Islamic State of Iraq

Islamic State of Iraq

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The Islamic State of Iraq (ISI, ), is an umbrella organization of a number Iraqi insurgency
Iraqi insurgency
The Iraqi Resistance is composed of a diverse mix of militias, foreign fighters, all-Iraqi units or mixtures opposing the United States-led multinational force in Iraq and the post-2003 Iraqi government...

 groups established on October 15 2006.
The group is composed of and supported by a variety of insurgency groups, including its predecessor, the Mujahideen Shura Council, Al-Qaeda
Al-Qaeda in Iraq
Al-Qaeda in Iraq is a popular name for the Iraqi division of the international Salafi jihadi militant organization al-Qaeda. It is recognized as a part of the greater Iraqi insurgency....

, Jeish al-Fatiheen, Jund al-Sahaba, Katbiyan Ansar Al-Tawhid wal Sunnah, Jeish al-Taiifa al-Mansoura
Jeish al-Taiifa al-Mansoura
Jeish al-Taiifa al-Mansoura is a militant Sunni group known to take part in the Iraqi insurgency. The group was founded by Sheikh Abu Omar al-Ansari....

, etc, and other clans whose population is of Sunni faith.
It aims to establish a caliphate
Caliphate
The term caliphate, "dominion of a caliph " , refers to the first system of government established in Islam and represented the political unity of the Muslim Ummah...

 in the Sunni dominated regions of Iraq
Iraq
Iraq ; officially the Republic of Iraq is a country in Western Asia spanning most of the northwestern end of the Zagros mountain range, the eastern part of the Syrian Desert and the northern part of the Arabian Desert....

.

It claims a presence in the governorates of Baghdad, Al Anbar, Diyala, Kirkuk, Salah ad Din, Ninawa, and parts of Babil and Wasit, etc. It initially claimed Baqubah
Baqubah
Baqubah is the capital of Iraq's Diyala Governorate.The city is located some to the northeast of Baghdad, on the Diyala River. In 2003 it had an estimated population of some 467,900 people....

 as its capital.

2007 events


Between late 2006 and May 2007, the ISI brought the Dora
Dora (Baghdad)
Dora is a neighborhood in Al Rashid administrative district, southern Baghdad, Iraq. Although this was a majority Christian neighborhood, it became controlled by Sunni Muslim Extremists during the Iraq War...

 neighborhood of southern Baghdad under its control. Numerous Christian
Christian
A Christian is a person who adheres to Christianity, an Abrahamic, monotheistic religion based on the life and teachings of Jesus of Nazareth as recorded in the Canonical gospels and the letters of the New Testament...

 families left, unwilling to pay the Jizya
Jizya
Under Islamic law, jizya or jizyah is a per capita tax levied on a section of an Islamic state's non-Muslim citizens, who meet certain criteria...

 tax. US efforts to drive out the ISI presence stalled in late June, 2007, despite the walling-off of streets and the use of biometric identification technology. By November 2007 the ISI had been removed from Dora, and Assyrian churches could be re-opened.

March


The Interior Ministry of Iraq said that Al-Abu Omar al-Baghdadi was captured in Baghdad
Baghdad
Baghdad is the capital of Iraq, as well as the coterminous Baghdad Governorate. The population of Baghdad in 2011 is approximately 7,216,040...

 on March 9, 2007,
but it was later said that the person in question was not Al-Baghdadi.

April


On April 19, 2007, the organization announced that it had set up a provisional government termed "the first Islamic administration" of post-invasion Iraq. The "emirate
Emirate
An emirate is a political territory that is ruled by a dynastic Muslim monarch styled emir.-Etymology:Etymologically emirate or amirate is the quality, dignity, office or territorial competence of any emir ....

" was stated to be headed by Abu Omar al-Baghdadi and his "cabinet" of 10 "ministers":
Name (English transliteration) and notable pseudonyms Arabic name Post Notes
Abu Omar al-Baghdadi
(Deceased April 18, 2010) Abu Bakr al-Baghdadi al-Husseini al-Qurashi 
Emir
Emir
Emir , meaning "commander", "general", or "prince"; also transliterated as Amir, Aamir or Ameer) is a title of high office, used throughout the Muslim world...

al- husseini is the second Emir
Abu Abdul Rahman al-Falahi
"First Minister" (Prime Minister)
Abu Hamza al-Muhajir
AKA Abu Ayyub al-Masri
Abu Ayyub al-Masri
Abu Ayyub al-Masri , also known as Abu Hamza al-Muhajir and other aliases , was an active combattant of al-Qaeda and at least a senior aide to former leader of Al-Qaeda in Iraq, Abu Musab al-Zarqawi. When Zarqawi was killed in a U.S. airstrike on 7 June 2006, U.S...


(Deceased April 18, 2010) Al-Nasser Lideen Allah Abu Suleiman
Abu Suleiman al-Naser
Abu Suleiman al-Naser is the leader of the al-Qaeda affiliate in Iraq and “war minister” of the Islamic State of Iraq . Little is known about Abu Suleiman. He succeeded Abu Ayyub al-Masri, the leader of al-Qaeda in Iraq who was killed along with ISI leader Abu Omar al-Baghdadi in a joint operation...

 
War Identity of al-Muhajir with al-Masri suspected. ISI has apparently only used former name. Abu Suleiman is the second minister of war.
Abu Uthman al-Tamimi
Sharia
Sharia
Sharia law, is the moral code and religious law of Islam. Sharia is derived from two primary sources of Islamic law: the precepts set forth in the Quran, and the example set by the Islamic prophet Muhammad in the Sunnah. Fiqh jurisprudence interprets and extends the application of sharia to...

 affairs
Abu Bakr al-Jabouri
AKA Muharib Abdul-Latif al-Jabouri
(Deceased May 1/2, 2007)



AKA
Public Relations Common spelling variants: al-Jubouri, al-Jiburi.
Abu Abdul Jabar al-Janabi Security
Abu Muhammad al-Mashadani
Information
Abu Abdul Qadir al-Eissawi
Martyrs and Prisoners Affairs
Abu Ahmed al-Janabi
Oil
Mustafa al-A'araji
Agriculture and Fisheries
Abu Abdullah al-Zabadi Health
Mohammed Khalil al-Badria
Education Announced on September 3, 2007


These are all considered to be noms de guerre.

May


On May 3, Iraqi sources claimed that Abu Omar al-Baghdadi had been killed a short time earlier; no evidence was provided to support his death, and US sources remained skeptical. The Islamic State of Iraq released a statement later that day that denied his death.
The death of Abu Ayyub al-Masri
Abu Ayyub al-Masri
Abu Ayyub al-Masri , also known as Abu Hamza al-Muhajir and other aliases , was an active combattant of al-Qaeda and at least a senior aide to former leader of Al-Qaeda in Iraq, Abu Musab al-Zarqawi. When Zarqawi was killed in a U.S. airstrike on 7 June 2006, U.S...

 was also claimed, apparently in error too (see that article for details).

In what was apparently the same incident, "Minister of Public Relations
Public relations
Public relations is the actions of a corporation, store, government, individual, etc., in promoting goodwill between itself and the public, the community, employees, customers, etc....

" Abu Bakr al-Jabouri was announced to have been killed on May 1/2, 2007 near Taji. The exact circumstances of the incident are unknown. The initial version of the events at Taji, as given by the Iraqi Interior Ministry, was a shootout between rival Sunni militias. Coalition and Iraqi government operations were apparently conducted in the same area about the same time, and later sources implied they were directly involved, with al-Jabouri being killed "resisting arrest". See Abu Omar al-Baghdadi for details and sources. The successor of al-Jabour (if any) is presently unknown.

In an ISI press release, responsibility was claimed for an ambush at Al Taqa (Babil) on May 12, at which one Iraqi soldier and 4 US 10th Mountain Division
10th Mountain Division
The 10th Mountain Division is a light infantry division of the United States Army based at Fort Drum, New York. It is a subordinate unit of the XVIII Airborne Corps and the only division-sized element of the U.S. Army to specialize in fighting under harsh terrain and weather conditions...

 soldiers were killed; 3 soldiers of the US unit were captured. One was found dead in the Euphrates
Euphrates
The Euphrates is the longest and one of the most historically important rivers of Western Asia. Together with the Tigris, it is one of the two defining rivers of Mesopotamia...

 11 days later. The other two were claimed to have been executed and buried in an ISI video release, after a 4,000-man manhunt by US and allied forces ended without success. No direct proof was given. Their bodies were found a year later.

June


On June 18, the US launched Operation Arrowhead Ripper, as "a large-scale effort to eliminate al-Qaeda in Iraq terrorists operating in Baquba and its surrounding areas". See also Diyala province campaign.

The June 25 suicide bombing of a meeting of Al Anbar tribal leaders and officials at Mansour Hotel
Mansour Hotel
The Al Mansour Hotel is situated in the coastside of the Tigris river in the middle of Baghdad city.In 2007, the hotel experienced bombings resulting in 12 deaths....

, Baghdad
Baghdad
Baghdad is the capital of Iraq, as well as the coterminous Baghdad Governorate. The population of Baghdad in 2011 is approximately 7,216,040...

,
which killed 13, including 6 Sunni sheikh
Sheikh
Not to be confused with sikhSheikh — also spelled Sheik or Shaikh, or transliterated as Shaykh — is an honorific in the Arabic language that literally means "elder" and carries the meaning "leader and/or governor"...

s
and some other prominent figures, was proclaimed by the ISI to have been in retaliation for the rape of a Sunni woman by Iraqi police
Iraqi Police
The Iraqi Police Service are the uniformed Territorial police force responsible for the enforcement of civil law within Iraq.The current organisation, structure and recruitment practice was guided by the Coalition Provisional Authority following the 2003 invasion of Iraq...

.
Security at the hotel, which is some 100 meters outside the Green Zone
Green Zone
The Green Zone is the most common name for the International Zone of Baghdad. It is a area of central Baghdad, Iraq, that was the governmental center of the Coalition Provisional Authority and remains the center of the international presence in the city...

, was provided by a British contractor
that apparently hired guerrilla fighters to provide physical security;
the veracity and implications of allegated claims of responsibility of an Egypt
Egypt
Egypt , officially the Arab Republic of Egypt, Arabic: , is a country mainly in North Africa, with the Sinai Peninsula forming a land bridge in Southwest Asia. Egypt is thus a transcontinental country, and a major power in Africa, the Mediterranean Basin, the Middle East and the Muslim world...

ian Islamist group and possible on-scene assistance for the suicide bomber
are undetermined.

July


Abu Omar al-Baghdadi released an audio tape that issued an ultimatum to Iran. He said: "We are giving the Persians, and especially the rulers of Iran, a two-month period to end all kinds of support for the Iraqi Shia government and to stop direct and indirect intervention ... otherwise a severe war is waiting for you." He further warned Arab states from doing business with Iran.

Iran supports the Iraqi government which many see as anti-Sunni. Furthermore, Iran is believed to support Shi'ite militias, such as that of Muqtada al-Sadr, which have attacked Sunni groups and populations.

Resistance to Coalition operations in Baqubah turned out to be less than anticipated. In early July, US Army sources suggested that the ISI leadership as was in the area had largely relocated elsewhere in early June, 2007, before start of Operation Arrowhead Ripper.

2009 events


The 25 October 2009 Baghdad bombings
25 October 2009 Baghdad bombings
The 25 October 2009 Baghdad bombings were attacks in Baghdad, Iraq which killed 155 people and injured at least 721 people.-Attack:The attack was caused by two suicide car bombs, in a minivan and a 26-seat bus, which targeted the Ministry of Justice and the Baghdad Provincial Council building in a...

 were attacks in Baghdad
Baghdad
Baghdad is the capital of Iraq, as well as the coterminous Baghdad Governorate. The population of Baghdad in 2011 is approximately 7,216,040...

, Iraq
Iraq
Iraq ; officially the Republic of Iraq is a country in Western Asia spanning most of the northwestern end of the Zagros mountain range, the eastern part of the Syrian Desert and the northern part of the Arabian Desert....

 which killed 155 people and injured at least 721 people. The 8 December 2009 Baghdad bombings
8 December 2009 Baghdad bombings
The 8 December 2009 Baghdad bombings were attacks in Baghdad, Iraq which resulted in the deaths of at least 127 people and injuries to at least 448 more. The attacks have been condemned internationally as acts of terrorism...

 were attacks in Baghdad
Baghdad
Baghdad is the capital of Iraq, as well as the coterminous Baghdad Governorate. The population of Baghdad in 2011 is approximately 7,216,040...

, Iraq
Iraq
Iraq ; officially the Republic of Iraq is a country in Western Asia spanning most of the northwestern end of the Zagros mountain range, the eastern part of the Syrian Desert and the northern part of the Arabian Desert....

 which resulted in the deaths of at least 127 people and injured 448 more. Both these attacks were claimed by the Islamic State of Iraq.

2010 events to present


The Islamic State of Iraq claimed responsibility for the 25 January 2010 Baghdad bombings
25 January 2010 Baghdad bombings
On 25 January 2010, three suicide car bombs exploded in quick succession in central Baghdad, Iraq. At least 41 people were killed. On January 27, 2010 the Islamic State of Iraq clamed responsibility for the attack. - Details :...

 attack that killed 41 people. The group claimed credit for the 4 April 2010 Baghdad bombings
4 April 2010 Baghdad bombings
The 4 April 2010 Baghdad Bombings were a string of car bombings in Baghdad Iraq which killed at least 42 people, and wounded at least another 224. The attack was aimed at foreign embassies...

 that killed 42 people and Injured 224. On June 17, 2010 the group claimed responsibility for an attack on Central Bank of Iraq that killed 18 people and 55 wounded. On August 19, 2010 a statement posted on a website often used by Islamist radicals, the Islamic State of Iraq (ISI), a local al Qaeda umbrella group, claimed responsibility for the 17 August 2010 Baghdad bombings
17 August 2010 Baghdad bombings
The 17 August 2010 Baghdad bombings were two attacks in Baghdad, Iraq. The first attack in the morning was when a suicide bomber detonated his explosives outside the Iraqi Army division headquarters on potential recruits to the army, some of whom had queued for hours prior to the bombings, that...

 and October 2010 bombings.

According to the SITE Institute
SITE Institute
The Search for International Terrorist Entities Intelligence Group is an organization that tracks the online activity of terrorist organizations. The SITE Institute was founded in 2002 by Rita Katz and Josh Devon, who had left the Investigative Project...

, the Islamic State of Iraq claimed responsibility for the 2010 Baghdad church attack
2010 Baghdad church attack
The 2010 Baghdad church attack was an attack on the Our Lady of Salvation Syriac Catholic cathedralof Baghdad, Iraq, that took place during Sunday evening Mass on October 31, 2010. The attack left at least 58 people dead, after more than 100 had been taken hostage...

 that took place during a Sunday Mass
Mass
Mass can be defined as a quantitive measure of the resistance an object has to change in its velocity.In physics, mass commonly refers to any of the following three properties of matter, which have been shown experimentally to be equivalent:...

 on October 31.

Support for Egyptian protesters


The statement, which appears to be the first reaction of any group affiliated with al Qaeda to the ongoing protests in Egypt as part of the 2011 Arab Spring Movement
Arab Spring
The Arab Spring , otherwise known as the Arab Awakening, is a revolutionary wave of demonstrations and protests occurring in the Arab world that began on Saturday, 18 December 2010...

, was issued on jihadist forums on February 8, according to the US group. The message, addressed to the protesters, says that the “market of jihad” has opened in Egypt and “the doors of martyrdom have opened,” and every able-bodied man must participate. The group urged Egyptians to ignore the “ignorant deceiving ways” of secularism, democracy, and “rotten pagan nationalism.” “Your jihad,” the message said, is in support of Islam, the weak and oppressed in Egypt, for “your people” in Gaza and Iraq, and “for every Muslim who was touched by the oppression of the tyrant of Egypt and his masters in Washington and Tel Aviv,” read a translation of the text provided by the SITE Intelligence Group.

External links