International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry

International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry

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The International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC, pronounced ˈaɪjuːpæk or ˈjuːpæk ) is an international federation of National Adhering Organizations
National Adhering Organizations
National Adhering Organizations in chemistry are the organizations that work as the authoritative power over chemistry in an individual country. Their importance can be seen by their involvement in IUPAC. There are currently fifty-seven IUPAC National Adhering Organizations.-List of NAOs:...

 that represents chemists in individual countries. It is a member of the International Council for Science
International Council for Science
The International Council for Science , formerly the International Council of Scientific Unions, was founded in 1931 as an international non-governmental organization devoted to international co-operation in the advancement of science...

 (ICSU). The international headquarters of IUPAC is located in Zürich
Zürich
Zurich is the largest city in Switzerland and the capital of the canton of Zurich. It is located in central Switzerland at the northwestern tip of Lake Zurich...

, Switzerland
Switzerland
Switzerland name of one of the Swiss cantons. ; ; ; or ), in its full name the Swiss Confederation , is a federal republic consisting of 26 cantons, with Bern as the seat of the federal authorities. The country is situated in Western Europe,Or Central Europe depending on the definition....

. The administrative office, known as the "IUPAC Secretariat", is located in Research Triangle Park
Research Triangle Park
The Research Triangle Park is a research park in the United States. It is located near Durham, Raleigh, and Chapel Hill, in the Research Triangle region of North Carolina...

, North Carolina
North Carolina
North Carolina is a state located in the southeastern United States. The state borders South Carolina and Georgia to the south, Tennessee to the west and Virginia to the north. North Carolina contains 100 counties. Its capital is Raleigh, and its largest city is Charlotte...

, United States
United States
The United States of America is a federal constitutional republic comprising fifty states and a federal district...

. This administrative office is headed by the IUPAC executive director.

IUPAC was established in 1918 as the successor of the International Congress of Applied Chemistry for the advancement of chemistry
Chemistry
Chemistry is the science of matter, especially its chemical reactions, but also its composition, structure and properties. Chemistry is concerned with atoms and their interactions with other atoms, and particularly with the properties of chemical bonds....

. Its members, the National Adhering Organizations, can be national chemistry societies, national academies of sciences
Academy of Sciences
An Academy of Sciences is a national academy or another learned society dedicated to sciences.In non-English speaking countries, the range of academic fields of the members of a national Academy of Science often includes fields which would not normally be classed as "science" in English...

, or other bodies representing chemists. There are fifty-four National Adhering Organizations and three Associate National Adhering Organizations. IUPAC's Inter-divisional Committee on Nomenclature and Symbols (IUPAC nomenclature) is the recognized world authority in developing standards for the naming of the chemical elements and compounds. Since its creation, IUPAC has been run by many different committees with different responsibilities. These committees all run different projects which include standardizing nomenclature
Nomenclature
Nomenclature is a term that applies to either a list of names or terms, or to the system of principles, procedures and terms related to naming - which is the assigning of a word or phrase to a particular object or property...

, finding ways to bring chemistry
Chemistry
Chemistry is the science of matter, especially its chemical reactions, but also its composition, structure and properties. Chemistry is concerned with atoms and their interactions with other atoms, and particularly with the properties of chemical bonds....

 to the world, and publishing works.

IUPAC is best known for its works standardizing nomenclature in chemistry and other fields of science, but IUPAC has publications in many fields including chemistry, biology and physics. Some important work IUPAC has done in these fields includes standardizing nucleotide
Nucleotide
Nucleotides are molecules that, when joined together, make up the structural units of RNA and DNA. In addition, nucleotides participate in cellular signaling , and are incorporated into important cofactors of enzymatic reactions...

 base sequence code names; publishing books for environmental scientists, chemists, and physicists; and leading the way in improving education in science.

Creation and history


The need for an international standard for chemistry was first addressed in 1860 by a committee headed by German scientist Friedrich August Kekulé von Stradonitz
Friedrich August Kekulé von Stradonitz
Friedrich August Kekule von Stradonitz was a German organic chemist. From the 1850s until his death, Kekule was one of the most prominent chemists in Europe, especially in theoretical chemistry...

. This committee was the first international conference to create an international naming system for organic compounds. The ideas that were formulated in that conference evolved into the official IUPAC nomenclature of organic chemistry
IUPAC nomenclature of organic chemistry
The IUPAC nomenclature of organic chemistry is a systematic method of naming organic chemical compounds as recommended by the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry . Ideally, every possible organic compound should have a name from which an unambiguous structural formula can be drawn. ...

. The IUPAC stands as a legacy of this meeting, making it one of the most important historical international collaborations of chemistry societies.

The ideas of committee of 1860 were further addressed by the first international proposal in 1892. The rules established by this proposal are known as the Geneva Rules
Geneva Rules
The Geneva Rules are the rules established by the International Chemistry Committee of 1860. These rules were the beginning of international cooperation for organic chemistry nomenclature.Not to be confused with the Geneva Conventions....

. The Geneva Rules first officially standardized some Organic Chemistry
Organic chemistry
Organic chemistry is a subdiscipline within chemistry involving the scientific study of the structure, properties, composition, reactions, and preparation of carbon-based compounds, hydrocarbons, and their derivatives...

 names and rules. The largest contribution that the Geneva Rules made to Organic Chemistry is the establishment of Organic root names
Root (linguistics)
The root word is the primary lexical unit of a word, and of a word family , which carries the most significant aspects of semantic content and cannot be reduced into smaller constituents....

. The conference in Geneva
Geneva
Geneva In the national languages of Switzerland the city is known as Genf , Ginevra and Genevra is the second-most-populous city in Switzerland and is the most populous city of Romandie, the French-speaking part of Switzerland...

 was held by a chemistry society that also was precursor to IUPAC called The International Union of Chemistry.

The work from the first international proposal was continued by the Commission for the Reform of Nomenclature
Nomenclature
Nomenclature is a term that applies to either a list of names or terms, or to the system of principles, procedures and terms related to naming - which is the assigning of a word or phrase to a particular object or property...

 in Organic Chemistry
Organic chemistry
Organic chemistry is a subdiscipline within chemistry involving the scientific study of the structure, properties, composition, reactions, and preparation of carbon-based compounds, hydrocarbons, and their derivatives...

. The Commission for the Reform of Nomenclature was headed by The International Union of Chemistry. The International Union of Chemistry continued to work on the naming of Organic compounds until the advent of World War I
World War I
World War I , which was predominantly called the World War or the Great War from its occurrence until 1939, and the First World War or World War I thereafter, was a major war centred in Europe that began on 28 July 1914 and lasted until 11 November 1918...

, when international communications got difficult.

After World War I, discussion ensued about the formation of a new permanent international chemistry society. At this time, the basic nomenclature
Nomenclature
Nomenclature is a term that applies to either a list of names or terms, or to the system of principles, procedures and terms related to naming - which is the assigning of a word or phrase to a particular object or property...

 of Organic compounds was established. However, a new organization needed to be established in order to continue work on the standardizing of chemistry. This prompted the creation of the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC) in 1919. Since this time, IUPAC has been the official organization held with the responsibility of updating and maintaining official organic nomenclature. One notable country excluded from the early IUPAC was Germany
Germany
Germany , officially the Federal Republic of Germany , is a federal parliamentary republic in Europe. The country consists of 16 states while the capital and largest city is Berlin. Germany covers an area of 357,021 km2 and has a largely temperate seasonal climate...

. Germany's exclusion was a result of prejudice towards Germans by the allied powers after World War I
World War I
World War I , which was predominantly called the World War or the Great War from its occurrence until 1939, and the First World War or World War I thereafter, was a major war centred in Europe that began on 28 July 1914 and lasted until 11 November 1918...

 Germany
Germany
Germany , officially the Federal Republic of Germany , is a federal parliamentary republic in Europe. The country consists of 16 states while the capital and largest city is Berlin. Germany covers an area of 357,021 km2 and has a largely temperate seasonal climate...

 was finally admitted into IUPAC during 1929. However, Nazi Germany
Nazi Germany
Nazi Germany , also known as the Third Reich , but officially called German Reich from 1933 to 1943 and Greater German Reich from 26 June 1943 onward, is the name commonly used to refer to the state of Germany from 1933 to 1945, when it was a totalitarian dictatorship ruled by...

 was removed from IUPAC during World War II
World War II
World War II, or the Second World War , was a global conflict lasting from 1939 to 1945, involving most of the world's nations—including all of the great powers—eventually forming two opposing military alliances: the Allies and the Axis...



During World War II, IUPAC was affiliated with the allied powers, but had little involvement during the war effort itself. After the war, West Germany
Germany
Germany , officially the Federal Republic of Germany , is a federal parliamentary republic in Europe. The country consists of 16 states while the capital and largest city is Berlin. Germany covers an area of 357,021 km2 and has a largely temperate seasonal climate...

 was allowed back into IUPAC. Since World War II, IUPAC has been focused on standardizing nomenclature and methods in science without interruption.

Committees and governance


IUPAC is governed by several committees that all have different responsibilities. The committees are as follows: Bureau, CHEMRAWN (Chem Research Applied to World Needs) Committee, Committee on Chemistry Education, Committee on Chemistry and Industry, Committee on Printed and Electronic Publications, Evaluation Committee, Executive Committee, Finance Committee, Interdivisional Committee on Terminology, Nomenclature and Symbols, Project Committee, Pure and Applied Chemistry Editorial Advisory Board. Each committee is made from members of different National Adhering Organizations from different countries.

The steering committee hierarchy for IUPAC is as follows:
  1. All committees have an allotted budget that they must adhere to
  2. Any committee may start a project.
  3. If a project's spending becomes too much for a committee to continue funding, it must take the issue to the Project Committee.
  4. The project committee either increases the budget or decides on an external funding plan.
  5. The Bureau and Executive Committee oversee operations of the other committees

Committees Table
Committee name (abbreviation) Responsibilities
Bureau
  • Discusses and makes changes to which committee has authority over a specific project
  • Controls finances for all other committees and IUPAC as a whole
  • Discusses general governance of IUPAC
CHEMRAWN Committee (Chem Research Applied to World Needs)
  • Discusses different ways chemistry can and should be used to help the world
  • Committee on Chemistry Education (CCE)
  • Coordinates IUPAC chemistry research with the educational systems of the world
  • Committee on Chemistry and Industry (COCI)
  • Coordinates IUPAC chemistry research with industrial chemistry needs
  • Committee on Electronic and Printed Publications (CPEP)
  • Designs and implements IUPAC publications
  • Heads the Subcommittee on Spectroscopic Data Standards
  • Evaluation Committee (EvC)
  • Evaluates every project
  • Reports back to Executive committee on every project
  • Executive Committee (EC)
  • Plans and discusses IUPAC events
  • Discusses IUPAC fundraising
  • Reviews other committees work


  • Current Officers of Executive Committee:
    • President: Moreau, Nicole J.
    • Vice President: Tatsumi, Kazuyuki
    • Treasurer: Corish, John
    • Secretary General: Black, David StC.
    Finance Committee (FC)
  • Helps other committees properly manage their budget
  • Advises Union officers on investments
  • Interdivisional Committee on Terminology (ICTNS)
  • Manages IUPAC Nomenclature
    IUPAC nomenclature
    A chemical nomenclature is a set of rules to generate systematic names for chemical compounds. The nomenclature used most frequently worldwide is the one created and developed by the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry ....

  • Works through many projects to standardize nomenclature
  • Standardizes measurements
  • Discusses atomic weight standardization
  • Project Committee (PC)
  • Manages funds that are under the jurisdiction of multiple projects
  • Judges if a project is too large for its funding
  • Recommends sources of external funding for projects
  • Decides how to fund meetings in developing countries and countries in crisis
  • Pure and Applied Chemistry Editorial Advisory Board (PAC-EAB)
  • Helps to plan, implement, and publish Pure and Applied Chemistry
    Pure and Applied Chemistry
    Pure and Applied Chemistry is the official journal for the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry. It is published monthly and contains recommendations and reports, and lectures from symposia....


  • Nomenclature


    The IUPAC committee has a long history of officially naming organic
    Organic compound
    An organic compound is any member of a large class of gaseous, liquid, or solid chemical compounds whose molecules contain carbon. For historical reasons discussed below, a few types of carbon-containing compounds such as carbides, carbonates, simple oxides of carbon, and cyanides, as well as the...

     and inorganic compound
    Inorganic compound
    Inorganic compounds have traditionally been considered to be of inanimate, non-biological origin. In contrast, organic compounds have an explicit biological origin. However, over the past century, the classification of inorganic vs organic compounds has become less important to scientists,...

    s as mentioned in the Creation and History section. IUPAC nomenclature
    IUPAC nomenclature
    A chemical nomenclature is a set of rules to generate systematic names for chemical compounds. The nomenclature used most frequently worldwide is the one created and developed by the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry ....

     is developed so that any compound can be named under one set of standard rules to avoid repeat names. The first publication, which is information from the International Congress of Applied Chemistry, is on IUPAC nomenclature of organic compounds
    IUPAC nomenclature of organic chemistry
    The IUPAC nomenclature of organic chemistry is a systematic method of naming organic chemical compounds as recommended by the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry . Ideally, every possible organic compound should have a name from which an unambiguous structural formula can be drawn. ...

     can be found from the early 20th century in A Guide to IUPAC Nomenclature of Organic Compounds (1900).

    Organic nomenclature


    IUPAC organic nomenclature has three basic parts: the substituents, carbon chain length and chemical ending. The substituents are any functional groups attached to the main carbon chain. The main carbon chain is the longest possible continuous chain. The chemical ending denotes what type of molecule it is. For example, the ending "ane" denotes a single bonded carbon chain, as in "hexane" .

    Another example of IUPAC organic nomenclature is cyclohexanol
    Cyclohexanol
    Cyclohexanol is the organic compound with the formula 5CHOH. The molecule is related to cyclohexane ring by replacement of one hydrogen atom by a hydroxyl group. This compound exists as a deliquescent colorless solid, which, when very pure, melts near room temperature...

    :

    • The substituent name for a ring compound is "cyclo".
    • The indication (substituent name) for a six carbon chain is "hex".
    • The chemical ending for a single bonded carbon chain is "ane"
    • The chemical ending for an alcohol
      Alcohol
      In chemistry, an alcohol is an organic compound in which the hydroxy functional group is bound to a carbon atom. In particular, this carbon center should be saturated, having single bonds to three other atoms....

       is "ol"
    • The two chemical endings are combined for an ending of "anol" indicating a single bonded carbon chain with an alcohol attached to it.

    Inorganic nomenclature


    Basic IUPAC inorganic nomenclature has two main parts: the cation and the anion. The cation is the name for the positively charged ion
    Ion
    An ion is an atom or molecule in which the total number of electrons is not equal to the total number of protons, giving it a net positive or negative electrical charge. The name was given by physicist Michael Faraday for the substances that allow a current to pass between electrodes in a...

     and the anion is the name for the negatively charged ion
    Ion
    An ion is an atom or molecule in which the total number of electrons is not equal to the total number of protons, giving it a net positive or negative electrical charge. The name was given by physicist Michael Faraday for the substances that allow a current to pass between electrodes in a...

    .

    An example of IUPAC inorganic nomenclature is potassium chlorate
    Potassium chlorate
    Potassium chlorate is a compound containing potassium, chlorine and oxygen atoms, with the molecular formula KClO3. In its pure form, it is a white crystalline substance. It is the most common chlorate in industrial use...

    :

    • Potassium
      Potassium
      Potassium is the chemical element with the symbol K and atomic number 19. Elemental potassium is a soft silvery-white alkali metal that oxidizes rapidly in air and is very reactive with water, generating sufficient heat to ignite the hydrogen emitted in the reaction.Potassium and sodium are...

       is the cation name.
    • Chlorate
      Chlorate
      The chlorate anion has the formula ClO. In this case, the chlorine atom is in the +5 oxidation state. "Chlorate" can also refer to chemical compounds containing this anion; chlorates are the salts of chloric acid. "Chlorate", when followed by a roman numeral in parentheses, e.g...

       is the anion name.

    Amino acid and nucleotide base codes


    IUPAC also has a system for giving codes to identify amino acid
    Amino acid
    Amino acids are molecules containing an amine group, a carboxylic acid group and a side-chain that varies between different amino acids. The key elements of an amino acid are carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen...

    s and nucleotide
    Nucleotide
    Nucleotides are molecules that, when joined together, make up the structural units of RNA and DNA. In addition, nucleotides participate in cellular signaling , and are incorporated into important cofactors of enzymatic reactions...

     bases. IUPAC needed a coding system that represented long sequences of amino acids. This would allow for these sequences to be compared to try to find homologies. These codes can consist of either a one letter code or a three letter code. For example:
    • Alanine
      Alanine
      Alanine is an α-amino acid with the chemical formula CH3CHCOOH. The L-isomer is one of the 20 amino acids encoded by the genetic code. Its codons are GCU, GCC, GCA, and GCG. It is classified as a nonpolar amino acid...

      : Single letter code: A, Three letter code: Ala

    These codes make it easier and shorter to write down the amino acid sequences that make up proteins. The nucleotide bases are made up of purines (adenine
    Adenine
    Adenine is a nucleobase with a variety of roles in biochemistry including cellular respiration, in the form of both the energy-rich adenosine triphosphate and the cofactors nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide and flavin adenine dinucleotide , and protein synthesis, as a chemical component of DNA...

     and guanine
    Guanine
    Guanine is one of the four main nucleobases found in the nucleic acids DNA and RNA, the others being adenine, cytosine, and thymine . In DNA, guanine is paired with cytosine. With the formula C5H5N5O, guanine is a derivative of purine, consisting of a fused pyrimidine-imidazole ring system with...

    ) and pyrimidines (cytosine
    Cytosine
    Cytosine is one of the four main bases found in DNA and RNA, along with adenine, guanine, and thymine . It is a pyrimidine derivative, with a heterocyclic aromatic ring and two substituents attached . The nucleoside of cytosine is cytidine...

     and thymine
    Thymine
    Thymine is one of the four nucleobases in the nucleic acid of DNA that are represented by the letters G–C–A–T. The others are adenine, guanine, and cytosine. Thymine is also known as 5-methyluracil, a pyrimidine nucleobase. As the name suggests, thymine may be derived by methylation of uracil at...

    ). These nucleotide bases make up DNA
    DNA
    Deoxyribonucleic acid is a nucleic acid that contains the genetic instructions used in the development and functioning of all known living organisms . The DNA segments that carry this genetic information are called genes, but other DNA sequences have structural purposes, or are involved in...

     and RNA
    RNA
    Ribonucleic acid , or RNA, is one of the three major macromolecules that are essential for all known forms of life....

    . These nucleotide base codes make the genome of an organism much smaller and easier to read.

    Non-series books

    Book Name Description
    Principles and Practices of Method Validation
    Principles and Practices of Method Validation is a book entailing methods on validating and analyzing a many analyte
    Analyte
    An analyte, or component , is a substance or chemical constituent that is of interest in an analytical procedure. Grammatically, it is important to note that experiments always seek to measure properties of analytes—and that analytes themselves can never be measured. For instance, one cannot...

    s taken from a single aliquot
    Aliquot
    Aliquot may refer to:In mathematics:*Aliquot part, a proper divisor of an integer*Aliquot sum, the sum of the aliquot parts of an integer*Aliquot sequence, a sequence of integers in which each number is the aliquot sum of the previous numberIn music:...

    . Also, this book goes over techniques for analyzing many samples at once. Some methods discussed include: chromatographic methods, estimation of effects, matrix induced effects, and the effect of an equipment setup on an experiment.
    Fundamental Toxicology
    Fundamental Toxicology is a textbook that proposes a curriculum
    Curriculum
    See also Syllabus.In formal education, a curriculum is the set of courses, and their content, offered at a school or university. As an idea, curriculum stems from the Latin word for race course, referring to the course of deeds and experiences through which children grow to become mature adults...

     for toxicology
    Toxicology
    Toxicology is a branch of biology, chemistry, and medicine concerned with the study of the adverse effects of chemicals on living organisms...

     courses. Fundamental Toxicology is based on the book Fundamental Toxicology for Chemists. Fundamental Toxicology is enhanced through many revisions and updates. New information added in the revisions includes: risk assessment
    Risk assessment
    Risk assessment is a step in a risk management procedure. Risk assessment is the determination of quantitative or qualitative value of risk related to a concrete situation and a recognized threat...

     and management; reproductive toxicology; behavioral toxicology; and ecotoxicology
    Ecotoxicology
    Ecotoxicology is the study of the effects of toxic chemicals on biological organisms, especially at the population, community, ecosystem level. Ecotoxicology is a multidisciplinary field, which integrates toxicology and ecology....

    . This book is relatively well received as being useful for reviewing chemical toxicology
    Toxicology
    Toxicology is a branch of biology, chemistry, and medicine concerned with the study of the adverse effects of chemicals on living organisms...

    .
    Macromolecular Symposia
    Macromolecular Symposia is a journal that publishes fourteen issues a year. This journal includes contributions to the macromolecular chemistry and physics field. The meetings of the IUPAC are included in this journal along with the European Polymer Federation
    European Polymer Federation
    The European Polymer Federation , established in 1986, is an umbrella organization of national polymer societies and groups in Europe. The goal of EPF is to coordinate, inform about and support the development of polymer science in Europe...

    , the American Chemical Society
    American Chemical Society
    The American Chemical Society is a scientific society based in the United States that supports scientific inquiry in the field of chemistry. Founded in 1876 at New York University, the ACS currently has more than 161,000 members at all degree-levels and in all fields of chemistry, chemical...

    , and the Society of Polymer Science
    Society of Polymer Science
    The Society of Polymer Science is a Japanese non-profit organization that studies polymer science with a focus on Japan but also internationally. The Society of Polymer Science was established in 1951 and currently has about 12,000 members. The society issues a monthly academic journal, the Polymer...

     in Japan.

    Experimental Thermodynamics book series


    The Experimental Thermodynamics books series covers many topics in the fields of thermodynamics.
    Book Description
    Measurement of the Transport Properties of Fluids
    Measurement of the Transport Properties of Fluids is a book that is published by Blackwell Science Inc. The topics that are included in this book are low and high temperature measurements, secondary coefficients, diffusion coefficients, light scattering
    Light scattering
    Light scattering is a form of scattering in which light is the form of propagating energy which is scattered. Light scattering can be thought of as the deflection of a ray from a straight path, for example by irregularities in the propagation medium, particles, or in the interface between two media...

    , transient methods for thermal conductivity
    Thermal conductivity
    In physics, thermal conductivity, k, is the property of a material's ability to conduct heat. It appears primarily in Fourier's Law for heat conduction....

    , methods for thermal conductivity, falling-body viscometers, and vibrating viscometers
    Rheometer
    A rheometer is a laboratory device used to measure the way in which a liquid, suspension or slurry flows in response to applied forces. It is used for those fluids which cannot be defined by a single value of viscosity and therefore require more parameters to be set and measured than is the case...

    .
    Solution Calorimetry
    Solution Calorimetry is a book that gives background information on thermal analysis
    Thermal analysis
    Thermal analysis is a branch of materials science where the properties of materials are studied as they change with temperature. Several methods are commonly used - these are distinguished from one another by the property which is measured:...

     and calorimetry
    Calorimetry
    Calorimetry is the science of measuring the heat of chemical reactions or physical changes. Calorimetry is performed with a calorimeter. The word calorimetry is derived from the Latin word calor, meaning heat...

    . Thermoanalytical and calorimetric techniques along with thermodynamic and kinetic properties are discussed in this book. Later volumes of this book discusses the applications and principles of these thermodynamic and kinetic methods.
    Equations of State for Fluids and Fluid Mixtures Part I
    Equations of State for Fluids and Fluid Mixtures Part I is a book that gives up to date equations of state for fluids and fluid mixtures. This book covers all ways to develop equations of state. It gives the strengths and weaknesses of each equation. Some equations discussed include: virial equation of state cubic equations; generalized Van der Waals equation
    Van der Waals equation
    The van der Waals equation is an equation of state for a fluid composed of particles that have a non-zero volume and a pairwise attractive inter-particle force It was derived by Johannes Diderik van der Waals in 1873, who received the Nobel prize in 1910 for "his work on the equation of state for...

    s; integral equations; perturbation theory; and stating and mixing rules. Other things that Equations of State for Fluids and Fluid Mixtures Part I goes over are: associating fluids, polymer systems, polydisperse fluids, self-assembled systems, ionic fluids, and fluids near their critical points.
    Measurement of the Thermodynamic Properties of Single Phases
    Measurement of the Thermodynamic Properties of Single Phases is a book that gives an overview of techniques for measuring the thermodynamic quantities of single phases. It also goes into experimental techniques to test many different thermodynamic state
    Thermodynamic state
    A thermodynamic state is a set of values of properties of a thermodynamic system that must be specified to reproduce the system. The individual parameters are known as state variables, state parameters or thermodynamic variables. Once a sufficient set of thermodynamic variables have been...

    s precisely and accurately. Measurement of the Thermodynamic Properties of Single Phases was written for people interested in measuring thermodynamic properties.
    Measurement of the Thermodynamic Properties of Multiple Phases
    Measurement of the Thermodynamic Properties of Multiple Phases is a book that includes multiple techniques that are used to study multiple phases of pure component systems. Also included in this book are the measurement techniques to obtain activity coefficients, interfacial tension, and critical parameters
    Parameter
    Parameter from Ancient Greek παρά also “para” meaning “beside, subsidiary” and μέτρον also “metron” meaning “measure”, can be interpreted in mathematics, logic, linguistics, environmental science and other disciplines....

    . This book was written for researchers and graduate students as a reference source.

    Series of books on analytical and physical chemistry of environmental systems

    Book Name Description
    Atmospheric Particles
    Atmospheric Particles is a book that delves into aerosol science. This book is aimed as a reference for graduate students and atmospheric researchers. Atmospheric Particles goes in depth on the properties of aerosols in the atmosphere and their effect. Topics covered in this book are: acid rain
    Acid rain
    Acid rain is a rain or any other form of precipitation that is unusually acidic, meaning that it possesses elevated levels of hydrogen ions . It can have harmful effects on plants, aquatic animals, and infrastructure. Acid rain is caused by emissions of carbon dioxide, sulfur dioxide and nitrogen...

    ; heavy metal
    Heavy metals
    A heavy metal is a member of a loosely-defined subset of elements that exhibit metallic properties. It mainly includes the transition metals, some metalloids, lanthanides, and actinides. Many different definitions have been proposed—some based on density, some on atomic number or atomic weight,...

     pollution; global warming
    Global warming
    Global warming refers to the rising average temperature of Earth's atmosphere and oceans and its projected continuation. In the last 100 years, Earth's average surface temperature increased by about with about two thirds of the increase occurring over just the last three decades...

    ; and photochemical smog. Atmospheric Particles also covers techniques to analyze the atmosphere and ways to take atmospheric samples.
    Environmental Colloids and Particles: Behaviour, Separation and Characterisation
    Environmental Colloids and Particles: Behaviour, Separation and Characterisation is a book that discusses environmental colloid
    Colloid
    A colloid is a substance microscopically dispersed evenly throughout another substance.A colloidal system consists of two separate phases: a dispersed phase and a continuous phase . A colloidal system may be solid, liquid, or gaseous.Many familiar substances are colloids, as shown in the chart below...

    s and current information available on them. This book focuses on environmental colloids and particles in aquatic systems and soils. It also goes over techniques such as: techniques for sampling environmental colloids, size fractionation, and how to characterize of colloids and particles. Environmental Colloids and Particles: Behaviour, Separation and Characterisation also delves into how these colloid
    Colloid
    A colloid is a substance microscopically dispersed evenly throughout another substance.A colloidal system consists of two separate phases: a dispersed phase and a continuous phase . A colloidal system may be solid, liquid, or gaseous.Many familiar substances are colloids, as shown in the chart below...

    s and particle
    Particle
    A particle is, generally, a small localized object to which can be ascribed physical properties. It may also refer to:In chemistry:* Colloidal particle, part of a one-phase system of two or more components where the particles aren't individually visible.In physics:* Subatomic particle, which may be...

    s interact.
    Biophysical Chemistry of Fractal Structures and Processes in Environmental Systems
    Biophysical Chemistry of Fractal Structures and Processes in Environmental Systems is meant to give an overview of a technique based on fractal geometry and the processes of environmental systems. This book gives ideas on how to use fractal geometry to compare and contrast different ecosystems. It also gives an overview of the knowledge needed to solve environmental problems. Finally, Biophysical Chemistry of Fractal Structures and Processes in Environmental Systems shows how to use the fractal approach to understand the reactivity of flocs
    Flocculation
    Flocculation, in the field of chemistry, is a process wherein colloids come out of suspension in the form of floc or flakes by the addition of a clarifying agent. The action differs from precipitation in that, prior to flocculation, colloids are merely suspended in a liquid and not actually...

    , sediments, soils, microorganisms and humic substances.
    Interactions Between Soil Particles and Microorganisms: Impact on the Terrestrial Ecosystem
    Interactions Between Soil Particles and Microorganisms: Impact on the Terrestrial Ecosystem is meant to be read by chemists and biologists that study environmental systems. Also, this book should be used as a reference for earth scientists, environmental geologists, environmental engineers, and professionals in microbiology and ecology. Interactions Between Soil Particles and Microorganisms: Impact on the Terrestrial Ecosystem is about how minerals, microorganisms, and organic components work together to affect terrestrial systems. This book identifies that there are many different techniques and theories about minerals, microorganisms, and organic components individually, but they aren't often associated with each other. It further goes on to discuss how these components of soil work together to affect terrestrial
    Terrestrial animal
    Terrestrial animals are animals that live predominantly or entirely on land , as compared with aquatic animals, which live predominantly or entirely in the water , or amphibians, which rely on a combination of aquatic and terrestrial habitats...

     life. Interactions Between Soil Particles and Microorganisms: Impact on the Terrestrial Ecosystem gives techniques to analyze minerals, microorganisms, and organic components together. This book also gives a large sections on why environmental scientists working in the specific fields of minerals, microorganisms, and organic components of soil should work together and how they should do so.
    The Biogeochemistry of Iron in Seawater
    The Biogeochemistry of Iron in Seawater is a book that describes how low concentrations of iron in Antarctica and the Pacific Oceans are a result of reduced chlorophyll for phytoplankton production. It does this by reviewing information from research in the 1990s. This book goes in depth about: chemical speciation; analytical techniques; transformation of iron; how iron limits the development of High Nutrient Low Chlorophyll
    Chlorophyll
    Chlorophyll is a green pigment found in almost all plants, algae, and cyanobacteria. Its name is derived from the Greek words χλωρος, chloros and φύλλον, phyllon . Chlorophyll is an extremely important biomolecule, critical in photosynthesis, which allows plants to obtain energy from light...

     areas in the pacific ocean
    Pacific Ocean
    The Pacific Ocean is the largest of the Earth's oceanic divisions. It extends from the Arctic in the north to the Southern Ocean in the south, bounded by Asia and Australia in the west, and the Americas in the east.At 165.2 million square kilometres in area, this largest division of the World...

    In Situ Monitoring of Aquatic Systems: Chemical Analysis and Speciation
    In Situ Monitoring of Aquatic Systems: Chemical Analysis and Speciation is a book that discusses techniques and devices to monitor aquatic systems and how new devices and techniques can be developed. This book emphasizes the future us of micro-analytical monitoring techniques and microtechnology
    Microtechnology
    Microtechnology is technology with features near one micrometre .In the 1960s, scientists learned that by arraying large numbers of microscopic transistors on a single chip, microelectronic circuits could be built that dramatically improved performance, functionality, and reliability, all while...

    . In Situ Monitoring of Aquatic Systems: Chemical Analysis and Speciation is aimed at researchers and laboratories that analyze aquatic systems such as rivers, lakes, and oceans.
    Structure and Surface Reactions of Soil Particles
    Structure and Surface Reactions of Soil Particles is a book about soil structures and the molecular processes that occur in soil. Structure and Surface Reactions of Soil Particles is aimed at any researcher researching soil or someone in the field of anthropology
    Anthropology
    Anthropology is the study of humanity. It has origins in the humanities, the natural sciences, and the social sciences. The term "anthropology" is from the Greek anthrōpos , "man", understood to mean mankind or humanity, and -logia , "discourse" or "study", and was first used in 1501 by German...

    . It goes in depth on topics such as: fractal analysis of particle dimensions; computer modeling of the structure; reactivity of humics; applications of atomic force microscopy; and advanced instrumentation for analysis of soil particles.
    Metal Speciation
    Speciation
    Speciation is the evolutionary process by which new biological species arise. The biologist Orator F. Cook seems to have been the first to coin the term 'speciation' for the splitting of lineages or 'cladogenesis,' as opposed to 'anagenesis' or 'phyletic evolution' occurring within lineages...

     and Bioavailability in Aquatic Systems, Series on Analytical and Physical Chemistry of Environmental Systems Vol. 3

    Metal Speciation and Bioavailability in Aquatic Systems, Series on Analytical and Physical Chemistry of Environmental Systems Vol. 3 is a book about the effect of trace metals on aquatic life. This book is considered a specialty book for researchers interested in observing the effect of trace metals in the water supply. This book includes techniques to assess how bioassays can be used to evaluate how an organism
    Organism
    In biology, an organism is any contiguous living system . In at least some form, all organisms are capable of response to stimuli, reproduction, growth and development, and maintenance of homoeostasis as a stable whole.An organism may either be unicellular or, as in the case of humans, comprise...

     is affected by trace metals. Also, Metal Speciation and Bioavailability in Aquatic Systems, Series on Analytical and Physical Chemistry of Environmental Systems Vol. 3 looks at the limitations of the use of bioassays to observe the effects of trace metals on organisms.
    Physicochemical Kinetics and Transport at Biointerfaces
    Physicochemical Kinetics and Transport at Biointerfaces is a book created to aid environmental scientists in field work. The book gives an overview of chemical mechanisms, transport, kinetics, and interactions that occur in environmental systems
    Environment (biophysical)
    The biophysical environment is the combined modeling of the physical environment and the biological life forms within the environment, and includes all variables, parameters as well as conditions and modes inside the Earth's biosphere. The biophysical environment can be divided into two categories:...

    . Physicochemical Kinetics and Transport at Biointerfaces continues from where Metal Speciation and Bioavailability in Aquatic Systems leaves off.

    Colored cover book and website series (nomenclature)


    IUPAC color codes their books in order to make each publication distinguishable.
    Title Description
    Compendium of Analytical Nomenclature
    One extensive book on almost all nomenclature written (IUPAC nomenclature of organic chemistry
    IUPAC nomenclature of organic chemistry
    The IUPAC nomenclature of organic chemistry is a systematic method of naming organic chemical compounds as recommended by the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry . Ideally, every possible organic compound should have a name from which an unambiguous structural formula can be drawn. ...

     and IUPAC nomenclature of inorganic chemistry
    IUPAC nomenclature of inorganic chemistry
    The IUPAC nomenclature of inorganic chemistry is a systematic method of naming inorganic chemical compounds, as recommended by the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry . The rules are commonly known as "The Red Book"...

    ) by the IUPAC committee is Compendium of Analytical Nomenclature
    Compendium of Analytical Nomenclature
    The Compendium of Analytical Nomenclature is a book published by the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry containing internationally accepted definitions for terms in analytical chemistry...

     - The Orange Book, 1st edition (1978) This book was revised in 1987. The second edition has many revisions that come from reports on nomenclature between 1976 and 1984. In 1992, the second edition went through many different revisions which led to the third edition.
    Pure and Applied Chemistry (journal)
    Pure and Applied Chemistry
    Pure and Applied Chemistry
    Pure and Applied Chemistry is the official journal for the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry. It is published monthly and contains recommendations and reports, and lectures from symposia....

     is the official monthly journal of IUPAC. This journal first debuted in 1960. The goal statement for Pure and Applied Chemistry is to "publish highly topical and credible works at the forefront of all aspects of pure and applied chemistry." The Journal itself is available by subscription, but older issues are available in the archive on the IUPAC website.

    Pure and Applied Chemistry was created as a central way to publish IUPAC endorsed articles. Before its creation, IUPAC didn't have a quick, official way to distribute new chemistry information.

    Its creation was first suggested at The Paris IUPAC Meeting of 1957. During this meeting the commercial publisher of the Journal was discussed and decided on. In 1959, the IUPAC Pure and Applied Chemistry Editorial Advisory Board was created put in charge of the journal. The idea of one journal being a definitive place for a vast amount of chemistry was difficult for the committee to grasp at first. However, it was decided that the journal would reprint old journal editions to keep all chemistry knowledge available.
    Compendium of Chemical Terminology
    The Compendium of Chemical Terminology, also known as The Gold Book, was originally worked on by Victor Gold
    Victor Gold (chemist)
    Victor Gold was a chemist who served on the faculty of King's College, London.Gold was born in Vienna, the son of lawyer Oscar Gold and his first wife, the former Emmy Kopperl. He was raised primarily by his mother...

    . This book is a collection of names and terms already discussed in Pure and Applied Chemistry
    Pure and Applied Chemistry
    Pure and Applied Chemistry is the official journal for the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry. It is published monthly and contains recommendations and reports, and lectures from symposia....

    . Compendium of Chemical Terminology was first published in 1987. The first edition of this book contains no original material, but is meant to be a compilation of other IUPAC works.

    The second edition of this book was published in 1997. This book made large changes to the first edition of the Compendium of Chemical Terminology. These changes included updated material and an expansion of the book to include over seven thousand terms. The second edition was the topic of an IUPAC XML
    XML
    Extensible Markup Language is a set of rules for encoding documents in machine-readable form. It is defined in the XML 1.0 Specification produced by the W3C, and several other related specifications, all gratis open standards....

     project. This project made an XML
    XML
    Extensible Markup Language is a set of rules for encoding documents in machine-readable form. It is defined in the XML 1.0 Specification produced by the W3C, and several other related specifications, all gratis open standards....

     version of the book that includes over seven thousand terms. The XML version of the book includes an open editing policy, which allows users to add excerpts of the written version.
    IUPAC Nomenclature of Organic Chemistry (online publication) IUPAC Nomenclature of Organic Chemistry, also known as The Blue Book, is a website published by Advanced Chemistry Department Incorporated with the permission of IUPAC. This site is a compilation of the books A Guide to IUPAC Nomenclature of Organic Compounds and Nomenclature of Organic Chemistry.

    International Year of Chemistry


    IUPAC and UNESCO
    UNESCO
    The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization is a specialized agency of the United Nations...

     are the lead organizations coordinating events for the International Year of Chemistry
    International Year of Chemistry
    The International Year of Chemistry 2011 commemorates the achievements of chemistry, and its contributions to humankind. This recognition for chemistry was made official by the United Nations in December 2008...

    , which will take place in 2011. The International Year of Chemistry
    International Year of Chemistry
    The International Year of Chemistry 2011 commemorates the achievements of chemistry, and its contributions to humankind. This recognition for chemistry was made official by the United Nations in December 2008...

     was originally proposed by IUPAC at the General Assembly in Turin
    Turin
    Turin is a city and major business and cultural centre in northern Italy, capital of the Piedmont region, located mainly on the left bank of the Po River and surrounded by the Alpine arch. The population of the city proper is 909,193 while the population of the urban area is estimated by Eurostat...

    , Italy
    Italy
    Italy , officially the Italian Republic languages]] under the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages. In each of these, Italy's official name is as follows:;;;;;;;;), is a unitary parliamentary republic in South-Central Europe. To the north it borders France, Switzerland, Austria and...

    . This motion was adopted by UNESCO
    UNESCO
    The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization is a specialized agency of the United Nations...

     at a meeting in 2008. The main objectives of the International Year of Chemistry
    International Year of Chemistry
    The International Year of Chemistry 2011 commemorates the achievements of chemistry, and its contributions to humankind. This recognition for chemistry was made official by the United Nations in December 2008...

     is to increase public appreciation of chemistry and gain more interest in the world of chemistry
    Chemistry
    Chemistry is the science of matter, especially its chemical reactions, but also its composition, structure and properties. Chemistry is concerned with atoms and their interactions with other atoms, and particularly with the properties of chemical bonds....

    . This event is also being held to encourage young people to get involved and contribute to chemistry
    Chemistry
    Chemistry is the science of matter, especially its chemical reactions, but also its composition, structure and properties. Chemistry is concerned with atoms and their interactions with other atoms, and particularly with the properties of chemical bonds....

    . A further reason for this event being held is to honour how chemistry has made improvements to everyone's way of life.

    IUPAC current project list

    • Project Number 2009-012-2-200: Coordination polymers
      Coordination polymers
      A coordination polymer is an inorganic or organometallic polymer structure containing metal cation centers linked by ligands, extending in an array. It can also be described as a polymer whose repeat units are coordination complexes...

       and metal organic frameworks: terminology and nomenclature guidelines
      • The objectives of this project are (1) to produce guidelines for terminology (glossary of terms) and nomenclature
        Nomenclature
        Nomenclature is a term that applies to either a list of names or terms, or to the system of principles, procedures and terms related to naming - which is the assigning of a word or phrase to a particular object or property...

         (concerning topology
        Topology
        Topology is a major area of mathematics concerned with properties that are preserved under continuous deformations of objects, such as deformations that involve stretching, but no tearing or gluing...

        , not naming of individual substances) in the area of coordination polymers
        Coordination polymers
        A coordination polymer is an inorganic or organometallic polymer structure containing metal cation centers linked by ligands, extending in an array. It can also be described as a polymer whose repeat units are coordination complexes...

        , (2) to ensure that these guidelines are accepted by a large group of leading researchers in the field, and (3) to have these guidelines implemented or referred to in the instructions to authors of leading general and inorganic chemistry
        Inorganic chemistry
        Inorganic chemistry is the branch of chemistry concerned with the properties and behavior of inorganic compounds. This field covers all chemical compounds except the myriad organic compounds , which are the subjects of organic chemistry...

         journals.
    • Project Number 2009-032-1-100: Categorizing Halogen Bonding
      Chemical bond
      A chemical bond is an attraction between atoms that allows the formation of chemical substances that contain two or more atoms. The bond is caused by the electromagnetic force attraction between opposite charges, either between electrons and nuclei, or as the result of a dipole attraction...

       and Other Noncovalent Interactions Involving Halogen
      Halogen
      The halogens or halogen elements are a series of nonmetal elements from Group 17 IUPAC Style of the periodic table, comprising fluorine , chlorine , bromine , iodine , and astatine...

       Atoms
      • The objective of this project is to give a modern definition to the term halogen
        Halogen
        The halogens or halogen elements are a series of nonmetal elements from Group 17 IUPAC Style of the periodic table, comprising fluorine , chlorine , bromine , iodine , and astatine...

         bonding and to examine and classify halogens as electrophilic species and their intermolecular interactions.
    • Project Number 2009-048-1-600: Guidance for substance-related environmental monitoring strategies regarding soil and surface water
      • The objective of this project is to identify new pollutants and their hazards and to monitor less investigated pollutants. Also, this project will provide strategies for how pollutants should be monitored. The advantages and disadvantages of each monitoring technique will be discussed.
    • Project Number 2009-034-2-700: Risk Assessment
      Risk assessment
      Risk assessment is a step in a risk management procedure. Risk assessment is the determination of quantitative or qualitative value of risk related to a concrete situation and a recognized threat...

       of Effects of Cadmium
      Cadmium
      Cadmium is a chemical element with the symbol Cd and atomic number 48. This soft, bluish-white metal is chemically similar to the two other stable metals in group 12, zinc and mercury. Similar to zinc, it prefers oxidation state +2 in most of its compounds and similar to mercury it shows a low...

       on Human Health
      • The objective of this project is to identify the risks and effects of exposure of humans to Cadmium
        Cadmium
        Cadmium is a chemical element with the symbol Cd and atomic number 48. This soft, bluish-white metal is chemically similar to the two other stable metals in group 12, zinc and mercury. Similar to zinc, it prefers oxidation state +2 in most of its compounds and similar to mercury it shows a low...

        , which is classified as a carcinogenic to humans by the International Agency for Research on Cancer
        Cancer
        Cancer , known medically as a malignant neoplasm, is a large group of different diseases, all involving unregulated cell growth. In cancer, cells divide and grow uncontrollably, forming malignant tumors, and invade nearby parts of the body. The cancer may also spread to more distant parts of the...

        . Also, the objective includes researching how Cadmium
        Cadmium
        Cadmium is a chemical element with the symbol Cd and atomic number 48. This soft, bluish-white metal is chemically similar to the two other stable metals in group 12, zinc and mercury. Similar to zinc, it prefers oxidation state +2 in most of its compounds and similar to mercury it shows a low...

         enters into the human body.
    • Project Number 2009-019-2-400: Data Treatment in SEC and Other Techniques of Polymer
      Polymer
      A polymer is a large molecule composed of repeating structural units. These subunits are typically connected by covalent chemical bonds...

       Characterization. Correction for Band Broadening and Other Sources of Error.
      • The objective of this project is to provide practical alternatives for improving the accuracy of polymer
        Polymer
        A polymer is a large molecule composed of repeating structural units. These subunits are typically connected by covalent chemical bonds...

         characterization and measurements. This would allow manufacturers of equipment, such as Size exclusive chromatography
        Size exclusion chromatography
        Size-exclusion chromatography is a chromatographic method in which molecules in solution are separated by their size, and in some cases molecular weight . It is usually applied to large molecules or macromolecular complexes such as proteins and industrial polymers...

         (SEC) and other polymer
        Polymer
        A polymer is a large molecule composed of repeating structural units. These subunits are typically connected by covalent chemical bonds...

         characterization techniques, to sell a product that is more accurate and precise.

    See also

    • CAS registry number
      CAS registry number
      CAS Registry Numbersare unique numerical identifiers assigned by the "Chemical Abstracts Service" toevery chemical described in the...

    • Element naming controversy
      Element naming controversy
      The names for the chemical elements 104 to 106 were the subject of a major controversy starting in the 1960s, described by some nuclear chemists as the Transfermium Wars because it concerned the elements following fermium on the periodic table....

    • International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
      International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
      The International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology is an international non-governmental organisation concerned with biochemistry and molecular biology...

       (IUBMB)
    • International Chemical Identifier
      International Chemical Identifier
      The IUPAC International Chemical Identifier is a textual identifier for chemical substances, designed to provide a standard and human-readable way to encode molecular information and to facilitate the search for such information in databases and on the web...

       (InChI)
    • Institute for Reference Materials and Measurements
      Institute for Reference Materials and Measurements
      The Institute for Reference Materials and Measurements , located in Geel, Belgium, is one of the seven institutes of the Joint Research Centre , a Directorate-General of the European Commission ....

       (IRMM)
    • National Institute of Standards and Technology
      National Institute of Standards and Technology
      The National Institute of Standards and Technology , known between 1901 and 1988 as the National Bureau of Standards , is a measurement standards laboratory, otherwise known as a National Metrological Institute , which is a non-regulatory agency of the United States Department of Commerce...

       (NIST)
    • International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry nomenclature
    • European Association for Chemical and Molecular Sciences
      European Association for Chemical and Molecular Sciences
      The European Association for Chemical and Molecular Sciences is a European non-profit organisation which works on promoting collaboration between non-profit scientific and technical societies in the field of chemistry. EuCheMS is an Associated Organisation of IUPAC...


    External links