Inspection

Inspection

Overview
An inspection is, most generally, an organized examination or formal evaluation exercise. In engineering activities inspection involves the measurements, tests, and gauges applied to certain characteristics in regard to an object or activity. The results are usually compared to specified requirements and standards for determining whether the item or activity is in line with these targets. Inspections are usually non-destructive.

A surprise inspection tends to have different results than an announced inspection.
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Encyclopedia
An inspection is, most generally, an organized examination or formal evaluation exercise. In engineering activities inspection involves the measurements, tests, and gauges applied to certain characteristics in regard to an object or activity. The results are usually compared to specified requirements and standards for determining whether the item or activity is in line with these targets. Inspections are usually non-destructive.

A surprise inspection tends to have different results than an announced inspection. Leaders seeking to discover how well lower echelons in their organization are typically doing sometimes drop in unannounced to see what is going on and what conditions are. When an inspection is scheduled in advance, it gives people a chance to cover up or fix mistakes. A surprise inspection, therefore, gives inspectors a better picture of the typical state of the inspected object than an announced inspection.

Business


In international trade
International trade
International trade is the exchange of capital, goods, and services across international borders or territories. In most countries, such trade represents a significant share of gross domestic product...

 several destination countries require Pre-shipment inspection
Pre-shipment inspection
Pre-shipment inspection, also called preshipment inspection or PSI, is an important and reliable quality control method for checking goods' quality while clients buy from the suppliers....

. The importer instructs the shipper which inspection company should be used. The inspector makes pictures and a report to certify that the goods that are being shipped and produced are in accordance with the accompanying documents.

Government


In government and politics, an inspection is the act of a monitoring authority administering an official review of various criteria (such as document
Document
The term document has multiple meanings in ordinary language and in scholarship. WordNet 3.1. lists four meanings :* document, written document, papers...

s, facilities, records, and any other assets) that are deemed by the authority to be related to the inspection. Inspections are used for the purpose of determining if a body is complying with regulations. The inspector examines the criteria and talks with involved individuals. A report and evaluation follows such visits.

The Food Safety Inspection Service is charged with ensuring that all meat and egg products in the United States are safe to consume and accurately labeled. The Meat Inspection Act
Meat Inspection Act
The Federal Meat Inspection Act of 1906 was a United States Congress Act that worked to prevent adulterated or misbranded meat and meat products from being sold as food and to ensure that meat and meat products are slaughtered and processed under sanitary conditions. These requirements also apply...

 of 1906 authorized the Secretary of Agriculture to order meat inspections and condemn any found unfit for human consumption. The United Nations Monitoring, Verification and Inspection Commission
United Nations Monitoring, Verification and Inspection Commission
The United Nations Monitoring, Verification and Inspection Commission was created through the adoption of United Nations Security Council resolution 1284 of 17 December 1999....

 is a regulatory body that inspects for weapons of mass destruction
Weapons of mass destruction
A weapon of mass destruction is a weapon that can kill and bring significant harm to a large number of humans and/or cause great damage to man-made structures , natural structures , or the biosphere in general...

. The Scottish Commission for the Regulation of Care
The Care Commission
The Scottish Commission for the Regulation of Care , known as The Care Commission has the responsibility for the regulation and inspection of all care services in Scotland which are registrable under the Regulation of Care Act 2001....

 regulates and inspects care services in Scotland.


Road vehicles


A vehicle inspection
Vehicle inspection
Vehicle inspection is a procedure mandated by national or subnational governments in many countries, in which a vehicle is inspected to ensure that it conforms to regulations governing safety, emissions, or both. Inspection can be required at various times, e.g., periodically or on transfer of...

, e.g., an annual inspection, is a necessary inspection required on vehicles to conform with laws regarding safety, emissions, or both. It consists of an examination of a vehicle's components, usually done by a certified mechanic. Vehicles pass a pre-warranty inspection, if, and only if, a mechanic provide evidence for the proper working condition of the vehicle systems specified in the type of inspection.

Engineering, mechanics


Quality related inspection is an essential part of quality control
Quality control
Quality control, or QC for short, is a process by which entities review the quality of all factors involved in production. This approach places an emphasis on three aspects:...

.

A mechanical inspection is usually undertaken to ensure the safety or reliability of structures or machinery.

In Europe bodies involved in engineering inspection may be assessed by acreditation bodies according to ISO 17020 "General criteria for the operation of various types of bodies performing inspection". This standard defines inspection as Examination of a product design, product, service, process or plant, and determination of their conformity with specific requirements or, on the basis of professional judgement, general requirements.

Non-Destructive Examination (NDE) or nondestructive testing
Nondestructive testing
Nondestructive testing or Non-destructive testing is a wide group of analysis techniques used in science and industry to evaluate the properties of a material, component or system without causing damage....

 (NDT) describe a number of technologies used to analyze materials for either inherent flaws or damage from use. Some common methods are visual, Liquid or dye penetrant inspection
Dye penetrant inspection
Dye penetrant inspection , also called liquid penetrant inspection or penetrant testing , is a widely applied and low-cost inspection method used to locate surface-breaking defects in all non-porous materials...

, magnetic-particle inspection
Magnetic-particle inspection
Magnetic particle inspection is a non-destructive testing process for detecting surface and slightly subsurface discontinuities in ferroelectric materials such as iron, nickel, cobalt, and some of their alloys. The process puts a magnetic field into the part. The piece can be magnetized by direct...

, radiographic testing
Radiographic testing
Radiographic Testing , or industrial radiography, is a nondestructive testing method of inspecting materials for hidden flaws by using the ability of short wavelength electromagnetic radiation to penetrate various materials.Either an X-ray machine or a radioactive source can be used as a source...

, ultrasonic testing, eddy-current testing
Eddy-current testing
Eddy-current testing uses electromagnetic induction to detect flaws in conductive materials. There are several limitations, among them: only conductive materials can be tested, the surface of the material must be accessible, the finish of the material may cause bad readings, the depth of...

, acoustic emission testing, and thermographic inspection
Thermographic inspection
Thermographic inspection refers to the nondestructive testing of parts, materials or systems through the imaging of the thermal patterns at the object's surface. Strictly speaking, the term thermography alone, refers to all thermographic inspection techniques regardless of the physical phenomena...

. In addition, many non-destructive inspections can be performed by a precision scale, or when in motion, a checkweigher.

Medical


An medical inspection
Inspection (medicine)
In medicine, inspection is the thorough and unhurried visualization of the client. This requires the use of the naked eye.During inspection, the examiner observes:External signs:...

is the thorough and unhurried visualization of a client, this requires the use of the naked eye.

Military


An examination vessel
Examination vessel
An examination vessel is a vessel used to inspect ships and boats entering a port during wartime.An examination vessel would typically be responsible for examining and verifying all merchant ships and small craft entering or departing a port...

 is a craft used to inspect ships entering or leaving a port.

Real estate


A property inspection is the examination for purposes of evaluating a property's condition. In purchasing property, a "whole house inspection" tries to detect defects in the property. The railroad's inspection locomotive
Inspection locomotive
An inspection locomotive was a special type of steam locomotive designed to carry railroad officials on inspection tours of the railroad property. They were fitted with passenger car-like bodywork and seating. Many railroads in the nineteenth century owned one, but their use dwindled in the...

 were special types of steam locomotive
Steam locomotive
A steam locomotive is a railway locomotive that produces its power through a steam engine. These locomotives are fueled by burning some combustible material, usually coal, wood or oil, to produce steam in a boiler, which drives the steam engine...

 designed to carry railroad officials on inspection tours of the railroad property.

Software engineering


Software inspection
Software inspection
Inspection in software engineering, refers to peer review of any work product by trained individuals who look for defects using a well defined process...

, in software engineering, refers to peer review of any work product by trained individuals who look for defects using a well defined process.

See also

  • United States Postal Inspection Service
    United States Postal Inspection Service
    The United States Postal Inspection Service is the law enforcement arm of the United States Postal Service. Its jurisdiction is defined as "crimes that may adversely affect or fraudulently use the U.S...

     (USPIS ): law enforcement arm of the United States Postal Service.
  • Review
    Review
    A review is an evaluation of a publication, a product or a service, such as a movie , video game, musical composition , book ; a piece of hardware like a car, home appliance, or computer; or an event or performance, such as a live music concert, a play, musical theater show or dance show...

    : Writings that discuss opinion on something, usually art or entertainment.
  • Workers and Peasants Inspection
    Workers and Peasants Inspection
    Workers and Peasants Inspection was a government organization that was part of the socialist economic planning apparatus of the state which began under the leadership of Lenin in the USSR....

    : A Soviet government organization.
  • Inspection phase: Judgements on knowledge of various subjects relating to events.
  • Stateful Packet Inspection: Conversation tracking between the hosts