Islamic calendar

Islamic calendar

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The Hijri calendar , also known as the Muslim calendar or Islamic calendar , ' onMouseout='HidePop("47224")' href="http://www.absoluteastronomy.com/topics/Persian_language">Persian
Persian language
Persian is an Iranian language within the Indo-Iranian branch of the Indo-European languages. It is primarily spoken in Iran, Afghanistan, Tajikistan and countries which historically came under Persian influence...

: تقویم هجری قمری ‎ taqvim-e hejri-ye qamari; ; Islami taqwīm; Indonesian
Indonesian language
Indonesian is the official language of Indonesia. Indonesian is a normative form of the Riau Islands dialect of Malay, an Austronesian language which has been used as a lingua franca in the Indonesian archipelago for centuries....

: Kalender Hijriah; Malay
Malay language
Malay is a major language of the Austronesian family. It is the official language of Malaysia , Indonesia , Brunei and Singapore...

: Takwim Hijrah) is a lunar calendar
Lunar calendar
A lunar calendar is a calendar that is based on cycles of the lunar phase. A common purely lunar calendar is the Islamic calendar or Hijri calendar. A feature of the Islamic calendar is that a year is always 12 months, so the months are not linked with the seasons and drift each solar year by 11 to...

 consisting of 12 lunar month
Lunar month
In lunar calendars, a lunar month is the time between two identical syzygies . There are many variations. In Middle-Eastern and European traditions, the month starts when the young crescent moon becomes first visible at evening after conjunction with the Sun one or two days before that evening...

s in a year of 354 or 355 days. It is used to date events in many Muslim countries (concurrently with the Gregorian calendar
Gregorian calendar
The Gregorian calendar, also known as the Western calendar, or Christian calendar, is the internationally accepted civil calendar. It was introduced by Pope Gregory XIII, after whom the calendar was named, by a decree signed on 24 February 1582, a papal bull known by its opening words Inter...

), and used by Muslim
Muslim
A Muslim, also spelled Moslem, is an adherent of Islam, a monotheistic, Abrahamic religion based on the Quran, which Muslims consider the verbatim word of God as revealed to prophet Muhammad. "Muslim" is the Arabic term for "submitter" .Muslims believe that God is one and incomparable...

s everywhere to determine the proper day on which to celebrate Islamic holy days and festivals. The first year
Epoch (reference date)
In the fields of chronology and periodization, an epoch is an instance in time chosen as the origin of a particular era. The "epoch" then serves as a reference point from which time is measured...

 was the year during which the emigration of the Islamic prophet
Prophets of Islam
Muslims identify the Prophets of Islam as those humans chosen by God and given revelation to deliver to mankind. Muslims believe that every prophet was given a belief to worship God and their respective followers believed it as well...

 Muhammad
Muhammad
Muhammad |ligature]] at U+FDF4 ;Arabic pronunciation varies regionally; the first vowel ranges from ~~; the second and the last vowel: ~~~. There are dialects which have no stress. In Egypt, it is pronounced not in religious contexts...

 from Mecca
Mecca
Mecca is a city in the Hijaz and the capital of Makkah province in Saudi Arabia. The city is located inland from Jeddah in a narrow valley at a height of above sea level...

 to Medina
Medina
Medina , or ; also transliterated as Madinah, or madinat al-nabi "the city of the prophet") is a city in the Hejaz region of western Saudi Arabia, and serves as the capital of the Al Madinah Province. It is the second holiest city in Islam, and the burial place of the Islamic Prophet Muhammad, and...

, known as the Hijra
Hijra (Islam)
The Hijra is the migration or journey of the Islamic prophet Muhammad and his followers from Mecca to Medina in 622 CE. Alternate spellings of this Arabic word are Hijrah, Hijrat or Hegira, the latter following the spelling rules of Latin.- Hijra of Muhammad :In September 622, warned of a plot to...

, occurred. Each numbered year is designated either H for Hijra or AH for the Latin
Latin
Latin is an Italic language originally spoken in Latium and Ancient Rome. It, along with most European languages, is a descendant of the ancient Proto-Indo-European language. Although it is considered a dead language, a number of scholars and members of the Christian clergy speak it fluently, and...

 anno Hegirae (in the year of the Hijra). The current Islamic year is 1433 AH, from approximately 26 November 2011 (evening) to 14 November 2012 (evening).

Being a purely lunar calendar, it is not synchronized with the season
Season
A season is a division of the year, marked by changes in weather, ecology, and hours of daylight.Seasons result from the yearly revolution of the Earth around the Sun and the tilt of the Earth's axis relative to the plane of revolution...

s. With an annual drift of 11 or 12 days, the seasonal relation repeats about every 33 Islamic years.

Months


The Hijri months are named as follows in Arabic:

  1. {{Redirect|Arabic calendar|the Gregorian calendar in Arabic|Arabic names of calendar months}}
    {{islam}}
    The Hijri calendar , also known as the Muslim calendar or Islamic calendar , ({{lang-ar|التقويم الهجري}}; at-taqwīm al-hijrī;
    Persian
    Persian language
    Persian is an Iranian language within the Indo-Iranian branch of the Indo-European languages. It is primarily spoken in Iran, Afghanistan, Tajikistan and countries which historically came under Persian influence...

    : تقویم هجری قمری ‎ taqvim-e hejri-ye qamari; {{lang-tr|Hicri Takvim}}; {{lang-ur|اسلامی تقویم}} Islami taqwīm; Indonesian
    Indonesian language
    Indonesian is the official language of Indonesia. Indonesian is a normative form of the Riau Islands dialect of Malay, an Austronesian language which has been used as a lingua franca in the Indonesian archipelago for centuries....

    : Kalender Hijriah; Malay
    Malay language
    Malay is a major language of the Austronesian family. It is the official language of Malaysia , Indonesia , Brunei and Singapore...

    : Takwim Hijrah) is a lunar calendar
    Lunar calendar
    A lunar calendar is a calendar that is based on cycles of the lunar phase. A common purely lunar calendar is the Islamic calendar or Hijri calendar. A feature of the Islamic calendar is that a year is always 12 months, so the months are not linked with the seasons and drift each solar year by 11 to...

     consisting of 12 lunar month
    Lunar month
    In lunar calendars, a lunar month is the time between two identical syzygies . There are many variations. In Middle-Eastern and European traditions, the month starts when the young crescent moon becomes first visible at evening after conjunction with the Sun one or two days before that evening...

    s in a year of 354 or 355 days. It is used to date events in many Muslim countries (concurrently with the Gregorian calendar
    Gregorian calendar
    The Gregorian calendar, also known as the Western calendar, or Christian calendar, is the internationally accepted civil calendar. It was introduced by Pope Gregory XIII, after whom the calendar was named, by a decree signed on 24 February 1582, a papal bull known by its opening words Inter...

    ), and used by Muslim
    Muslim
    A Muslim, also spelled Moslem, is an adherent of Islam, a monotheistic, Abrahamic religion based on the Quran, which Muslims consider the verbatim word of God as revealed to prophet Muhammad. "Muslim" is the Arabic term for "submitter" .Muslims believe that God is one and incomparable...

    s everywhere to determine the proper day on which to celebrate Islamic holy days and festivals. The first year
    Epoch (reference date)
    In the fields of chronology and periodization, an epoch is an instance in time chosen as the origin of a particular era. The "epoch" then serves as a reference point from which time is measured...

     was the year during which the emigration of the Islamic prophet
    Prophets of Islam
    Muslims identify the Prophets of Islam as those humans chosen by God and given revelation to deliver to mankind. Muslims believe that every prophet was given a belief to worship God and their respective followers believed it as well...

     Muhammad
    Muhammad
    Muhammad |ligature]] at U+FDF4 ;Arabic pronunciation varies regionally; the first vowel ranges from ~~; the second and the last vowel: ~~~. There are dialects which have no stress. In Egypt, it is pronounced not in religious contexts...

     from Mecca
    Mecca
    Mecca is a city in the Hijaz and the capital of Makkah province in Saudi Arabia. The city is located inland from Jeddah in a narrow valley at a height of above sea level...

     to Medina
    Medina
    Medina , or ; also transliterated as Madinah, or madinat al-nabi "the city of the prophet") is a city in the Hejaz region of western Saudi Arabia, and serves as the capital of the Al Madinah Province. It is the second holiest city in Islam, and the burial place of the Islamic Prophet Muhammad, and...

    , known as the Hijra
    Hijra (Islam)
    The Hijra is the migration or journey of the Islamic prophet Muhammad and his followers from Mecca to Medina in 622 CE. Alternate spellings of this Arabic word are Hijrah, Hijrat or Hegira, the latter following the spelling rules of Latin.- Hijra of Muhammad :In September 622, warned of a plot to...

    , occurred. Each numbered year is designated either H for Hijra or AH for the Latin
    Latin
    Latin is an Italic language originally spoken in Latium and Ancient Rome. It, along with most European languages, is a descendant of the ancient Proto-Indo-European language. Although it is considered a dead language, a number of scholars and members of the Christian clergy speak it fluently, and...

     anno Hegirae (in the year of the Hijra). The current Islamic year is 1433 AH, from approximately 26 November 2011 (evening) to 14 November 2012 (evening).{{Update after|2012|11|14}}

    Being a purely lunar calendar, it is not synchronized with the season
    Season
    A season is a division of the year, marked by changes in weather, ecology, and hours of daylight.Seasons result from the yearly revolution of the Earth around the Sun and the tilt of the Earth's axis relative to the plane of revolution...

    s. With an annual drift of 11 or 12 days, the seasonal relation repeats about every 33 Islamic years.

    Months


    The Hijri months are named as follows in Arabic:

    1. {{Redirect|Arabic calendar|the Gregorian calendar in Arabic|Arabic names of calendar months}}
      {{islam}}
      The Hijri calendar , also known as the Muslim calendar or Islamic calendar , ({{lang-ar|التقويم الهجري}}; at-taqwīm al-hijrī;
      Persian
      Persian language
      Persian is an Iranian language within the Indo-Iranian branch of the Indo-European languages. It is primarily spoken in Iran, Afghanistan, Tajikistan and countries which historically came under Persian influence...

      : تقویم هجری قمری ‎ taqvim-e hejri-ye qamari; {{lang-tr|Hicri Takvim}}; {{lang-ur|اسلامی تقویم}} Islami taqwīm; Indonesian
      Indonesian language
      Indonesian is the official language of Indonesia. Indonesian is a normative form of the Riau Islands dialect of Malay, an Austronesian language which has been used as a lingua franca in the Indonesian archipelago for centuries....

      : Kalender Hijriah; Malay
      Malay language
      Malay is a major language of the Austronesian family. It is the official language of Malaysia , Indonesia , Brunei and Singapore...

      : Takwim Hijrah) is a lunar calendar
      Lunar calendar
      A lunar calendar is a calendar that is based on cycles of the lunar phase. A common purely lunar calendar is the Islamic calendar or Hijri calendar. A feature of the Islamic calendar is that a year is always 12 months, so the months are not linked with the seasons and drift each solar year by 11 to...

       consisting of 12 lunar month
      Lunar month
      In lunar calendars, a lunar month is the time between two identical syzygies . There are many variations. In Middle-Eastern and European traditions, the month starts when the young crescent moon becomes first visible at evening after conjunction with the Sun one or two days before that evening...

      s in a year of 354 or 355 days. It is used to date events in many Muslim countries (concurrently with the Gregorian calendar
      Gregorian calendar
      The Gregorian calendar, also known as the Western calendar, or Christian calendar, is the internationally accepted civil calendar. It was introduced by Pope Gregory XIII, after whom the calendar was named, by a decree signed on 24 February 1582, a papal bull known by its opening words Inter...

      ), and used by Muslim
      Muslim
      A Muslim, also spelled Moslem, is an adherent of Islam, a monotheistic, Abrahamic religion based on the Quran, which Muslims consider the verbatim word of God as revealed to prophet Muhammad. "Muslim" is the Arabic term for "submitter" .Muslims believe that God is one and incomparable...

      s everywhere to determine the proper day on which to celebrate Islamic holy days and festivals. The first year
      Epoch (reference date)
      In the fields of chronology and periodization, an epoch is an instance in time chosen as the origin of a particular era. The "epoch" then serves as a reference point from which time is measured...

       was the year during which the emigration of the Islamic prophet
      Prophets of Islam
      Muslims identify the Prophets of Islam as those humans chosen by God and given revelation to deliver to mankind. Muslims believe that every prophet was given a belief to worship God and their respective followers believed it as well...

       Muhammad
      Muhammad
      Muhammad |ligature]] at U+FDF4 ;Arabic pronunciation varies regionally; the first vowel ranges from ~~; the second and the last vowel: ~~~. There are dialects which have no stress. In Egypt, it is pronounced not in religious contexts...

       from Mecca
      Mecca
      Mecca is a city in the Hijaz and the capital of Makkah province in Saudi Arabia. The city is located inland from Jeddah in a narrow valley at a height of above sea level...

       to Medina
      Medina
      Medina , or ; also transliterated as Madinah, or madinat al-nabi "the city of the prophet") is a city in the Hejaz region of western Saudi Arabia, and serves as the capital of the Al Madinah Province. It is the second holiest city in Islam, and the burial place of the Islamic Prophet Muhammad, and...

      , known as the Hijra
      Hijra (Islam)
      The Hijra is the migration or journey of the Islamic prophet Muhammad and his followers from Mecca to Medina in 622 CE. Alternate spellings of this Arabic word are Hijrah, Hijrat or Hegira, the latter following the spelling rules of Latin.- Hijra of Muhammad :In September 622, warned of a plot to...

      , occurred. Each numbered year is designated either H for Hijra or AH for the Latin
      Latin
      Latin is an Italic language originally spoken in Latium and Ancient Rome. It, along with most European languages, is a descendant of the ancient Proto-Indo-European language. Although it is considered a dead language, a number of scholars and members of the Christian clergy speak it fluently, and...

       anno Hegirae (in the year of the Hijra). The current Islamic year is 1433 AH, from approximately 26 November 2011 (evening) to 14 November 2012 (evening).{{Update after|2012|11|14}}

      Being a purely lunar calendar, it is not synchronized with the season
      Season
      A season is a division of the year, marked by changes in weather, ecology, and hours of daylight.Seasons result from the yearly revolution of the Earth around the Sun and the tilt of the Earth's axis relative to the plane of revolution...

      s. With an annual drift of 11 or 12 days, the seasonal relation repeats about every 33 Islamic years.

      Months


      The Hijri months are named as follows in Arabic:
      1. {{unicode
        Muharram
        Muharram is the first month of the Islamic calendar. It is one of the four sacred months of the year in which fighting is prohibited...

         — المحرّم, "forbidden" — so called because it was unlawful (haram) to fight during this month. Muharram is the second most sacred Muslim month and includes the Day of Ashura
        Day of Ashura
        The Day of Ashura is on the 10th day of Muharram in the Islamic calendar and marks the climax of the Remembrance of Muharram.It is commemorated by Shia Muslims as a day of mourning for the martyrdom of Husayn ibn Ali, the grandson of the Islamic Prophet Muhammad at the Battle of Karbala on 10...

        .
      2. {{unicode
        Safar
        Safar is the second month in the Islamic calendar.The root of the name, صفر ṣafr, has three basic areas of meaning: 1) whistle, hiss, chirp; 2) be yellow, pale ; 3) to be empty, devoid, vacant...

         — صفر, "void" — supposedly named because pagan Arabs looted during this month and left the houses empty.
      3. Rabīʿ I
        Rabi' al-awwal
        Rabi' al-awwal is the third month in the Islamic calendar. During this month, Muslims around the world celebrate Mawlid - the birthday of the Islamic prophet Muhammad. Sunni Muslims believe the exact date of birth of Muhammad to have been on the twelfth of this month, whereas Shi'a Muslims believe...

         ({{unicode|Rabīʿ al-Awwal}}) — ربيع الأوّل, "the first Spring".
      4. Rabīʿ II
        Rabi' al-thani
        Rabī’ al-Thānī is the fourth month in the Islamic Calendar. It is also known as Rabī` al-Ākhir .-Timing:The Islamic calendar is a lunar calendar, and months begin when the first crescent of a new moon is sighted. Since the Islamic lunar calendar year is 11 to 12 days shorter than the solar year,...

         ({{unicode|Rabīʿ ath-Thānī}}) or ({{unicode|Rabīʿ al-Ākhir}}) — ربيع الثاني or ربيع الآخر, "the second (or last) Spring".
      5. Jumādā I
        Jumada al-awwal
        Jumada al-awwal is the fifth month in the Islamic calendar.We can also find the alternative spelling Jumada al-Ula.The origin of the word is as follows: the word Jumda, from which the name of the month is derived, is used to denote dry parched land: land devoid of rain, and hence denote the dry...

         ({{unicode|Jumādā al-Ūlā}}) — جمادى الأولى, "the first month of parched land".
      6. Jumādā II
        Jumada al-thani
        Jumada al-Thani is the sixth month in the Islamic Calendar.It is also known as Jumaada al-Akhir and Jumada al-Akhira.This is the sixth month of the Islamic calendar...

         ({{unicode|Jumādā ath-Thāniya}} or {{unicode|Jumādā al-Ākhira}}) — جمادى الآخرة, جمادى الثانية, "the second (or last) month of parched land".
      7. Rajab
        Rajab
        Rajab is the seventh month of the Islamic calendar. The lexical definition of Rajaba is "to respect", of which Rajab is a derivative.This month is regarded as one of the four sacred months in Islam in which battles are prohibited...

         — رجب, "respect" or "honor". Rajab is another of the sacred months in which fighting was traditionally forbidden.
      8. {{unicode
        Sha'aban
        Sha'aban is the eighth month of the Islamic calendar.This is the month of ‘separation’, so called because the pagan Arabs used to disperse in search of water...

         — شعبان, "scattered", marking the time of year when Arab tribes dispersed to find water.
      9. {{unicode
        Ramadan (calendar month)
        Ramadan is the ninth month of the Islamic calendar, and the month in which the Quran was revealed.Ramadan is the holiest of months in the Islamic calendar, and fasting in this month is one of the Five Pillars of Islam. The month is spent by Muslims fasting during the daylight hours from dawn to...

         — رمضان, "scorched". Ramadan is the most venerated month of the Hijri calendar, during which Muslims fast
        Sawm
        Sawm is an Arabic word for fasting regulated by Islamic jurisprudence. In the terminology of Islamic law, Sawm means to abstain from eating, drinking , having sex and anything against Islamic law...

         between dawn and sunset.
      10. {{unicode
        Shawwal
        Shawwāl is the tenth month of the lunar Islamic calendar. Shawwāl means to ‘lift or carry’; so named because she-camels normally would be carrying a fetus at this time of year.-Fasting during Shawwāl:...

         — شوّال, "raised", as she-camels begin to raise their tails during this time of the year, after giving birth.
      11. {{unicode
        Dhu al-Qi'dah
        Dhu al-Qa'dah, Dhu'l-Qadah, or Dhu al-Qi'dah is the eleventh month in the Islamic calendar. It is one of the four sacred months in Islam during which warfare is prohibited, hence the name ‘Master of Truce’.- Timing :...

         — ذو القعدة, "the one of truce". Dhu al-Qa'da was another month during which war was banned.
      12. {{unicode
        Dhu al-Hijjah
        Dhu al-Ḥijjah is the twelfth and final month in the Islamic calendar.This is a very sacred month in the Islamic calendar, marking the end of the year. It is in this month in which the Hajj takes place....

         — ذو الحجّة, "the one of pilgrimage", referring to the annual Muslim pilgrimage to Mecca, the Hajj
        Hajj
        The Hajj is the pilgrimage to Mecca, Saudi Arabia. It is one of the largest pilgrimages in the world, and is the fifth pillar of Islam, a religious duty that must be carried out at least once in their lifetime by every able-bodied Muslim who can afford to do so...

        .

      Days of the week


      In the Arabic language, as in the Hebrew language
      Hebrew language
      Hebrew is a Semitic language of the Afroasiatic language family. Culturally, is it considered by Jews and other religious groups as the language of the Jewish people, though other Jewish languages had originated among diaspora Jews, and the Hebrew language is also used by non-Jewish groups, such...

      , the "first day" of the week corresponds with Sunday of the planetary week. The Islamic and Jewish weekdays begin at sunset, whereas the medieval Christian and planetary weekdays begin at the following midnight. The Christian liturgical
      Liturgy
      Liturgy is either the customary public worship done by a specific religious group, according to its particular traditions or a more precise term that distinguishes between those religious groups who believe their ritual requires the "people" to do the "work" of responding to the priest, and those...

       day, however, kept in monasteries, begins with Vespers
      Vespers
      Vespers is the evening prayer service in the Western Catholic, Eastern Catholic, and Eastern Orthodox, Anglican, and Lutheran liturgies of the canonical hours...

       (see vesper), which is evening, in line with the other Abrahamic
      Abrahamic religions
      Abrahamic religions are the monotheistic faiths emphasizing and tracing their common origin to Abraham or recognizing a spiritual tradition identified with him...

       traditions. Muslims gather for worship at a mosque
      Mosque
      A mosque is a place of worship for followers of Islam. The word is likely to have entered the English language through French , from Portuguese , from Spanish , and from Berber , ultimately originating in — . The Arabic word masjid literally means a place of prostration...

       at noon on "gathering day" (Yaum al-Jumu'ah) which corresponds with Friday ("yawm يوم" means day). Thus "gathering day" is often regarded as the weekly day of rest. This is frequently made official, with many Muslim countries adopting Friday and Saturday (e.g. Egypt
      Egypt
      Egypt , officially the Arab Republic of Egypt, Arabic: , is a country mainly in North Africa, with the Sinai Peninsula forming a land bridge in Southwest Asia. Egypt is thus a transcontinental country, and a major power in Africa, the Mediterranean Basin, the Middle East and the Muslim world...

      ) or Thursday and Friday (e.g. Saudi Arabia
      Saudi Arabia
      The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia , commonly known in British English as Saudi Arabia and in Arabic as as-Sa‘ūdiyyah , is the largest state in Western Asia by land area, constituting the bulk of the Arabian Peninsula, and the second-largest in the Arab World...

      ) as official weekends during which offices are closed; other countries (e.g. Iran
      Iran
      Iran , officially the Islamic Republic of Iran , is a country in Southern and Western Asia. The name "Iran" has been in use natively since the Sassanian era and came into use internationally in 1935, before which the country was known to the Western world as Persia...

      ) choose to make Friday alone a day of rest, and still others (e.g. Morocco
      Morocco
      Morocco , officially the Kingdom of Morocco , is a country located in North Africa. It has a population of more than 32 million and an area of 710,850 km², and also primarily administers the disputed region of the Western Sahara...

      ) adopt the Western Saturday-Sunday weekend and make Friday a working day.
      Arabic English Malti Turkish Soomaali Persian Urdu Hindi Malayalam Bengali Kannada Hebrew Indonesian Malay Pashto Tamil Telugu Kashmiri
      1 al-Aḥad
      الأحد
      (first day)
      Sunday Il-Ħadd Pazar Axad Yek-Shanbeh
      یکشنبه
      Ek-Shamba / Itwaar
      اتوار
      Ravivaar
      रविवार
      ഞായര്‍
      ñaayar
      Robibar
      রোববার
      Bhaanuvaara or Ravivaara or Aadityavaara
      ಭಾನುವಾರ / ರವಿವಾರ / ಆದಿತ್ಯವಾರ
      Yom Rishon
      יום ראשון
      Minggu Ahad اتوار itwar ஞாயிற்றுக்கிழமை
      nayiru
      ఆదివారం
      Aadivaaram
      A'ath'war
      2 al-Ithnayn
      الاثنين
      (second day)
      Monday It-Tnejn Pazartesi Isniin Do-Shanbeh
      دوشنبه
      Do-Shamba / Pîr
      پير
      Somvaar
      सोमवार
      തിങ്കള്‍
      thiṅkal
      Shombar
      সোমবার
      Somavaara
      ಸೋಮವಾರ
      Yom Sheni
      יום שני
      Senin Isnin گل gul திங்கட்கிழமை
      thingal
      సోమవారం
      Somavaaram
      Chender'r'war
      3 ath-Thalaathaaʼ
      الثلاثاء
      (third day)
      Tuesday It-Tlieta Salı Talaado Seh-Shanbeh
      سه شنبه
      Teen-Shamba / Mangal
      منگل
      Mangalvaar
      मंगलवार
      ചൊവ്വ
      chovva
      Monggolbar
      মঙ্গলবার
      Mangalavaara
      ಮಂಗಳವಾರ
      Yom Shlishi
      יום שלישי
      Selasa Selasa نھہ nahia செவ்வாய்க்கிழமை
      sevvai
      మంగళవారం
      Mangalavaaram
      Bo'um'war
      4 al-Arba'aa'
      الأربعاء
      (fourth day)
      Wednesday L-Erbgħa Çarşamba Arboco Chahar-Shanbeh
      چهارشنبه
      Chaar-Shamba / Budh
      بده
      Budhvaar
      बुधवार
      ബുധന്‍
      budhan
      Budhbar
      বুধবার
      Budhavaara
      ಬುಧವಾರ
      Yom Revi'i
      יום רבעי
      Rabu Rabu شورو shoro புதன்கிழமை
      buthan
      బుధవారం
      Budhavaaram
      Bo'dh'war
      5 al-Khamīs
      الخميس
      (fifth day)
      Thursday Il-Ħamis Perşembe Khamiis Panj-Shanbeh
      پنجشنبه
      Panj-Shamba / Jumey'raat / Beefay
      جمعرات
      Guruvaar / Brahaspativaar
      गुरुवार
      വ്യാഴം
      vyazham
      Brihôshpotibar
      বৃহস্পতিবার
      Guruvaara
      ಗುರುವಾರ
      Yom Khamishi
      יום חמישי
      Kamis Khamis زیارت ziyarat வியாழக்கிழமை
      viyalan
      గురువారం
      Guruvaaram
      Bres'war
      6 al-Jumu'ah
      Jumu'ah
      Jumu'ah is a congregational prayer that Muslims hold every Friday, just after noon in lieu of dhuhr...

       
      الجمعة
      (gathering day)
      Friday Il-Ġimgħa Cuma Jimco Jom'e / Adineh
      جمعه / آدينه
      Juma'h
      جمعہ
      Shukravaar
      शुक्रवार
      വെള്ളി
      veḷḷi
      Shukrobar
      শুক্রবার
      Shukravaara
      ಶುಕ್ರವಾರ
      Yom Shishi
      יום ששי
      Jumat Jumaat جمعه juma வெள்ளிக்கிழமை
      velli
      శుక్రవారం
      Shukravaaram
      Jum'mah
      7 as-Sabt
      السبت
      (Sabbath
      Sabbath
      Sabbath in Christianity is a weekly day of rest or religious observance, derived from the Biblical Sabbath.Seventh-day Sabbath observance, i.e. resting from labor from Friday sunset to Saturday sunset, is practiced by seventh-day Sabbatarians...

       day)
      Saturday Is-Sibt Cumartesi Sabti Shanbeh
      شنبه
      Hafta / Sanichar
      سنیچر / ہفتہ
      Shanivaar
      शनिवार
      ശനി
      shani
      Shonibar
      শনিবার
      Shanivaara
      ಶನಿವಾರ
      Yom Shabbat
      Shabbat
      Shabbat is the seventh day of the Jewish week and a day of rest in Judaism. Shabbat is observed from a few minutes before sunset on Friday evening until a few minutes after when one would expect to be able to see three stars in the sky on Saturday night. The exact times, therefore, differ from...

       
      יום שבת
      Sabtu Sabtu خالی khali சனிக்கிழமை
      sani
      శనివారం
      Shanivaaram
      Butt'war

      Pre-Islamic calendar


      Some scholars, both Muslim and Western, think that the pre-Islamic
      Pre-Islamic Arabia
      Pre-Islamic Arabia refers to the Arabic civilization which existed in the Arabian Plate before the rise of Islam in the 630s. The study of Pre-Islamic Arabia is important to Islamic studies as it provides the context for the development of Islam.-Studies:...

       calendar of central Arabia
      Arabian Peninsula
      The Arabian Peninsula is a land mass situated north-east of Africa. Also known as Arabia or the Arabian subcontinent, it is the world's largest peninsula and covers 3,237,500 km2...

       was a purely lunar calendar similar to the modern Islamic calendar, differing only when the sanctity of the four holy months were postponed by one month from time to time.

      Other scholars, both Muslim and Western, concur that it was originally a lunar calendar, but about 200 years before the Hijra it was transformed into a lunisolar calendar
      Lunisolar calendar
      A lunisolar calendar is a calendar in many cultures whose date indicates both the moon phase and the time of the solar year. If the solar year is defined as a tropical year then a lunisolar calendar will give an indication of the season; if it is taken as a sidereal year then the calendar will...

       containing an intercalary month
      Intercalation
      Intercalation is the insertion of a leap day, week or month into some calendar years to make the calendar follow the seasons or moon phases. Lunisolar calendars may require intercalations of both days and months.- Solar calendars :...

       added from time to time to keep the pilgrimage within the season of the year when merchandise was most abundant for Bedouin
      Bedouin
      The Bedouin are a part of a predominantly desert-dwelling Arab ethnic group traditionally divided into tribes or clans, known in Arabic as ..-Etymology:...

       buyers. This intercalation was administered by the Nasa'a of the tribe Kinana, known as the Qalāmis, the plural of Qalammas, who learned of it from the Jews. The process was called Nasi or postponement because every third year the beginning of the year was postponed by one month. The intercalation doubled the month of the pilgrimage, that is, the month of the pilgrimage and the following month were given the same name, postponing the names and the sanctity of all subsequent months in the year by one. The first intercalation doubled the first month Muharram, then three years later the second month Safar was doubled, continuing until the intercalation had passed through all twelve months of the year and returned to Muharram, when it was repeated. Support for this view is provided by inscriptions from the south Arabian pre-Islamic kingdoms of Qataban
      Qataban
      Qataban was one of the ancient Yemeni kingdoms. Its heartland was located in the Baihan valley. Like some other Southern Arabian kingdoms it gained great wealth from the trade of frankincense and myrrh incense which were burned at altars...

       (Kataban) and Sheba
      Sheba
      Sheba was a kingdom mentioned in the Jewish scriptures and the Qur'an...

       (Saba) (both in modern Yemen
      Yemen
      The Republic of Yemen , commonly known as Yemen , is a country located in the Middle East, occupying the southwestern to southern end of the Arabian Peninsula. It is bordered by Saudi Arabia to the north, the Red Sea to the west, and Oman to the east....

      ), whose lunisolar calendars featured an intercalary month obtained by repeating a normal month.

      Prohibiting intercalated months


      In the tenth year of the Hijra, as documented in the Qur'an
      Qur'an
      The Quran , also transliterated Qur'an, Koran, Alcoran, Qur’ān, Coran, Kuran, and al-Qur’ān, is the central religious text of Islam, which Muslims consider the verbatim word of God . It is regarded widely as the finest piece of literature in the Arabic language...

       (sura 9
      At-Tawba
      Surah At-Tawbah also known as al-Bara'ah "the Ultimatum" in many hadith is the ninth chapter of the Qur'an, with 129 verses. It is one of the last Madinan Suras. It is the only Sura of the Qur'an that does not begin with the bismillah...

      :36–37), Muslims believe God
      God in Islam
      In Islamic theology, God is the all-powerful and all-knowing creator, sustainer, ordainer, and judge of the universe. Islam puts a heavy emphasis on the conceptualization of God as strictly singular . God is unique and inherently One , all-merciful and omnipotent. According to the Islamic...

       (Allah
      Allah
      Allah is a word for God used in the context of Islam. In Arabic, the word means simply "God". It is used primarily by Muslims and Bahá'ís, and often, albeit not exclusively, used by Arabic-speaking Eastern Catholic Christians, Maltese Roman Catholics, Eastern Orthodox Christians, Mizrahi Jews and...

      ) revealed the "prohibition of the Nasi".
      {{Quote|The number of months with Allah has been twelve months by Allah's ordinance since the day He created the heavens and the earth. Of these four are known as forbidden [to fight in]; That is the straight usage, so do not wrong yourselves therein, and fight those who go astray. But know that Allah is with those who restrain themselves.
      Verily the transposing (of a prohibited month) is an addition to Unbelief: The Unbelievers
      Kafir
      Kafir is an Arabic term used in a Islamic doctrinal sense, usually translated as "unbeliever" or "disbeliever"...

       are led to wrong thereby: for they make it lawful one year, and forbidden another year, of months forbidden by Allah and make such forbidden ones lawful. The evil of their course seems pleasing to them. But Allah guideth not those who reject Faith.|Sura
      Sura
      A sura is a division of the Qur'an, often referred to as a chapter. The term chapter is sometimes avoided, as the suras are of unequal length; the shortest sura has only three ayat while the longest contains 286 ayat...

       9 (At-Tawba), ayat
      Ayah
      Ayah or Aayah is the Arabic word for sign or proof:"These are the Ayat of Allah, which We recite to you with truth...

       36-37}}

      The prohibition of Nasi would presumably have been announced when the intercalated month had returned to its position just before the month of Nasi
      Nasi (month)
      Nasi in Arabic was the original first month of the year in the Islamic calendar. On the tenth of Nasi they used to take a lamb out of the flocks to slaughter on the 14th...

       began. If Nasi meant intercalation, then the number and the position of the intercalary months between 1 AH and 10 AH are uncertain; Western calendar dates commonly cited for key events in early Islam such as the Hijra, the Battle of Badr
      Battle of Badr
      The Battle of Badr , fought Saturday, March 13, 624 AD in the Hejaz region of western Arabia , was a key battle in the early days of Islam and a turning point in Muhammad's struggle with his opponents among the Quraish in Mecca...

      , the Battle of Uhud
      Battle of Uhud
      The Battle of Uhud was fought on March 19, 625 at the valley located in front of Mount Uhud, in what is now northwestern Arabia. It occurred between a force from the Muslim community of Medina led by the Islamic prophet Muhammad, and a force led by Abu Sufyan ibn Harb from Mecca, the town from...

       and the Battle of the Trench
      Battle of the Trench
      The Battle of the Trench also known as Battle of Ahzab, Battle of the Confederates and Siege of Medina , was a fortnight-long siege of Yathrib by Arab and Jewish tribes. The strength of the confederate armies is estimated around 10,000 men with six hundred horses and some camels, while the...

      , should be viewed with caution as they might be in error by one, two or even three lunar months.

      This prohibition was repeated by Muhammad during the farewell sermon
      The Farewell Sermon
      The Farewell Sermon , also known as Muhammad's Final Sermon or The Last Sermon, was delivered by Muhammad on the 9th Dhu al-Hijjah, 10 AH in the Uranah valley of Mount Arafat The Farewell Sermon , also known as Muhammad's Final Sermon or The Last Sermon, was delivered by Muhammad on the 9th...

       which was delivered on 9 Dhu al-Hijja 10 AH on Mount Arafat
      Mount Arafat
      Mount Arafat or Mount Arafah is a granite hill east of Mecca. It is also known as the Mount of Mercy . The hill is the place Muslims believe the Islamic prophet Muhammad stood and delivered the Farewell Sermon to the Muslims who had accompanied him for the Hajj towards the end of his life...

       during the farewell pilgrimage
      The Farewell Pilgrimage
      The Farewell Pilgrimage was the last and only Hajj pilgrimage the Islamic prophet Muhammad participated in, in 632 CE .-Preparations:...

       to Mecca.

      {{quote|Certainly the Nasi is an impious addition, which has led the infidels into error. One year they authorise the Nasi, another year they forbid it. They observe the divine precept with respect to the number of the sacred months, but in fact they profane that which God has declared to be inviolable, and sanctify that which God has declared to be profane. Assuredly time, in its revolution, has returned to such as it was at the creation of the heavens and the earth. In the eyes of God the number of the months is twelve. Among these twelve months four are sacred, namely, Rajab, which stands alone, and three others which are consecutive.|translated by Sherrard Beaumont Burnaby}}

      The three successive forbidden months mentioned by Muhammad (months in which battles are forbidden) are Dhu al-Qi'dah
      Dhu al-Qi'dah
      Dhu al-Qa'dah, Dhu'l-Qadah, or Dhu al-Qi'dah is the eleventh month in the Islamic calendar. It is one of the four sacred months in Islam during which warfare is prohibited, hence the name ‘Master of Truce’.- Timing :...

      , Dhu al-Hijjah
      Dhu al-Hijjah
      Dhu al-Ḥijjah is the twelfth and final month in the Islamic calendar.This is a very sacred month in the Islamic calendar, marking the end of the year. It is in this month in which the Hajj takes place....

      , and Muharram
      Muharram
      Muharram is the first month of the Islamic calendar. It is one of the four sacred months of the year in which fighting is prohibited...

      , months 11, 12, and 1. The single forbidden month is Rajab
      Rajab
      Rajab is the seventh month of the Islamic calendar. The lexical definition of Rajaba is "to respect", of which Rajab is a derivative.This month is regarded as one of the four sacred months in Islam in which battles are prohibited...

      , month 7. These months were considered forbidden both within the new Islamic calendar and within the old pagan Meccan calendar, although whether they maintained their "forbidden" status after the conquest of Mecca has been disputed among Islamic scholars.{{Citation needed|date=January 2008}}

      The prohibition on the Nasi has not affected the creation of new purely solar calendar
      Solar calendar
      A solar calendar is a calendar whose dates indicate the position of the earth on its revolution around the sun .-Tropical solar calendars:...

      s in the Muslim world
      Muslim world
      The term Muslim world has several meanings. In a religious sense, it refers to those who adhere to the teachings of Islam, referred to as Muslims. In a cultural sense, it refers to Islamic civilization, inclusive of non-Muslims living in that civilization...

      ; the modern Iranian calendar is a solar calendar dated from the Hijra, with eight intercalated leap days in a 33-year cycle.
      An illustration of Al-Bīrūnī's The Remaining Signs of Past Centuries
      The Remaining Signs of Past Centuries
      The Remaining Signs of Past Centuries also known as Chronology of Ancient Nations or Vestiges of the Past, after the translation published by Eduard Sachau in 1879) by Abū Rayhān al-Bīrūnī, is a comparative study of calendars of different cultures and civilizations, interlaced with mathematical,...

      (17th century copy of an early 14th century Ilkhanid
      Ilkhanate
      The Ilkhanate, also spelled Il-khanate , was a Mongol khanate established in Azerbaijan and Persia in the 13th century, considered a part of the Mongol Empire...

       manuscript). may be seen here::File:Maome.jpg.

      Numbering the years


      In pre-Islamic Arabia, it was customary to identify a year after a major event which took place in it. Thus, according to Islamic tradition, Abraha
      Abraha
      Abraha also known as Abraha al-Ashram or Abraha b...

      , governor of Yemen, then a province of the Christian
      Christianity
      Christianity is a monotheistic religion based on the life and teachings of Jesus as presented in canonical gospels and other New Testament writings...

       Kingdom of Aksum
      Aksumite Empire
      The Kingdom of Aksum or Axum, also known as the Aksumite Empire, was an important trading nation in northeastern Africa, growing from the proto-Aksumite Iron Age period ca. 4th century BC to achieve prominence by the 1st century AD...

       (Ethiopia
      Ethiopia
      Ethiopia , officially known as the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia, is a country located in the Horn of Africa. It is the second-most populous nation in Africa, with over 82 million inhabitants, and the tenth-largest by area, occupying 1,100,000 km2...

      ), attempted to destroy the Kaaba
      Kaaba
      The Kaaba is a cuboid-shaped building in Mecca, Saudi Arabia, and is the most sacred site in Islam. The Qur'an states that the Kaaba was constructed by Abraham, or Ibraheem, in Arabic, and his son Ishmael, or Ismaeel, as said in Arabic, after he had settled in Arabia. The building has a mosque...

       with an army which included several elephant
      Elephant
      Elephants are large land mammals in two extant genera of the family Elephantidae: Elephas and Loxodonta, with the third genus Mammuthus extinct...

      s. The raid was unsuccessful, but that year became known as the Year of the Elephant
      Year of the Elephant
      The Year of the Elephant is the name in Islamic history for the year approximately equating to 570 AD. According to Islamic tradition, it was in this year that Muhammad was born...

      , during which Muhammad was born (sura al-Fil). Most equate this to the year 570 CE, but a minority use 571 CE.

      The first ten years of the Hijra were not numbered, but were named after events in the life of Muhammad according to Abū Rayḥān al-Bīrūnī:
      1. The year of permission.
      2. The year of the order of fighting.
      3. The year of the trial.
      4. The year of congratulation on marriage.
      5. The year of the earthquake.
      6. The year of enquiring.
      7. The year of gaining victory.
      8. The year of equality.
      9. The year of exemption.
      10. The year of farewell.


      In 638 CE (17 AH), Abu Musa Ashaari, one of the officials of the Caliph
      Caliph
      The Caliph is the head of state in a Caliphate, and the title for the ruler of the Islamic Ummah, an Islamic community ruled by the Shari'ah. It is a transcribed version of the Arabic word   which means "successor" or "representative"...

       Umar
      Umar
      `Umar ibn al-Khattāb c. 2 November , was a leading companion and adviser to the Islamic prophet Muhammad who later became the second Muslim Caliph after Muhammad's death....

       in Basra
      Basra
      Basra is the capital of Basra Governorate, in southern Iraq near Kuwait and Iran. It had an estimated population of two million as of 2009...

      h, complained about the absence of any years on the correspondence he received from Umar, making it difficult for him to determine which instructions were most recent. This report convinced Umar of the need to introduce an era for Muslims. After debating the issue with his counsellors, he decided that the first year should include the date of Muhammad's arrival at Medina (known as Yathrib, before Muhammad's arrival). Uthman ibn Affan then suggested that the months begin with Muharram, in line with the established custom of the Arabs at that time. The years of the Islamic calendar thus began with the month of Muharram in the year of Muhammad's arrival at the city of Medina, even though the actual emigration took place in Safar and Rabi' I. Because of the Hijra, the calendar was named the Hijra calendar.

      The first day of the first month of the Islamic calendar (1 Muharram 1 AH) was Friday, 16 July 622 CE, the equivalent civil tabular date (same daylight period) in the Julian calendar
      Julian calendar
      The Julian calendar began in 45 BC as a reform of the Roman calendar by Julius Caesar. It was chosen after consultation with the astronomer Sosigenes of Alexandria and was probably designed to approximate the tropical year .The Julian calendar has a regular year of 365 days divided into 12 months...

      . The Islamic day began at the preceding sunset on the evening of 15 July. This Julian date (16 July) was determined by medieval Muslim astronomers by projecting back in time their own tabular Islamic calendar
      Tabular Islamic calendar
      The Tabular Islamic calendar is a rule-based variation of the Islamic calendar. It has the same numbering of years and months, but the months are determined by arithmetic rules rather than by observation or astronomical calculations...

      , which had alternating 30- and 29-day months in each lunar year plus eleven leap days every 30 years. For example, al-Biruni mentioned this Julian date in the year 1000 CE. Although not used by either medieval Muslim astronomers or modern scholars to determine the Islamic epoch, the thin crescent moon
      Lunar phase
      A lunar phase or phase of the moon is the appearance of the illuminated portion of the Moon as seen by an observer, usually on Earth. The lunar phases change cyclically as the Moon orbits the Earth, according to the changing relative positions of the Earth, Moon, and Sun...

       would have also first become visible (assuming clouds did not obscure it) shortly after the preceding sunset on the evening of 15 July, 1.5 days after the associated dark moon
      Dark moon
      A dark moon describes the Moon during that time that it is invisible against the backdrop of the Sun in the sky. The duration of a dark moon is between 1.5 and 3.5 days, depending on the orientation of the Earth and Sun....

       (astronomical new moon
      New moon
      In astronomical terminology, the new moon is the lunar phase that occurs when the Moon, in its monthly orbital motion around Earth, lies between Earth and the Sun, and is therefore in conjunction with the Sun as seen from Earth...

      ) on the morning of 14 July.

      Though Cook
      Michael Cook (historian)
      Michael Allan Cook is an English-Scottish historian and scholar of Islamic history. He has co-authored a book with Patricia Crone, notably Hagarism: The Making of the Islamic World....

       and Crone
      Patricia Crone
      Patricia Crone, Ph.D., is a scholar, author, Orientalist, and historian of early Islamic history working at the Institute for Advanced Study. She established herself as a major challenger to the established narrative of the early history of Islam.- Career :Patricia Crone completed her...

       in Hagarism: The Making of the Islamic World
      Hagarism: The Making of the Islamic World
      Hagarism: The Making of the Islamic World is a controversial, scholarly book on the early history of Islam written by the historians Patricia Crone and Michael Cook...

      cite a coin from 17 AH, the first surviving attested use of a Hijri calendar date alongside a date in another calendar (Coptic
      Coptic calendar
      The Coptic calendar, also called the Alexandrian calendar, is used by the Coptic Orthodox Church and still used in Egypt. This calendar is based on the ancient Egyptian calendar...

      ) is on a papyrus
      Papyrus
      Papyrus is a thick paper-like material produced from the pith of the papyrus plant, Cyperus papyrus, a wetland sedge that was once abundant in the Nile Delta of Egypt....

       from Egypt
      Egypt
      Egypt , officially the Arab Republic of Egypt, Arabic: , is a country mainly in North Africa, with the Sinai Peninsula forming a land bridge in Southwest Asia. Egypt is thus a transcontinental country, and a major power in Africa, the Mediterranean Basin, the Middle East and the Muslim world...

       in 22 AH, PERF 558
      PERF 558
      PERF 558 is the oldest surviving Arabic papyrus, and the oldest dated Arabic text from the Islamic era, dating from 22 AH and found in Heracleopolis in Egypt...

      .

      Astronomical considerations


      The Islamic calendar is not to be confused with a lunar calendar
      Lunar calendar
      A lunar calendar is a calendar that is based on cycles of the lunar phase. A common purely lunar calendar is the Islamic calendar or Hijri calendar. A feature of the Islamic calendar is that a year is always 12 months, so the months are not linked with the seasons and drift each solar year by 11 to...

       that is based on astronomical calculations. The latter is based on a year of 12 months adding up to 354.37 days. Each lunar month begins at the time of the monthly "conjunction", when the Moon is located on a straight line between the Earth and the Sun. The month is defined as the average duration of a rotation of the Moon around the Earth (29.53 days). By convention, months of 30 days and 29 days succeed each other, adding up over two successive months to 59 full days. This leaves only a small monthly variation of 44 minutes to account for, which adds up to a total of 24 hours (i.e. the equivalent of one full day) in 2.73 years. To settle accounts, it is sufficient to add one day every three years to the lunar calendar, in the same way that one adds one day to the Gregorian calendar, every four years. The technical details of the adjustment are described in Tabular Islamic calendar
      Tabular Islamic calendar
      The Tabular Islamic calendar is a rule-based variation of the Islamic calendar. It has the same numbering of years and months, but the months are determined by arithmetic rules rather than by observation or astronomical calculations...

      .

      The Islamic calendar, however, is based on a different set of conventions. Each month has either 29 or 30 days, but usually in no discernible order. Traditionally, the first day of each month is the day (beginning at sunset) of the first sighting of the hilal (crescent moon) shortly after sunset. If the hilal is not observed immediately after the 29th day of a month (either because clouds block its view or because the western sky is still too bright when the moon sets), then the day that begins at that sunset is the 30th. Such a sighting has to be made by one or more trustworthy men testifying before a committee of Muslim leaders. Determining the most likely day that the hilal could be observed was a motivation for Muslim interest in astronomy, which put Islam in the forefront of that science for many centuries.

      This traditional practice is still followed in the overwhelming majority of Muslim countries. Each Islamic state proceeds with its own monthly observation of the new moon (or, failing that, awaits the completion of 30 days) before declaring the beginning of a new month on its territory. But, the lunar crescent becomes visible only some 15–18 hours after the conjunction, and only subject to the existence of a number of favourable conditions relative to weather, time, geographic location, as well as various astronomical parameters. Given the fact that the moon sets progressively later than the sun as one goes west, western Muslim countries are likely to observe the new moon one day earlier than eastern Muslim countries. Due to the interplay of all these factors, the beginning of each month differs from one Muslim country to another, and the information provided by the calendar in any country does not extend beyond the current month.

      A number of Muslim countries try to overcome some of these difficulties by applying different astronomy-related rules to determine the beginning of months. Thus, Malaysia, Indonesia
      Indonesia
      Indonesia , officially the Republic of Indonesia , is a country in Southeast Asia and Oceania. Indonesia is an archipelago comprising approximately 13,000 islands. It has 33 provinces with over 238 million people, and is the world's fourth most populous country. Indonesia is a republic, with an...

      , and a few others begin each month at sunset on the first day that the moon sets after the sun (moonset after sunset). In Egypt, the month begins at sunset on the first day that the moon sets at least five minutes after the sun. A detailed analysis of the available data shows, however, that there are major discrepancies between what countries say they do on this subject, and what they actually do.

      Theological considerations


      If the Islamic calendar were prepared using astronomical calculations, Muslims throughout the Muslim world could use it to meet all their needs, the way they use the Gregorian calendar today. But, there are divergent views on whether it is licit to do so.

      A majority of theologians oppose the use of calculations on the grounds that the latter would not conform with Muhammad's recommendation to observe the new moon of Ramadan and Shawal in order to determine the beginning of these months.

      However, some jurists
      Ulama
      -In Islam:* Ulema, also transliterated "ulama", a community of legal scholars of Islam and its laws . See:**Nahdlatul Ulama **Darul-uloom Nadwatul Ulama **Jamiatul Ulama Transvaal**Jamiat ul-Ulama -Other:...

       see no contradiction between Muhammad's teachings and the use of calculations to determine the beginnings of lunar months. They consider that Muhammad's recommendation was adapted to the culture of the times, and should not be confused with the acts of worship.

      Thus, jurists Ahmad Muhammad Shakir and Yusuf al-Qaradawi
      Yusuf al-Qaradawi
      Yusuf al-Qaradawi is a controversial Egyptian Islamic theologian. He is best known for his programme, ash-Shariah wal-Hayat , broadcast on Al Jazeera, which has an estimated audience of 60 million worldwide...

       both endorsed the use of calculations to determine the beginning of all months of the Islamic calendar, in 1939 and 2004 respectively. So did the "Fiqh Council of North America
      Fiqh Council of North America
      The Fiqh Council of North America is an association of Muslims who interpret Islamic law on the North American continent.Its 18 members issue religious rulings, resolve disputes, and answer questions relating to the Islamic faith...

      " (FCNA) in 2006 and the "European Council for Fatwa and Research
      European Council for Fatwa and Research
      The European Council for Fatwa and Research is a Dublin-based private foundation, founded in London on 29 March - 30 March 1997 on the initiative of the Federation of Islamic Organisations in Europe...

      " (ECFR) in 2007. Fatimid Dawoodi Bohra
      Dawoodi Bohra
      Dawoodi Bohra is a subsect of Ismāʿīlī Shīʿa Islām. While the Dawoodi Bohra is based in India, their belief system originates in Yemen, where it evolved from the Fatimid Caliphate and where they were persecuted due to their differences from mainstream Sunni Islam...

       follows the tabular Islamic calendar (see section below) prepared on the basis of astronomical calculations from the days of Fatimid imam
      Imam
      An imam is an Islamic leadership position, often the worship leader of a mosque and the Muslim community. Similar to spiritual leaders, the imam is the one who leads Islamic worship services. More often, the community turns to the mosque imam if they have a religious question...

      s.

      Saudi Arabia's Umm al-Qura calendar


      Saudi Arabia
      Saudi Arabia
      The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia , commonly known in British English as Saudi Arabia and in Arabic as as-Sa‘ūdiyyah , is the largest state in Western Asia by land area, constituting the bulk of the Arabian Peninsula, and the second-largest in the Arab World...

       uses the sighting method to determine the beginning of each month of the Hijri calendar. Since AH 1419 (1998/99) several official hilal sighting committees have been set up by the government to determine the first visual sighting of the lunar crescent at the beginning of each lunar month. Nevertheless, the religious authorities also allow the testimony of less experienced observers and thus often announce the sighting of the lunar crescent on a date when none of the official committees could see it.

      The country also uses the Umm al-Qura calendar, based on astronomical calculations, but this is restricted to administrative purposes. The parameters used in the establishment of this calendar underwent significant changes over the past decade.

      Before AH 1420 (before 18 April 1999), if the moon's age at sunset in Riyadh
      Riyadh
      Riyadh is the capital and largest city of Saudi Arabia. It is also the capital of Riyadh Province, and belongs to the historical regions of Najd and Al-Yamama. It is situated in the center of the Arabian Peninsula on a large plateau, and is home to 5,254,560 people, and the urban center of a...

       was at least 12 hours, then the day ending at that sunset was the first day of the month. This often caused the Saudis to celebrate holy days one or even two days before other predominantly Muslim countries, including the dates for the Hajj, which can only be dated using Saudi dates because it is performed in Mecca.

      For AH 1420–22, if moonset occurred after sunset at Mecca, then the day beginning at that sunset was the first day of a Saudi month, essentially the same rule used by Malaysia, Indonesia, and others (except for the location from which the hilal was observed).

      Since the beginning of AH 1423 (16 March 2002), the rule has been clarified a little by requiring the geocentric conjunction of the sun and moon to occur before sunset, in addition to requiring moonset to occur after sunset at Mecca. This ensures that the moon has moved past the sun by sunset, even though the sky may still be too bright immediately before moonset to actually see the crescent.

      In 2007, the Islamic Society of North America
      Islamic Society of North America
      The Islamic Society of North America , based in Plainfield, Indiana, USA, is a Muslim umbrella group. It has been described in the media as the largest Muslim organization in North America.-History:...

      , the Fiqh Council of North America and the European Council for Fatwa and Research announced that they will henceforth use a calendar based on calculations, using the same parameters as the Umm al-Qura calendar, to determine (well in advance) the beginning of all lunar months (and therefore the days associated with all religious observances). This was intended as a first step on the way to unify Muslims' calendars throughout the world, in some future time. But, despite this stated objective, they will continue to differ, on this point, from Saudi Arabia's officially stated, but hard to verify policy of relying exclusively on sighting to determine the dates of religious observances.

      Other calendars using the Islamic era


      The Solar Hejri is a solar calendar used in Iran and Afghanistan which counts its years from the Hijra
      Hijra (Islam)
      The Hijra is the migration or journey of the Islamic prophet Muhammad and his followers from Mecca to Medina in 622 CE. Alternate spellings of this Arabic word are Hijrah, Hijrat or Hegira, the latter following the spelling rules of Latin.- Hijra of Muhammad :In September 622, warned of a plot to...

       or migration of Muhammad from Mecca to Medina in 622 CE.

      Tabular Islamic calendar


      {{Main|Tabular Islamic calendar}}
      There exists a variation of the Islamic calendar known as the tabular Islamic calendar in which months are worked out by arithmetic rules rather than by observation or astronomical calculation. It has a 30-year cycle with 11 leap year
      Leap year
      A leap year is a year containing one extra day in order to keep the calendar year synchronized with the astronomical or seasonal year...

      s of 355 days and 19 years of 354 days. In the long term, it is accurate to one day in about 2500 years. It also deviates up to about one or two days in the short term.This calendar is a type of Fatimid calendar and followed by the Dawoodi Bohra in true sense.

      Kuwaiti algorithm


      {{Main|Kuwaiti algorithm}}
      Microsoft
      Microsoft
      Microsoft Corporation is an American public multinational corporation headquartered in Redmond, Washington, USA that develops, manufactures, licenses, and supports a wide range of products and services predominantly related to computing through its various product divisions...

       uses the "Kuwaiti algorithm", a variant of the tabular Islamic calendar, to convert Gregorian dates to the Islamic ones. Microsoft claims that the variant is based on a statistical analysis of historical data from Kuwait
      Kuwait
      The State of Kuwait is a sovereign Arab state situated in the north-east of the Arabian Peninsula in Western Asia. It is bordered by Saudi Arabia to the south at Khafji, and Iraq to the north at Basra. It lies on the north-western shore of the Persian Gulf. The name Kuwait is derived from the...

      .

      Notable dates


      {{Main|Muslim holidays}}
      Important dates in the Islamic (Hijri) year are:
      • 1 Muharram (Islamic New Year)
      • 10 Muharram (Day of Ashura
        Day of Ashura
        The Day of Ashura is on the 10th day of Muharram in the Islamic calendar and marks the climax of the Remembrance of Muharram.It is commemorated by Shia Muslims as a day of mourning for the martyrdom of Husayn ibn Ali, the grandson of the Islamic Prophet Muhammad at the Battle of Karbala on 10...

        ) For Sunni Muslim
        Sunni Islam
        Sunni Islam is the largest branch of Islam. Sunni Muslims are referred to in Arabic as ʾAhl ūs-Sunnah wa āl-Ǧamāʿah or ʾAhl ūs-Sunnah for short; in English, they are known as Sunni Muslims, Sunnis or Sunnites....

        s, the crossing of the Red Sea
        Red Sea
        The Red Sea is a seawater inlet of the Indian Ocean, lying between Africa and Asia. The connection to the ocean is in the south through the Bab el Mandeb strait and the Gulf of Aden. In the north, there is the Sinai Peninsula, the Gulf of Aqaba, and the Gulf of Suez...

         by Moses
        Moses
        Moses was, according to the Hebrew Bible and Qur'an, a religious leader, lawgiver and prophet, to whom the authorship of the Torah is traditionally attributed...

         (Musa
        Islamic view of Moses
        Musa , known as Moses in the Old Testament, is considered an Islamic prophet, messenger, lawgiver and leader in Islam. Moses is mentioned more in the Quran than any other individual, and his life is narrated and recounted more than that any other prophet...

        ). For Shia Muslims, the martyrdom of Husayn ibn Ali
        Husayn ibn Ali
        Hussein ibn ‘Alī ibn Abī Ṭālib ‎ was the son of ‘Alī ibn Abī Ṭālib and Fātimah Zahrā...

        , the grandson of Muhammad, and his followers. Both are recognized by all Muslims.
      • 12 Rabi al Awal (Mawlid an Nabi
        Mawlid
        Mawlid or sometimes ميلاد , mīlād is a term used to refer to the observance of the birthday of the Islamic prophet Muhammad which occurs in Rabi' al-awwal,...

         for some Sunni Muslims and Some Shia)
      • 17 Rabi al Awal (Mawlid an Nabi for Shia Muslims Twelvers)
      • 13 Rajab (Birthday of Ali
        Ali
        ' |Ramaḍān]], 40 AH; approximately October 23, 598 or 600 or March 17, 599 – January 27, 661).His father's name was Abu Talib. Ali was also the cousin and son-in-law of the Islamic prophet Muhammad, and ruled over the Islamic Caliphate from 656 to 661, and was the first male convert to Islam...

         (Ali ibn Abi Talib).)
      • 27 Rajab (Isra and Mi'raj
        Isra and Mi'raj
        The Isra and Mi'raj , are the two parts of a Night Journey that, according to Islamic tradition, the Islamic prophet Muhammad took during a single night around the year 621. It has been described as both a physical and spiritual journey...

        )
      • 15 Sha'ban (Mid-Sha'ban
        Mid-Sha'ban
        Mid-Sha'ban is thereceding night is known as Laylatul Bara’ah or Laylatun Nisfe min Sha’ban in the Arab world, and as Shab-e-barat in India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Iran and Afghanistan...

        , or Night of Forgiveness), and the birthday of Muhammad al-Mahdi
        Muhammad al-Mahdi
        Muḥammad ibn al-Ḥasan al-Mahdī is believed by Twelver Shī‘a Muslims to be the Mahdī, an ultimate savior of humankind and the final Imām of the Twelve Imams...

         (The Twelfth Imam)
      • 1 Ramadan (first day of fasting)
      • 21 Ramadan Ali ibn Abi Talib's martyrdom.
      • 27 Ramadan (Nuzul Al-Qur'an) (17 Ramadan in Indonesia and Malaysia)
      • Last third of Ramadan which includes Laylat al-Qadr
        Laylat al-Qadr
        Lailatul Qadr , the Night of Destiny, Night of Power, Night of Value, the Night of Decree or Night of Measures, is the anniversary of two very important dates in Islam that occurred in the month of Ramadan...

      • 1 Shawwal (Eid ul-Fitr
        Eid ul-Fitr
        Eid ul-Fitr, Eid al-Fitr, Id-ul-Fitr, or Id al-Fitr , often abbreviated to Eid, is a Muslim holiday that marks the end of Ramadan, the Islamic holy month of fasting . Eid is an Arabic word meaning "festivity," while Fiṭr means "breaking the fast"...

        )
      • 8-13 Dhu al-Hijjah (the Hajj to Mecca)
      • 9 Dhu al-Hijjah (Day of Arafa)
      • 10 Dhu al-Hijjah (Eid al-Adha)

      Convert Hijri to civil date or civil to Hijri date


      Conversions may be done online (see list of programmes at the bottom of this page), using the Tabular Islamic calendar (see section above) or, most accurately, through the Jewish calendar, which is accurate to one day in 15,186 years. Theoretically, the days of the months correspond in both calendars if the displacements which are a feature of the Jewish system are ignored. The table below gives, for nineteen years, the Muslim month which corresponds to the first Jewish month.
      Year AD Year AH Muslim month Year AD Year AH Muslim month
      2011 1432 5 2021 1442 8
      2012 1433 5 2022 1443 9
      2013 1434 5 2023 1444 9
      2014 1435 6 2024 1445 10
      2015 1436 6 2025 1446 10
      2016 1437 7 2026 1447 10
      2017 1438 7 2027 1448 11
      2018 1439 7 2028 1449 11
      2019 1440 8 2029 1450 11
      2020 1441 8


      This table may be extended since every nineteen years the Muslim month number increases by seven. When it goes above twelve, subtract twelve and add one to the year AH. From AD412 to AD632 inclusive the month number is 1 and the calculation gives the month correct to a month or so. AD622 corresponds to BH1 and AH1. For earlier years, year BH = (623 or 622) - year AD).

      An example calculation: What is the civil date and year AH of the first day of the first month in the year AD20875?

      We first find the Muslim month number corresponding to the first month of the Jewish year which begins in AD20874. Dividing 20874 by 19 gives quotient 1098 and remainder 12. Dividing 2026 by 19 gives quotient 106 and remainder 12. The two years are therefore (1098-106)=992x19 years apart. The Muslim month number corresponding to the first Jewish month is therefore (992x7)=6944 higher than in 2026. To convert into years and months divide by twelve - 6944/12=578 years and 8 months. Adding, we get 1447y 10m + 20874y - 2026y + 578y 8m = 20874y 6m. Therefore, the first month of the Jewish year beginning in AD20874 corresponds to the sixth month of the Muslim year AH20874. The worked example in Hebrew calendar#Conversion between Jewish and civil dates shows that the civil date of the first day of this month (ignoring the displacements) is Friday, 14 June. The year AH20875 will therefore begin seven months later, on the first day of the eighth Jewish month, which the worked example shows to be 7 January, AD20875 (again ignoring the displacements). The date given by this method, being calculated, may differ by a day from the actual date, which is determined by observation.

      A reading of the section which follows will show that the year AH20875 is wholly contained within the year AD20875, also that in the Gregorian calendar this correspondence will occur one year earlier. The reason for the discrepancy is that the Gregorian year (like the Julian) is slightly too long, so the Gregorian date for a given AH date will be earlier and the Muslim calendar catches up sooner.

      Current correlations


      An Islamic year will be entirely within a Gregorian year of the same number in the year 20874, after which year the number of the Islamic year will always be greater than the number of the concurrent civil year. The Islamic calendar year of 1429 occurred entirely within the civil calendar year of 2008. Such years occur once every 33 or 34 Islamic years (32 or 33 civil years). More are listed here:
      Islamic year within civil year
      Islamic Civil Difference
      1060 1650 590
      1093 1682 589
      1127 1715 588
      1161 1748 587
      1194 1780 586
      1228 1813 585
      1261 1845 584
      1295 1878 583
      1329 1911 582
      1362 1943 581
      1396 1976 580
      1429 2008 579
      1463 2041 578
      1496 2073 577
      1530 2106 576
      1564 2139 575


      Because a hijri or Islamic lunar year is between 10 and 12 days shorter than a civil year, it begins 10–12 days earlier in the civil year following the civil year in which the previous hijri year began. Once every 33 or 34 hijri years, or once every 32 or 33 civil years, the beginning of a hijri year (1 Muharram) coincides with one of the first ten days of January. Subsequent hijri New Years move backward through the civil year back to the beginning of January again, passing through each civil month from December to January.

      Uses


      The Islamic calendar is now used primarily for religious purposes, and for official dating of public events and documents in Muslim countries. Because of its nature as a purely lunar calendar, it cannot be used for agricultural purposes and historically Islamic communities have used other calendars for this purpose: the Egyptian calendar
      Egyptian calendar
      The ancient civil Egyptian calendar had a year that was 360 days long and was divided into 12 months of 30 days each, plus five extra days at the end of the year. The months were divided into three weeks of ten days each...

       was formerly widespread in Islamic countries, and the Iranian calendar and the 1789 Ottoman calendar
      Rumi calendar
      This is about the solar Ottoman calendar based on the Julian calendar. For the lunar Hijri calendar see Islamic calendar.The Rumi calendar , a specific calendar based on the Julian calendar but starting with the year of Muhammad's emigration in 622 AD, was officially used by the Ottoman Empire...

       (a modified Julian calendar) were also used for agriculture in their countries. In Morocco
      Morocco
      Morocco , officially the Kingdom of Morocco , is a country located in North Africa. It has a population of more than 32 million and an area of 710,850 km², and also primarily administers the disputed region of the Western Sahara...

      , the Berber calendar
      Berber calendar
      The Berber calendar is the agricultural calendar that is traditionally used in North Africa regions. It is also known in Arabic as the fellāḥī "rustic" or ʿajamī "foreign" calendar...

       (another Julian calendar) is still used by farmers in the countryside. These local solar calendars have receded in importance with the near-universal adoption of the Gregorian calendar for civil purposes. As noted above, Saudi Arabia uses the Islamic calendar to date religious occasions such as Ramadan, Hajj, etc. and the Umm-al-Qura calendar, based on calculations, for administrative purposes and daily government business. In Indonesia, the Javanese calendar
      Javanese calendar
      The Javanese calendar is the calendar of the Javanese people. It is used concurrently with two other calendars, the Gregorian calendar and the Islamic calendar...

      , created by Sultan Agung
      Sultan Agung of Mataram
      Sultan Agung of Mataram or Sultan Agung Anyokrokusumo or Sultan Agung Hanyokrokusumo was the Sultan of Mataram from 1613-1645...

       in 1633, combines elements of the Islamic and pre-Islamic Saka
      Indian national calendar
      The Indian national calendar is the official civil calendar in use in India. It is used, alongside the Gregorian calendar, by The Gazette of India, news broadcasts by All India Radio, and calendars and communications issued by the Government of India.The term may also ambiguously refer to the...

       calendars.

      British author Nicholas Hagger writes that after seizing control of Libya
      Libya
      Libya is an African country in the Maghreb region of North Africa bordered by the Mediterranean Sea to the north, Egypt to the east, Sudan to the southeast, Chad and Niger to the south, and Algeria and Tunisia to the west....

      , Muammar Gaddafi
      Muammar Gaddafi
      Muammar Muhammad Abu Minyar Gaddafi or "September 1942" 20 October 2011), commonly known as Muammar Gaddafi or Colonel Gaddafi, was the official ruler of the Libyan Arab Republic from 1969 to 1977 and then the "Brother Leader" of the Libyan Arab Jamahiriya from 1977 to 2011.He seized power in a...

       "declared" on 1 December 1978 "that the Muslim calendar should start with the death of the prophet Mohammed in 632 rather than the hijra (Mohammed's 'emigration' from Mecca to Medina) in 622". This put the country ten solar years behind the standard Muslim calendar. However, according to the Encyclopedia of the Developing World in 2006, "More confusing still is Qaddafi's unique Libyan calendar, which counts the years from the Prophet's birth, or sometimes from his death. The months July and August, named after Julius
      Julius Caesar
      Gaius Julius Caesar was a Roman general and statesman and a distinguished writer of Latin prose. He played a critical role in the gradual transformation of the Roman Republic into the Roman Empire....

       and Augustus
      Augustus
      Augustus ;23 September 63 BC – 19 August AD 14) is considered the first emperor of the Roman Empire, which he ruled alone from 27 BC until his death in 14 AD.The dates of his rule are contemporary dates; Augustus lived under two calendars, the Roman Republican until 45 BC, and the Julian...

       Caesar, are now Nasser
      Gamal Abdel Nasser
      Gamal Abdel Nasser Hussein was the second President of Egypt from 1956 until his death. A colonel in the Egyptian army, Nasser led the Egyptian Revolution of 1952 along with Muhammad Naguib, the first president, which overthrew the monarchy of Egypt and Sudan, and heralded a new period of...

       and Hannibal respectively." Reflecting on a 2001 visit to the country, American reporter Neil MacFarquhar
      Neil MacFarquhar
      Neil Graham MacFarquhar has been the United Nations bureau chief of The New York Times since June 2008. From November 2006 to May 2008, he was a national correspondent, based in San Francisco, for the Times...

      observed, "Life in Libya was so unpredictable that people weren't even sure what year it was. The year of my visit was officially 1369. But just two years earlier Libyans had been living through 1429. No one could quite name for me the day the count changed, especially since both remained in play. ... Event organizers threw up their hands and put the Western year in parentheses somewhere in their announcements."

      External links



      Calendar date converters


      {{Time Topics}}
      {{Islamic astronomy}}
      {{Islam topics|state=collapsed}}
      {{Time measurement and standards}}
      {{calendars}}
      {{Chronology}}
      {{Time in religion and mythology}}

      {{Use dmy dates|date=February 2011}}

      {{DEFAULTSORT:Islamic Calendar}}