Isabelline Gothic

Isabelline Gothic

Overview
Isabelline Gothic is a style of the Crown of Castile
Crown of Castile
The Crown of Castile was a medieval and modern state in the Iberian Peninsula that formed in 1230 as a result of the third and definitive union of the crowns and parliaments of the kingdoms of Castile and León upon the accession of the then King Ferdinand III of Castile to the vacant Leonese throne...

 during the reign of the Catholic Monarchs
Catholic Monarchs
The Catholic Monarchs is the collective title used in history for Queen Isabella I of Castile and King Ferdinand II of Aragon. They were both from the House of Trastámara and were second cousins, being both descended from John I of Castile; they were given a papal dispensation to deal with...

, who represents the transition between late Gothic
Gothic architecture
Gothic architecture is a style of architecture that flourished during the high and late medieval period. It evolved from Romanesque architecture and was succeeded by Renaissance architecture....

 and early Renaissance, with original features and decorative influences of Mudéjar
Mudéjar
Mudéjar is the name given to individual Moors or Muslims of Al-Andalus who remained in Iberia after the Christian Reconquista but were not converted to Christianity...

 art, Flanders
Flanders
Flanders is the community of the Flemings but also one of the institutions in Belgium, and a geographical region located in parts of present-day Belgium, France and the Netherlands. "Flanders" can also refer to the northern part of Belgium that contains Brussels, Bruges, Ghent and Antwerp...

 and in a lesser extent, Italy
Italy
Italy , officially the Italian Republic languages]] under the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages. In each of these, Italy's official name is as follows:;;;;;;;;), is a unitary parliamentary republic in South-Central Europe. To the north it borders France, Switzerland, Austria and...

.

The Isabelline style introduces several decorative rather than structural elements of the Castilian tradition and some ornaments of Islamic influence and other from Flanders
Flanders
Flanders is the community of the Flemings but also one of the institutions in Belgium, and a geographical region located in parts of present-day Belgium, France and the Netherlands. "Flanders" can also refer to the northern part of Belgium that contains Brussels, Bruges, Ghent and Antwerp...

, typically Flamboyant
Flamboyant
Flamboyant is the name given to a florid style of late Gothic architecture in vogue in France from the 14th to the early 16th century, a version of which spread to Spain and Portugal during the 15th century; the equivalent stylistic period in English architecture is called the Decorated Style, and...

 form.
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Isabelline Gothic is a style of the Crown of Castile
Crown of Castile
The Crown of Castile was a medieval and modern state in the Iberian Peninsula that formed in 1230 as a result of the third and definitive union of the crowns and parliaments of the kingdoms of Castile and León upon the accession of the then King Ferdinand III of Castile to the vacant Leonese throne...

 during the reign of the Catholic Monarchs
Catholic Monarchs
The Catholic Monarchs is the collective title used in history for Queen Isabella I of Castile and King Ferdinand II of Aragon. They were both from the House of Trastámara and were second cousins, being both descended from John I of Castile; they were given a papal dispensation to deal with...

, who represents the transition between late Gothic
Gothic architecture
Gothic architecture is a style of architecture that flourished during the high and late medieval period. It evolved from Romanesque architecture and was succeeded by Renaissance architecture....

 and early Renaissance, with original features and decorative influences of Mudéjar
Mudéjar
Mudéjar is the name given to individual Moors or Muslims of Al-Andalus who remained in Iberia after the Christian Reconquista but were not converted to Christianity...

 art, Flanders
Flanders
Flanders is the community of the Flemings but also one of the institutions in Belgium, and a geographical region located in parts of present-day Belgium, France and the Netherlands. "Flanders" can also refer to the northern part of Belgium that contains Brussels, Bruges, Ghent and Antwerp...

 and in a lesser extent, Italy
Italy
Italy , officially the Italian Republic languages]] under the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages. In each of these, Italy's official name is as follows:;;;;;;;;), is a unitary parliamentary republic in South-Central Europe. To the north it borders France, Switzerland, Austria and...

.

The Isabelline style introduces several decorative rather than structural elements of the Castilian tradition and some ornaments of Islamic influence and other from Flanders
Flanders
Flanders is the community of the Flemings but also one of the institutions in Belgium, and a geographical region located in parts of present-day Belgium, France and the Netherlands. "Flanders" can also refer to the northern part of Belgium that contains Brussels, Bruges, Ghent and Antwerp...

, typically Flamboyant
Flamboyant
Flamboyant is the name given to a florid style of late Gothic architecture in vogue in France from the 14th to the early 16th century, a version of which spread to Spain and Portugal during the 15th century; the equivalent stylistic period in English architecture is called the Decorated Style, and...

 form. Many of the buildings that were built in this style were commissioned by the Catholic Monarchs or were in some way sponsored by them. Parallely in Portugal
Portugal
Portugal , officially the Portuguese Republic is a country situated in southwestern Europe on the Iberian Peninsula. Portugal is the westernmost country of Europe, and is bordered by the Atlantic Ocean to the West and South and by Spain to the North and East. The Atlantic archipelagos of the...

 takes place a similar art called Manueline
Manueline
The Manueline, or Portuguese late Gothic, is the sumptuous, composite Portuguese style of architectural ornamentation of the first decades of the 16th century, incorporating maritime elements and representations of the discoveries brought from the voyages of Vasco da Gama and Pedro Álvares Cabral...

. Most obvious characteristic is the predominance of heraldic
Heraldry
Heraldry is the profession, study, or art of creating, granting, and blazoning arms and ruling on questions of rank or protocol, as exercised by an officer of arms. Heraldry comes from Anglo-Norman herald, from the Germanic compound harja-waldaz, "army commander"...

 and epigraphic
Epigraphy
Epigraphy Epigraphy Epigraphy (from the , literally "on-writing", is the study of inscriptions or epigraphs as writing; that is, the science of identifying the graphemes and of classifying their use as to cultural context and date, elucidating their meaning and assessing what conclusions can be...

 motifs, especially the symbols of the yoke and arrows
Coat of arms of the King of Spain
The blazoning of the coat of arms of the King of Spain is set out in Title II, Rule 1, of Spanish Royal Decree 1511 of 21 January 1977, by which the Rules for Flags, Standards, Guidons, Banners, and Badges were adopted.- Quartered shield :...

 and the pomegranate
Granada
Granada is a city and the capital of the province of Granada, in the autonomous community of Andalusia, Spain. Granada is located at the foot of the Sierra Nevada mountains, at the confluence of three rivers, the Beiro, the Darro and the Genil. It sits at an elevation of 738 metres above sea...

, which refer to the Monarchs. Also characteristic of this period the ornament with ball
Ball
A ball is a round, usually spherical but sometimes ovoid, object with various uses. It is used in ball games, where the play of the game follows the state of the ball as it is hit, kicked or thrown by players. Balls can also be used for simpler activities, such as catch, marbles and juggling...

s.

References to Classical antiquity in Spain just a bit more than literary, unlike in Italy, where the presence of Roman buildings was much more abundant and the Gothic had received a very adapted to the local classicist taste. Until the 1530's ended up not imposed the Roman to the Modern in the Spanish architecture. The use of these terms are concerned, in the intention of those who used, to things other than what today might think: the Roman was the style of the Italianate renaissance, classical or purist, while the Modern was for them the late Gothic and the Platereque decorative vocabulary.

Regardless of the environmental characteristics of the interiors, the Gothic provides a proven structural systems. And it is the Gothic style in the Peninsula had suffered a series of changes due to local tradition, much smaller windows which allows the construction system and roofs much less pronounced, and also flat roofs, what made a really original style, but building efficiently the Gothic construction system. On the other hand, most likely Spanish architects accustomed to Gothic, looked with some contempt the visible metal braces that Italian architects were forced to put on the arches to resist the horizontal thrust, when the "Gothic" building system had methods avoided the "trap".

After the Gothic inheritance begins to take shape a unique style that includes more modern elements. Perhaps the best example of this style is the Monastery of San Juan de los Reyes
Monasterio de San Juan de los Reyes, Toledo
The Monasterio de San Juan de los Reyes is a historic monastery in Toledo, Spain, built by the Catholic Monarchs .-A monument to celebrate:...

 in Toledo, the Gothic idea is more in the constructive system than the design of interior space, the relationship with the original Gothic French, becomes more distant.

Therefore, in the Peninsula, whose tradition of classical architecture is temporarily too far, (after the centuries of gothic construction) prefer, by tradition of its own, by constructive rationality, the Gothic system that evolves over time in the decoration of buildings, corresponding to the overall wealth of the country at the time, to a surcharge, which has been called plateresque
Plateresque
Plateresque, meaning "in the manner of a silversmith" , was an artistic movement, especially architectural, traditionally held to be exclusive to Spain and its territories, which appeared between the late Gothic and early Renaissance in the late 15th century, and spread over the next two centuries...

, while keeping intact many Gothic elements, especially how to bear the burdens of the vaults to the pillars (not to the walls, as in the Romanesque), propped up with the flying buttresses, with pinnacles and often the pointed arches.