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Irrigation sprinkler

Irrigation sprinkler

Overview

Irrigation sprinklers are sprinklers used on farms, golf courses, and yards, to provide water to vegetation and plants in the event of drought
Drought
A drought is an extended period of months or years when a region notes a deficiency in its water supply. Generally, this occurs when a region receives consistently below average precipitation. It can have a substantial impact on the ecosystem and agriculture of the affected region...

. They may also be used for recreation, as a cooling system, or to keep down the amount of airborne dust.

Sprinklers that spray in a fixed pattern are generally called sprays or spray heads. Sprays are not usually designed to operate at pressures above 30 lbf/in² (200 kPa) (30psi "Pounds per square inch"), due to misting problems that may develop.

Higher pressure sprinklers that themselves move in a circle are driven by a ball drive, gear drive, or impact mechanism (impact sprinkler
Impact sprinkler
An Impact sprinkler is a type of Irrigation sprinkler.-Development:The original horizontal action impact drive sprinkler was invented by Los Angeles citrus farmer Orton Englehardt in 1933 and patented in 1935...

s).
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Encyclopedia

Irrigation sprinklers are sprinklers used on farms, golf courses, and yards, to provide water to vegetation and plants in the event of drought
Drought
A drought is an extended period of months or years when a region notes a deficiency in its water supply. Generally, this occurs when a region receives consistently below average precipitation. It can have a substantial impact on the ecosystem and agriculture of the affected region...

. They may also be used for recreation, as a cooling system, or to keep down the amount of airborne dust.

Industrial


Sprinklers that spray in a fixed pattern are generally called sprays or spray heads. Sprays are not usually designed to operate at pressures above 30 lbf/in² (200 kPa) (30psi "Pounds per square inch"), due to misting problems that may develop.

Higher pressure sprinklers that themselves move in a circle are driven by a ball drive, gear drive, or impact mechanism (impact sprinkler
Impact sprinkler
An Impact sprinkler is a type of Irrigation sprinkler.-Development:The original horizontal action impact drive sprinkler was invented by Los Angeles citrus farmer Orton Englehardt in 1933 and patented in 1935...

s). These can be designed to rotate in a full or partial circle.

Rainguns are similar to impact sprinkler, except that they generally operate at very high pressures of 40 to 130 lbf/in² (275 to 900 kPa) and flows of 50 to 1200 US gal/min (3 to 76 L/s), usually with nozzle diameters in the range of 0.5 to 1.9 inches (10 to 50 mm). In addition to irrigation, guns are used for industrial applications such as dust
Dust
Dust consists of particles in the atmosphere that arise from various sources such as soil dust lifted up by wind , volcanic eruptions, and pollution...

 suppression and logging
Logging
Logging is the cutting, skidding, on-site processing, and loading of trees or logs onto trucks.In forestry, the term logging is sometimes used in a narrow sense concerning the logistics of moving wood from the stump to somewhere outside the forest, usually a sawmill or a lumber yard...

.

Many irrigation sprinklers are buried in the ground along with their supporting plumbing, although above ground and moving sprinklers are also common. Most irrigation sprinklers operate through electric and hydraulic technology and are grouped together in zones that can be collectively turned on and off by actuating a solenoid
Solenoid
A solenoid is a coil wound into a tightly packed helix. In physics, the term solenoid refers to a long, thin loop of wire, often wrapped around a metallic core, which produces a magnetic field when an electric current is passed through it. Solenoids are important because they can create...

-controlled valve.

Residential sprinklers



Home lawn sprinklers vary widely in their size, cost, and complexity. They include impact sprinkler
Impact sprinkler
An Impact sprinkler is a type of Irrigation sprinkler.-Development:The original horizontal action impact drive sprinkler was invented by Los Angeles citrus farmer Orton Englehardt in 1933 and patented in 1935...

s, oscillating sprinklers, drip sprinklers, and underground sprinkler systems. Small sprinklers are available at home and garden stores or hardware stores for small costs. These are often attached to an outdoor water faucet and are placed only temporarily. Other systems may be professionally installed permanently in the ground and are attached permanently to a home's plumbing
Plumbing
Plumbing is the system of pipes and drains installed in a building for the distribution of potable drinking water and the removal of waterborne wastes, and the skilled trade of working with pipes, tubing and plumbing fixtures in such systems. A plumber is someone who installs or repairs piping...

 system. An ingenious domestic sprinkler made by Nomad called a 'set-and-forget tractor sprinkler' was used in Australia in the 1950s. Water pressure ensured that the sprinkler slowly moved across a lawn.

Permanently installed systems may often operate on timers or other automated processes. They are occasionally installed with retractable heads for aesthetic and practical reasons (making damage during lawn mowing or other maintenance less likely). These often are programed to operate at certain times of day or on some other schedule.

Underground sprinklers


Underground sprinklers function through means of basic electronic and hydraulic technology. This valve and all of the sprinklers that will be activated by this valve are known as a zone. Upon activation, the solenoid, which sits on top of the valve is magnetized lifting a small stainless steel plunger in its center. By doing this, the activated (or raised) plunger allows air to escape from the top of a rubber diaphragm located in the center of the valve. Water that has been charged and waiting on the bottom of this same diaphragm now has the higher pressure and lifts the diaphragm. This pressurized water is then allowed to escape down stream of the valve through a series of pipes, usually made of PVC. At the end of these pipes and flush to ground level (typically) are pre measured and spaced out sprinklers. These sprinklers can be fixed spray heads that have a set pattern and generally spray between 1.5-2m (7–15 ft.), full rotating sprinklers that can spray a broken stream of water from 6-12m (20–40 ft.), or small drip emitters that release a slow, steady drip of water on more delicate plants such as flowers and shrubs.

Farm sprinklers


The first use of sprinklers by farmers was some form of home and golf course type sprinklers. These ad hoc systems, while doing the job of the buried pipes and fixed sprinkler heads, interfered with cultivation and were expensive to maintain. In the 1950s a firm based in Portland, Oregon Stout-Wyss Irrigation System, developed the rolling pipe type irrigation system for farms that has become the most popular type for farmers irrigating large fields. With this system large wheels attached to the large pipes with sprinkler heads move slowly across the field.

Sprinkler use


Most irrigation sprinklers are used as part of a sprinkler system, consisting of various plumbing parts, piping and control equipment. Piping is connected to the water source via plumbing fittings and the control system opens and closes valves to provide water on a schedule. The control provided varies depending on the equipment used; some systems are fully automated and even compensate for rain, runoff and evaporation, while others require much more user attention for the same effectiveness.

Outdoor sprinkler systems are sometimes used as a deterrent against homeless people
Homelessness
Homelessness describes the condition of people without a regular dwelling. People who are homeless are unable or unwilling to acquire and maintain regular, safe, and adequate housing, or lack "fixed, regular, and adequate night-time residence." The legal definition of "homeless" varies from country...

. For example, the city of Los Angeles
Los Ángeles
Los Ángeles is the capital of the province of Biobío, in the commune of the same name, in Region VIII , in the center-south of Chile. It is located between the Laja and Biobío rivers. The population is 123,445 inhabitants...

 installed an elaborate overhead sprinkler system in a downtown park along lower Fifth Street. This sprinkler system was programmed to drench unsuspecting sleepers at random times during the night. Local businessmen soon copied this system in an effort to drive homeless people away from public sidewalks adjacent to their businesses.

External links



See also


  • Irrigation
    Irrigation
    Irrigation may be defined as the science of artificial application of water to the land or soil. It is used to assist in the growing of agricultural crops, maintenance of landscapes, and revegetation of disturbed soils in dry areas and during periods of inadequate rainfall...

  • Drip Irrigation
    Drip irrigation
    Drip irrigation, also known as trickle irrigation or microirrigation or localized irrigation , is an irrigation method which saves water and fertilizer by allowing water to drip slowly to the roots of plants, either onto the soil surface or directly onto the root zone, through a network of valves,...

  • Sprinkler system timer
    Sprinkler system timer
    A sprinkler system timer is an electrical device that is used to set an irrigation sprinkler system to come on automatically at a certain time. Irrigation timers first appeared in the early 1960s to control large-radius lawn sprinklers, which at the time usually contained their own electrically...