Mujib) rivers...

    . Both countries could develop other water resources and reservoirs and agreed to help each other survive droughts.
  • Palestinian refugees: Israel and Jordan agreed to cooperate to help the refugees, including a four-way committee (Israel, Jordan, Egypt and the Palestinians) to try to work towards solutions.

Treaty elements


The treaty consists of a preamble, thirty articles, five annexes, and agreed minutes.

Preamble of the treaty: Desire for peace


Israel and Jordan note and agree to honor the Washington Declaration
Washington Declaration
Various documents are known as the Washington Declaration:* 1918, proclaiming the First Czechoslovak Republic* 1994, agreement formally ending the 46-year state of war between Jordan and Israel...

, signed July 25, 1994, and based on U.N. Security Council Resolution in all respects, they declared the termination of the state of belligerency between them and established peace between them in accordance with the treaty.

Article 1: Peace established


Peace is established between the State of Israel and the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan.

Article 2: Mutual recognition


Recognise and respect each other's sovereignty, territorial integrity and political independence.
The Hashemite Kingdom Of Jordan is in harmony with the State Of Israel.

Article 3: Borders


Delineate and recognize the international boundary between Israel and Jordan with reference to the boundary definition under the Mandate, without prejudice to the status of any territories that came under Israeli military government control in 1967 (paragraph 2). Peace Island
Peace Island
The Island of Peace is an Israeli-Jordanian park at the confluence of the Jordan River and Yarmouk River, on the border between Israel and Jordan....

 came under Jordanian military control, but Israel maintains administration and civilian presence.

Article 4: Security cooperation


Mutual understanding and co-operation in security-related matters form a significant part of relations. Recognize the achievements of the European Union
European Union
The European Union is an economic and political union of 27 independent member states which are located primarily in Europe. The EU traces its origins from the European Coal and Steel Community and the European Economic Community , formed by six countries in 1958...

 in developing the Conference on Security and Co-operation in Europe (CSCE) and commit to the creation, in the Middle East
Middle East
The Middle East is a region that encompasses Western Asia and Northern Africa. It is often used as a synonym for Near East, in opposition to Far East...

, of a CSCME (Conference on Security and Co-operation in the Middle East). Refrain from the threat or use of force or weapons, conventional, non-conventional or of any other kind, and combat terrorism of all kinds.

Article 5: Diplomatic relations


Establish full diplomatic and consular relations and to exchange resident ambassadors, including normalization of economic and cultural relations.

Article 6: Water resources


Recognizing the rightful water
Water
Water is a chemical substance with the chemical formula H2O. A water molecule contains one oxygen and two hydrogen atoms connected by covalent bonds. Water is a liquid at ambient conditions, but it often co-exists on Earth with its solid state, ice, and gaseous state . Water also exists in a...

 allocations of both of them in the Jordan River and Yarmouk River
Yarmouk River
The Yarmouk River is the largest tributary of the Jordan River. It drains much of the Hauran Plateau. It is one of three main tributaries which enter the Jordan between the Sea of Galilee and the Dead Sea. To the south, are the Jabbok/Zarqa and the Arnon/Wadi Mujib) rivers...

 waters and Arabah
Arabah
The Arabah , also known as Aravah, is a section of the Great Rift Valley running in a north-south orientation between the southern end of the Sea of Galilee down to the Dead Sea and continuing further south where it ends at the Gulf of Aqaba. It includes most of the border between Israel to the...

 (Arava) ground water and development of new water resources.

Annex II Water Related Matters


Pursuant to Article 6 of the Treaty, Jordan and Israel agreed on the following Articles on water related matters:

Article I: Allocation

Water from the Yarmouk River

A. Summer period - 15th May to 15th October of each year. Israel got 12 million cubic metres and Jordan got the rest of the flow.

B. Winter period - 16th October to 14th May of each year. Israel got 13 million cubic metres and Jordan got the rest of the flow except that Jordan allowed Israel to pump an additional 20 million cubic metres from the Yarmouk. In return during the summer Israel transferred the quantity specified in paragraph 2.a below from the Jordan River.

C. To minimize water waste, Jordan and Israel could use excess flood water that would evidently go unused that is downstream of Adassiya Diversion/point 121.

Water from the Jordan River

A. Summer period - 15th May to 15th October of each year. Israel agreed to transfer 20 million cubic metres from the Jordan River directly upstream from Deganya gates. Jordan agreed to pay operation and maintenance cost of transfers through existing systems (not including capital costs) and to bear the total cost of any new transmission system. A separate protocol regulated this transfer.

B. Winter period - 16th October to 14th May of each year. Jordan was entitled to a minimum average of 20 million cubic metres of the floods in the Jordan River south of the Yarmouk. Unusable excess floods that would otherwise be unused, including pumped storage could be taken.

C. Israel could maintain its uses of Jordan River waters between the Yarmouk and Wadi Yabis/Tirat Zvi. Jordan was entitled to an annual quantity equivalent to that of Israel, provided that Jordan's use did not harm the quantity or quality of Israeli uses. The Joint Water Committee was to document existing uses and prevent such harm.

D. Jordan became entitled to 10 million cubic metres annually of desalinated water from saline springs previously diverted to the Jordan River. Israel agreed to explore the possibility of financing the operation and maintenance cost supplying this desalinated water to Jordan (not including capital cost). Israel agreed to supply Jordan 10 million cubic metres water from the same location as in 2.a above, outside the summer period and during dates Jordan selected, subject to transmission capacity from the treaty's effective date (TED) until the desalination facilities became operational.

Additional Water

Jordan and Israel agreed to jointly develop an additional 50 million cubic metres/year of drinkable water for Jordan. The Joint Water Committee agreed to develop, within one year of the TED, a plan to supply the additional water.

Operation and Maintenance

A. Israel accepted responsibility for operating, supplying and maintaining systems on Israeli territory that supply Jordan with water, allowing Jordan to choose (and compensate) companies/authorities that operate and maintain new systems that serve only Jordan.

B. Israel guaranteed easy access for personnel and equipment to such new systems as further detailed in the agreements to be signed between Israel and the authorities or companies selected by Jordan.

Article II: Storage - The parties agreed to

1. Cooperate to build a diversion/storage dam on the Yarmouk River directly downstream of Adassiya Diversion/point 121.

2. Improve diversion efficiency of Jordanian water into the King Abdullah Canal, and possibly Israel's allocation.

3. Cooperate to build water storage on the Jordan River, along their common boundary, between the Yarmouk River and Wadi Yabis/Tirat Zvi, to implement paragraph 2.b of Article I.

4. Accommodate more floods; Israel could use up to (3) million cubic metres/year of added storage.

5. Optionally agree to create other storage reservoirs.

Article III: Water Quality and Protection - the parties agreed to

1. Protect the Jordan and Yarmouk Rivers, and Araba/Arava groundwater, against pollution, contamination, harm and unauthorized withdrawals of each other's allocations.

2. Jointly monitor the quality of water along their border, via jointly established monitoring stations under the Joint Water Committee.

3. Treat municipal and industrial wastewater to agricultural standards before discharging into the Yarmouk and the Jordan Rivers...

4. ...within three years from the TED.

5. Match the quality of water supplied to the other at any given location to the quality of water from that location consumed by the supplying country.

6. Desalinate saline springs currently diverted to the Jordan River and not dispose of the resulting brine in the Jordan River or its tributaries. Protect water systems that supply water to the other against any pollution, contamination, harm or unauthorized withdrawal.

Article IV: Groundwater in Wadi Araba/Emek Ha'arava - The parties agree that

1. Israel retained the use of wells along with their associated systems newly under Jordanian sovereignty as detailed by 31st December, 1994 with Jordan to protect their yields and quality.

2. Jordan would enable the replacement of any failing well, connect it to the Israeli electricity and water systems and treat it as though it was drilled under license from the competent Jordanian authority at the time of its drilling. Israel agreed to supply Jordan with well logs and technical information.

3. Israel could increase the extraction rate from Jordanian wells and systems by up to (10) million cubic metres/year above existing yields, subject to determination by the Joint Water Committee that this undertaking is hydrogeologically
Hydrogeology
Hydrogeology is the area of geology that deals with the distribution and movement of groundwater in the soil and rocks of the Earth's crust, . The term geohydrology is often used interchangeably...

 feasible and does not harm existing Jordanian uses. Such an increase had to be carried out within five years from the TED.

4. Operation and Maintenance
1. Jordan accepted responsibility for operation and maintenance of newly Jordanian wells and systems, and their electricity supply. Israel could select the wells' operators at its own expense.

2. Jordan guaranteed easy access of personnel and equipment to the wells and systems for operation and maintenance subject to detailed agreements to be signed between Jordan and the authorities or companies selected by Israel.


Article V: Notification and Agreement

1. Deliberate changes in the Jordan and Yarmouk Rivers require mutual agreement.

2. Each country agreed to six months advance notice of projects likely to change the quality or flow of either river along their common boundary via the Joint Water Committee.

Article VI: Co-operation - The parties agreed to

1. Exchange relevant data on water resources through the Joint Water Committee.

2. Cooperative planning for increasing water supplies and improving efficiency, within the context of bilateral, regional or international cooperation.

Article VII: Joint Water Committee - The parties agree that the committee would

1. Host three members from each country.

2. Follow government-agreed work procedures, meeting frequency, and scope, consulting experts and/or advisors as necessary.

3. Could form, as necessary, sub-committees and assign them technical tasks, including a northern sub-committee and a southern sub-committee, for detailed management.

Article 7: Economic cooperation


To promote economic cooperation by removing discriminatory barriers and terminate economic boycotts.

Article 8: Refugees


Discuss the problem together with Egypt
Egypt
Egypt , officially the Arab Republic of Egypt, Arabic: , is a country mainly in North Africa, with the Sinai Peninsula forming a land bridge in Southwest Asia. Egypt is thus a transcontinental country, and a major power in Africa, the Mediterranean Basin, the Middle East and the Muslim world...

 and the Palestinians, and the issue of refugees would be discussed multilaterally in conjunction with and contemporaneously with permanent status negotiations pertaining to the territories. Notably, this terminology did not distinguish among ethnic or religious categories suggesting that a solution must address Jewish and Arab displaced persons.

Article 9: Holy places


Guaranteed free access to historically significant places. Israel agreed to respect Jordan's special role in protecting Muslim Holy shrines in Jerusalem. Israel agreed to give high priority to Jordan's historic role in these shrines during permanent status negotiations. The states also pledged to promote interfaith relations among Judaism, Islam and Christianity, with the aim of working towards religious understanding, moral commitment, freedom of religious worship, tolerance and peace.

Article 10: Culture and science


Establish cultural and scientific exchanges in all fields, and to establish normal cultural relations.

Article 11: Mutual understanding and tolerance


Abstain from propaganda against each other, prevent the dissemination of such propaganda in their own countries, and ensure mutual enjoyment by each other's citizens of due process of law.

Article 12: Drugs and crime


Combat crime, smuggling, trafficking in illicit drugs, and try perpetrators.

Article 13: Roads


Permit free movement of people and vehicles and not impose discriminatory taxes or restrictions. Open and maintain roads and border-crossings, and continue negotiations for a highway to be constructed between Egypt
Egypt
Egypt , officially the Arab Republic of Egypt, Arabic: , is a country mainly in North Africa, with the Sinai Peninsula forming a land bridge in Southwest Asia. Egypt is thus a transcontinental country, and a major power in Africa, the Mediterranean Basin, the Middle East and the Muslim world...

, Israel and Jordan near Eilat.

Article 14: Freedom of the sea


Provide right of passage through territorial waters in accordance with international law including normal access to ports. The Strait of Tiran and the Gulf of Aqaba
Gulf of Aqaba
The Gulf of Aqaba is a large gulf located at the northern tip of the Red Sea. In pre twentieth-century and modern sources it is often named the Gulf of Eilat, as Eilat is its predominant Israeli city ....

 became international waterways open to all nations.

Article 15: Air travel


Recognize the rights, privileges and obligations provided for by multilateral aviation agreements, particularly the 1944 Convention on International Civil Aviation
Convention on International Civil Aviation
The Convention on International Civil Aviation, also known as the Chicago Convention, established the International Civil Aviation Organization , a specialized agency of the United Nations charged with coordinating and regulating international air travel...

 (The Chicago Convention) and the 1944 International Air Services Transit Agreement.

Article 18: Environment


Cooperate on the environment, conservation and prevention of pollution
Pollution
Pollution is the introduction of contaminants into a natural environment that causes instability, disorder, harm or discomfort to the ecosystem i.e. physical systems or living organisms. Pollution can take the form of chemical substances or energy, such as noise, heat or light...

.

Article 19: Energy


Develop energy resources and projects such as solar electricity generation. Interconnect electric grids in the Eilat-Aqaba area.

Article 20: Rift Valley


Develop the Jordan Rift Valley
Jordan Rift Valley
The Jordan Rift Valley is an elongated depression located in modern-day Israel, Jordan and the Palestinian territories. This geographic region includes the Jordan River, Jordan Valley, Hula Valley, Lake Tiberias and the Dead Sea, the lowest land elevation on Earth...

 area, including joint economic, environmental, energy-related and tourism projects.

Article 22: Agriculture


Cooperation in agriculture
Agriculture
Agriculture is the cultivation of animals, plants, fungi and other life forms for food, fiber, and other products used to sustain life. Agriculture was the key implement in the rise of sedentary human civilization, whereby farming of domesticated species created food surpluses that nurtured the...

, including veterinary services, plant protection, biotechnology and marketing.

Article 23: Aqaba-Eilat


Jointly develop Aqaba and Eilat, including tourism, customs, a free trade zone, aviation, pollution control, maritime matters, police, customs and health.

Article 24: Claims commission


Establish a claims commission for the mutual settlement of all financial claims.

Article 25: Obligations


No effect on rights and obligations under the United Nations Charter
United Nations Charter
The Charter of the United Nations is the foundational treaty of the international organization called the United Nations. It was signed at the San Francisco War Memorial and Performing Arts Center in San Francisco, United States, on 26 June 1945, by 50 of the 51 original member countries...

. Agree to fulfil in good faith all obligations and to abolish pejorative references to each other.

Article 26: Legislation


Enact implementing legislation, and terminate any international commitments and to repeal any conflicting legislation.

Article 27: Ratification


Ratify the treaty in conformity with respective national procedures.

Article 29: Dispute resolution


Agree to mutually negotiate resolution to any disputes arising out of the treaty. Resolve unsuccessful negotiations by conciliation or arbitration.

Article 30: Registration with UN


Transmit the treaty to the Secretary General of the United Nations for registration in accordance with the provisions of Article 102 of the United Nations Charter.

Annex 1: Borders


See: Israel-Jordan Peace Treaty, Annex I, Israel-Jordan International Boundary Delimitation and Demarcation http://www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org/jsource/Peace/annex1.html

Annex 3: Crime and drugs


See: Israel-Jordan Peace Treaty, Annex III, Combatting Crime and Drugs http://www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org/jsource/Peace/annex3.html

Annex 4: Environment


See: Israel-Jordan Peace Treaty, Annex IV, Environment http://www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org/jsource/Peace/annex4.html

Agreed minutes of the treaty


See: Israel-Jordan Peace Treaty, Agreed Minutes http://www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org/jsource/Peace/agmins.html

Alleged treaty violations


High Court Justice Elyakim Rubinstein
Elyakim Rubinstein
Elyakim Rubinstein was the Attorney General of Israel from 1997 to 2004 and is currently serving as a Judge on the Supreme Court of Israel.Rubinstein, a lifelong Israeli diplomat and civil servant, has had an influential role in that country's internal and external politics, most notably in...

 commented, “The peace agreement with Jordan is not as warm as we would have liked.”

Despite Article 7, a boycott against Israel has emerged, including reduced imports of Jewish products from the occupied Palestinian territories.