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Industry of Iran

Industry of Iran

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According to a report by the Economist
The Economist
The Economist is an English-language weekly news and international affairs publication owned by The Economist Newspaper Ltd. and edited in offices in the City of Westminster, London, England. Continuous publication began under founder James Wilson in September 1843...

, Iran
Iran
Iran , officially the Islamic Republic of Iran , is a country in Southern and Western Asia. The name "Iran" has been in use natively since the Sassanian era and came into use internationally in 1935, before which the country was known to the Western world as Persia...

 has been ranked 39th for producing $23 billion of industrial products in 2008. From 2008 to 2009 Iran has leaped to 28th place from 69th place in annual industrial production growth rate. A recent report by the World Fact Book ranks Iran 3rd among “emerging industrial powers
Emerging markets
Emerging markets are nations with social or business activity in the process of rapid growth and industrialization. Based on data from 2006, there are around 28 emerging markets in the world . The economies of China and India are considered to be the largest...

” in the world (after China
China
Chinese civilization may refer to:* China for more general discussion of the country.* Chinese culture* Greater China, the transnational community of ethnic Chinese.* History of China* Sinosphere, the area historically affected by Chinese culture...

 and India
India
India , officially the Republic of India , is a country in South Asia. It is the seventh-largest country by geographical area, the second-most populous country with over 1.2 billion people, and the most populous democracy in the world...

) in terms of its industrial growth. According to the report, Iran’s industrial sector grew by 4% in the year 2009. Iran was ranked 13th among emerging economies in 2006. Overall, Iran is ranked 31st in the world in terms of its industrial production growth rate.

The government of Iran has plans for the establishment of 50-60 industrial park
Industrial park
An industrial park is an area zoned and planned for the purpose of industrial development...

s by the end of the fifth Five-Year Socioeconomic Development Plan by 2015. Iranian contractors have been awarded several foreign tender contracts in different fields of construction of dams, bridges, roads
Transport in Iran
Transport in Iran is inexpensive because of the government's subsidization of the price of gasoline. The downside is economic inefficiency because of highly wasteful consumption patterns, contraband with neighboring countries and air pollution...

, buildings
Construction in Iran
In recent years, the construction industry of Iran has been thriving due to an increase in national and international investment to the extent that it is now the largest in the Middle East region...

, railroads
Islamic Republic of Iran Railways
The Islamic Republic of Iran Railways is the national state-owned railway system of Iran. is an associate of the IR and manages its passenger trains including international trains between Tehran and Istanbul and Tehran and Damascus...

, power generation, and gas, oil
National Iranian Oil Company
The National Iranian Oil Company , a government-owned corporation under the direction of the Ministry of Petroleum of Iran, is an oil and natural gas producer and distributor headquartered in Tehran. It was established in 1948...

 and petrochemical
National Iranian Petrochemical Company
The National Iranian Petrochemical Company , a subsidiary to the Iranian Petroleum Ministry, is owned by the government of the Islamic Republic of Iran. It is responsible for the development and operation of the country's petrochemical sector. Founded in 1964, NIPC began its activities by operating...

 industries. As of 2011, some 66 Iranian industrial companies are carrying out projects in 27 countries. The availability of local raw materials, rich mineral reserves
Mining in Iran
Mining in Iran is under-developed. Yet the country is one of the most important mineral producers in the world, ranked among 15 major mineral rich countries, holding some 68 types of minerals, 37 billion tonnes of proven reserves and more than 57 billion tonnes of potential reservoirs....

, experienced man power have all collectively played crucial role in wining the international bids.

Ministry of Industries and Mines


Ministry of Industries and Mines is in charge of facilitating the expansion and promotion of industrial and mineral policies. The Ministry is also in charge of centralization and integration
of policy making in the industrial and mining sector. Finally, this Ministry regulates all strategies, policies and plans relevant to the industrial and mining sector in Iran
Mining in Iran
Mining in Iran is under-developed. Yet the country is one of the most important mineral producers in the world, ranked among 15 major mineral rich countries, holding some 68 types of minerals, 37 billion tonnes of proven reserves and more than 57 billion tonnes of potential reservoirs....

.

Small and Medium Enterprises



A 2003-report made by United Nations Industrial Development Organization
United Nations Industrial Development Organization
The United Nations Industrial Development Organization , French/Spanish acronym ONUDI, is a specialized agency in the United Nations system, headquartered in Vienna, Austria...

 regarding the state of SME's in Iran identified these causes as the ones impeding Iran's industrial development: lack of monitoring institutions, inefficient banking system, lack of sufficient R&D
Science and technology in Iran
Persia was a cradle of science in earlier times. Persian scientists contributed to the current understanding of nature, medicine, mathematics, and philosophy. Persians made important contributions to algebra and chemistry, invented the wind-power machine, and the first distillation of alcohol...

, shortage of managerial skills, corruption, inefficient taxation, socio-cultural apprehensions, absence of social learning loops, lack of familiarity with international markets necessary for global competition, cumbersome bureaucratic procedures, shortage of skilled labor, lack of intellectual property protection
Intellectual property in Iran
Iran is a member of the WIPO since 2001 and has acceded to several WIPO intellectual-property treaties. Iran joined the Convention for the Protection of Industrial Property in 1959. In December 2003 Iran became a party to the Madrid Agreement and the Madrid Protocol for the International...

, shortage of research centers, lack of social capital, social learning
Education in Iran
Education in Iran is highly centralized and is divided to K-12 education and higher education. K-12 education is supervised by the Ministry of Education and higher education is under supervision of Ministry of Science and Technology....

, social responsibility and socio-cultural values
Culture of Iran
To best understand Iran, Afghanistan, their related societies and their people, one must first attempt to acquire an understanding of their culture. It is in the study of this area where the Persian identity optimally expresses itself...

.

Production Statistics


Tehran
Tehran
Tehran , sometimes spelled Teheran, is the capital of Iran and Tehran Province. With an estimated population of 8,429,807; it is also Iran's largest urban area and city, one of the largest cities in Western Asia, and is the world's 19th largest city.In the 20th century, Tehran was subject to...

 is the economic centre of Iran. About 30% of Iran’s public-sector workforce and 45% of large industrial firms are located in Tehran and almost half of these workers work for the government.
Production of selected industrial goods

Source: Ministry of Commerce (Iran)
Ministry of Commerce (Iran)
The Ministry of Commerce of Iran was the main organ of the Government in charge of the regulation and implementation of policies applicable to domestic and foreign trade...

2003 2001 1999 Unit Product
26390 18180 12699 Ton Preserved fish
(tuna & sardine)
1264915 801395 671346 Ton Pasteurized milk
1179139 852353 950555 Ton Vegetable oil
1495 1113 923 Ton Sugar
4976 4818 4418 Thousand tons Non-alcoholic
carbonated drink
(except buttermilk)
112 60 000 Million bottles Barley decoction
13873 13359 20143 Million each Cigarette
293188 388790 227599 Ton Thread
396 551 385 Million meters Finished fabric
41195 51875 33933 Thousand square meters Machine woven
carpet
81286 43014 41676 Thousand square meters Unwoven textile
floor covering
11918 8166 5696 Thousand each Blanket
390210 315502 359037 Ton Paper
360017 306249 321232 Ton Detergent
60607 75918 74984 Ton Soap
1654 2351 2665 Million boxes Matches
28241 24755 22219 Thousand ton Cement
103867 76827 64105 Thousand square meters Tiles and ceramic
490 346 342 Each Combine
15377 12208 5173 Each Tractor
1505 612 532 Each Road construction
machinery
447063 212664 182504 Each Washing machine
13624 24559 21198 Thousand each Electric sockets
and switches
399692 129256 114399 Each Radio sets and
record players
858190 807964 860403 Each Color TV sets
832420 933741 599701 Each Water counter
1189912 906671 842063 Each Electricity counters
663164 332643 194366 Each Motor cars
1075 328 353 Each Ambulances
12779 4303 3938 Each Trucks and lorries
4460 1643 3783 Each Buses
537 3226 940 Each Mini buses
69036 46639 38508 Each Vans and Mini
vans

Food industry


Iran exported $736 million worth of foodstuffs in 2007 and $1 billion (~600,000 tonnes) in 2010. Soft drinks, mineral water, biscuit, chocolate, confection, edible oil, dairies, conserved foods and fruits, jam and jelly, macaroni, fruit juice and yeast were among the main exports to Iraq, Afghanistan, Turkmenistan, Tajikistan and other Central Asian countries, Russia, Ukraine, Belarus, Pakistan, Saudi Arabia, Kuwait, United Arab Emirates, Qatar, Oman, Syria, Germany, Spain, the Netherlands, France, Canada, Venezuela, Japan, South Korea and Turkey.

Retail industry


At present the Iranian retail industry is largely in the hands of cooperative
Cooperative
A cooperative is a business organization owned and operated by a group of individuals for their mutual benefit...

s, many of them government-sponsored, and of independent retailers in the bazaar
Bazaar
A bazaar , Cypriot Greek: pantopoula) is a permanent merchandising area, marketplace, or street of shops where goods and services are exchanged or sold. The term is sometimes also used to refer to the "network of merchants, bankers and craftsmen" who work that area...

s. The bulk of food sales occur at street markets, where the Chief Statistics Bureau sets the prices.

Behpakhsh Co., Golrang Pakhsh and Ghasem Iran are the largest distribution companies in Iran. Ghasem provides more than 80,000 retailers with their requirements of consumer goods with in the territories of Iran
Iran
Iran , officially the Islamic Republic of Iran , is a country in Southern and Western Asia. The name "Iran" has been in use natively since the Sassanian era and came into use internationally in 1935, before which the country was known to the Western world as Persia...

, Afghanistan
Afghanistan
Afghanistan , officially the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan, is a landlocked country located in the centre of Asia, forming South Asia, Central Asia and the Middle East. With a population of about 29 million, it has an area of , making it the 42nd most populous and 41st largest nation in the world...

, and Iraq
Iraq
Iraq ; officially the Republic of Iraq is a country in Western Asia spanning most of the northwestern end of the Zagros mountain range, the eastern part of the Syrian Desert and the northern part of the Arabian Desert....

.

Iran has 438,478 small grocery retailers. These are especially popular in cities other than Tehran where the number of hypermarkets and supermarkets is still very limited. More mini-markets and supermarket
Supermarket
A supermarket, a form of grocery store, is a self-service store offering a wide variety of food and household merchandise, organized into departments...

s are emerging, but these are mostly one-off, independently owned operations. The most significant chains are the state-owned '

Automotive industry


Iran’s automotive industry is the second most active industry of the country, after its oil and gas industry. Iran's automobile production crossed the 1 million mark in 2005. Iran Khodro
Iran Khodro
Iran Khodro Company, also known as IKCO, is the leading Iranian automaker with headquarters in Tehran. The company's original name was Iran National. IKCO was founded in 1962 and it produced 688,000 passenger cars in 2009...

 is the largest car manufacturer in the Middle-East. It has established joint-ventures with foreign partners on 4 continents. Iran is the 12th largest automaker in the world.

Defense industry


The Iranian defense industry has taken great strides in the past 25 years, and now manufactures many types of arms and equipments, including its own tank
Tank
A tank is a tracked, armoured fighting vehicle designed for front-line combat which combines operational mobility, tactical offensive, and defensive capabilities...

s, armored personnel carriers, guided missiles, radar systems, guided missile destroyer
Guided missile destroyer
A guided missile destroyer is a destroyer designed to launch guided missiles. Many are also equipped to carry out anti-submarine, anti-air, and anti-surface operations. In the U.S...

, military vessels, submarine
Submarine
A submarine is a watercraft capable of independent operation below the surface of the water. It differs from a submersible, which has more limited underwater capability...

s, and a fighter plane. According to Iranian officials, the country sold $100 million worth of military equipment in 2003, including NATO members, and as of 2006 had exported weapons to 57 countries.

Construction industry


Construction is one of the most important sectors in Iran accounting for 20–50% of the total private investment. The Central Bank of Iran indicate that 70 percent of the Iranians own homes. The housing industry is one of the few segments of the Iranian economy where state capital shares as little as two per cent of the market, and the remaining 98 per cent is private sector
Private sector
In economics, the private sector is that part of the economy, sometimes referred to as the citizen sector, which is run by private individuals or groups, usually as a means of enterprise for profit, and is not controlled by the state...

 investment. There is little red tape or hurdles and, as a result, through launching mass development projects, the use of new technologies and fast-pace project execution, a larger portion of the housing market is accessible. This is also true for new construction materials and technological advances.

Mining and metals


Iran is one of the most important mineral producers in the world, ranked among 15 major mineral rich countries. The country holds 68 types of minerals, including chrome
Chromium
Chromium is a chemical element which has the symbol Cr and atomic number 24. It is the first element in Group 6. It is a steely-gray, lustrous, hard metal that takes a high polish and has a high melting point. It is also odorless, tasteless, and malleable...

, lead
Lead
Lead is a main-group element in the carbon group with the symbol Pb and atomic number 82. Lead is a soft, malleable poor metal. It is also counted as one of the heavy metals. Metallic lead has a bluish-white color after being freshly cut, but it soon tarnishes to a dull grayish color when exposed...

, zinc
Zinc
Zinc , or spelter , is a metallic chemical element; it has the symbol Zn and atomic number 30. It is the first element in group 12 of the periodic table. Zinc is, in some respects, chemically similar to magnesium, because its ion is of similar size and its only common oxidation state is +2...

, copper
Copper
Copper is a chemical element with the symbol Cu and atomic number 29. It is a ductile metal with very high thermal and electrical conductivity. Pure copper is soft and malleable; an exposed surface has a reddish-orange tarnish...

, coal
Coal
Coal is a combustible black or brownish-black sedimentary rock usually occurring in rock strata in layers or veins called coal beds or coal seams. The harder forms, such as anthracite coal, can be regarded as metamorphic rock because of later exposure to elevated temperature and pressure...

, gold
Gold
Gold is a chemical element with the symbol Au and an atomic number of 79. Gold is a dense, soft, shiny, malleable and ductile metal. Pure gold has a bright yellow color and luster traditionally considered attractive, which it maintains without oxidizing in air or water. Chemically, gold is a...

, tin
Tin
Tin is a chemical element with the symbol Sn and atomic number 50. It is a main group metal in group 14 of the periodic table. Tin shows chemical similarity to both neighboring group 14 elements, germanium and lead and has two possible oxidation states, +2 and the slightly more stable +4...

 and iron
Iron
Iron is a chemical element with the symbol Fe and atomic number 26. It is a metal in the first transition series. It is the most common element forming the planet Earth as a whole, forming much of Earth's outer and inner core. It is the fourth most common element in the Earth's crust...

.

Textiles and apparel industry



Textile mills, based on domestic cotton and wool such as Tehran Patou and Iran Termeh, among others, employed about 400,000 people in 2000 and are centered in Tehran
Tehran
Tehran , sometimes spelled Teheran, is the capital of Iran and Tehran Province. With an estimated population of 8,429,807; it is also Iran's largest urban area and city, one of the largest cities in Western Asia, and is the world's 19th largest city.In the 20th century, Tehran was subject to...

, Isfahan and along the Caspian
Caspian Sea
The Caspian Sea is the largest enclosed body of water on Earth by area, variously classed as the world's largest lake or a full-fledged sea. The sea has a surface area of and a volume of...

 coast. Iran, with a population of 70 million, requires 1.4 billion square meters of textiles annually. Overseas companies smuggle illegal textiles and apparel into Iran at a rate that is decimating Iran textile manufacturers and costing Iranian jobs. The annual textile production has been restricted to 800 million square meters.
Growth of the textile industry components, 1995–2000
Industry components Workforce, 1995 Workforce, 2000 Share in total manufacturing employment, 1995 (percent) Share in total manufacturing employment, 2000 (percent)
Spinning, weaving and finishing of textiles 112,714 107,565 14.2 12.0
Other textiles (line, jute, etc.) 30,879 31,794 3.9 3.5
Knitted and crocheted fabrics and articles 3,631 2,459 0.5 0.5
Wearing apparel, except fur apparel 8,608 4,800 1.1 0.5

Source: United Nations Industrial Development Organization
United Nations Industrial Development Organization
The United Nations Industrial Development Organization , French/Spanish acronym ONUDI, is a specialized agency in the United Nations system, headquartered in Vienna, Austria...

 (UNIDO)

Further information:

Aviation industry


Iran is producing 59-seat aircraft inside the country such as HESA IrAn-140
HESA IrAn-140
|-See also:* Iran Aviation Industries Organization* Military of Iran* List of Iranian Air Force aircraft* Iranian military industry* Current Equipment of the Iranian Army-External links:* - Globalsecurity.org...

 with the help of Russia and Ukraine and it will shift focus to 90 to 120-seat airplanes in the next step. Iran also produces military attack aircraft such as HESA Saeqeh.

Pharmaceuticals and healthcare industry


The pharmaceutical industry in Iran began in its modern form in 1920 when the Pasteur Institute
Pasteur Institute
The Pasteur Institute is a French non-profit private foundation dedicated to the study of biology, micro-organisms, diseases, and vaccines. It is named after Louis Pasteur, who made some of the greatest breakthroughs in modern medicine at the time, including pasteurization and vaccines for anthrax...

 was founded. Iran has a well-developed pharmaceutical production capability, however, the country still relies on imports for raw materials and many specialized drugs. In 2009, Iran exported $74 million worth of "medical products" to countries such as Iraq
Iraq
Iraq ; officially the Republic of Iraq is a country in Western Asia spanning most of the northwestern end of the Zagros mountain range, the eastern part of the Syrian Desert and the northern part of the Arabian Desert....

, Afghanistan
Afghanistan
Afghanistan , officially the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan, is a landlocked country located in the centre of Asia, forming South Asia, Central Asia and the Middle East. With a population of about 29 million, it has an area of , making it the 42nd most populous and 41st largest nation in the world...

 and Russia
Russia
Russia or , officially known as both Russia and the Russian Federation , is a country in northern Eurasia. It is a federal semi-presidential republic, comprising 83 federal subjects...

.

Oil, gas and petrochemicals


Iran's oil and gas industry is the most active industry of the country. Iran has the fourth largest reserves of oil and second largest reserves of gas in the world.

Domestic production of equipment in the nation's upstream oil industries has grown four-fold in as many years while procurement of equipment and goods accounts for around 60 to 65 percent of any oil project.

Power



Iran has become self-sufficient in designing, building and operating dams and power plants and it has won a good number of international bids in competition with foreign firms.

Electronics and computer industry


Iran
Iran
Iran , officially the Islamic Republic of Iran , is a country in Southern and Western Asia. The name "Iran" has been in use natively since the Sassanian era and came into use internationally in 1935, before which the country was known to the Western world as Persia...

’s domestic consumer electronic market, defined as including computing devices, mobile handsets and video audio and gaming products, was estimated at $7.3 billion in 2008 ($8.2 billion in 2010), with 47% market share for computer hardware
Computer hardware
Personal computer hardware are component devices which are typically installed into or peripheral to a computer case to create a personal computer upon which system software is installed including a firmware interface such as a BIOS and an operating system which supports application software that...

, 28% Audio/Video and 25% mobile phone
Mobile phone
A mobile phone is a device which can make and receive telephone calls over a radio link whilst moving around a wide geographic area. It does so by connecting to a cellular network provided by a mobile network operator...

 (with growing demand for PDA
PDA
A PDA is most commonly a Personal digital assistant, also known as a Personal data assistant, a mobile electronic device.PDA may also refer to:In science, medicine and technology:...

s, smart phones and 3G
3G
3G or 3rd generation mobile telecommunications is a generation of standards for mobile phones and mobile telecommunication services fulfilling the International Mobile Telecommunications-2000 specifications by the International Telecommunication Union...

 handsets). Business Monitor International (BMI) forecasts that Iran’s demands for domestic consumer electronic devices will reach $10 billion by 2013.

Telecommunications



Iran is among the first five countries which have had a growth rate of over 20% and the highest level of development in telecommunication. Iran's Ministry of Communication and Information Technology
Ministry of Economic Affairs and Finance (Iran)
The Ministry of Economic Affairs and Finances function are:*acting as the state treasury,*public finance,*economic and financial policy making,*implementing tax policies,*in charge of foreign direct investment,...

 along with TCI are developing the landline telephone network in the towns of Karbala
Karbala
Karbala is a city in Iraq, located about southwest of Baghdad. Karbala is the capital of Karbala Governorate, and has an estimated population of 572,300 people ....

 and Najaf
Najaf
Najaf is a city in Iraq about 160 km south of Baghdad. Its estimated population in 2008 is 560,000 people. It is the capital of Najaf Governorate...

 in Iraq
Iraq
Iraq ; officially the Republic of Iraq is a country in Western Asia spanning most of the northwestern end of the Zagros mountain range, the eastern part of the Syrian Desert and the northern part of the Arabian Desert....

.

Banking industry



Shariah-compliant assets has reached about $400 billion throughout the world, according to Standard & Poor’s Ratings Services, and the potential market is $4 trillion.
Iran, Saudi Arabia
Saudi Arabia
The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia , commonly known in British English as Saudi Arabia and in Arabic as as-Sa‘ūdiyyah , is the largest state in Western Asia by land area, constituting the bulk of the Arabian Peninsula, and the second-largest in the Arab World...

 and Malaysia are at the top with the biggest sharia-compliant assets.Bank Melli, Saderat
Bank Saderat Iran
Bank Saderat Iran is an Iranian Bank. Its name means "the Export Bank of Iran". Bank Saderat Iran was founded by the prominent Mofarrah and Bolurfrushan families, commenced operation on 13 November 1952 with a board of three directors and 20 employees...

 and Sepah
Bank Sepah
-History:The first Iranian bank, Bank Sepah was established in 1925 ; its first branch, in Rasht, opened that year. The bank also has branches in Frankfurt, Paris and Rome as well as a wholly owned subsidiary, Bank Sepah International plc which operates in London. "Sepah" is the poetic Persian...

 are Iran's three largest banks.

Tourism industry


Officials state that Iran has in recent years earned about US$1bn a year from tourism. Iran currently ranks 68th in tourism
Tourism
Tourism is travel for recreational, leisure or business purposes. The World Tourism Organization defines tourists as people "traveling to and staying in places outside their usual environment for not more than one consecutive year for leisure, business and other purposes".Tourism has become a...

 revenues worldwide. Iran with attractive natural and historical sites is rated among the "10 most touristic countries" in the world. Area considered for further expansion in the tourism sector in Iran are eco tourism, coastlines
Geography of Iran
Iran is located in southwest Asia and borders the Gulf of Oman, Persian Gulf, and Caspian Sea.Its mountains have helped to shape both the political and the economic history of the country for several centuries. The mountains enclose several broad basins, or plateaus, on which major agricultural and...

, restoration
Construction in Iran
In recent years, the construction industry of Iran has been thriving due to an increase in national and international investment to the extent that it is now the largest in the Middle East region...

 of historical relics
History of Iran
The history of Iran has been intertwined with the history of a larger historical region, comprising the area from the Danube River in the west to the Indus River and Jaxartes in the east and from the Caucasus, Caspian Sea, and Aral Sea in the north to the Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman and Egypt...

, handicraft townships
Iranian art
Persian arts, or Iranian arts is one of the richest art heritages in world history and encompasses many disciplines including architecture, painting, weaving, pottery, calligraphy, metalworking and stonemasonry.-The Persian rug:...

, and health tourism (e.g. water therapy).

Naval industry


Over the next two decades, Iran would need 500 new ships, including 120 oil tankers, 40 liquefied natural gas (LNG) carriers and over 300 commercial vessels. In 2009, in a move aimed at further enhancing Iran's shipbuilding industry, President Mahmoud Ahmadinejad said he will ban the purchase of foreign ships by Iranian organizations. The Ministry of Commerce
Ministry of Commerce (Iran)
The Ministry of Commerce of Iran was the main organ of the Government in charge of the regulation and implementation of policies applicable to domestic and foreign trade...

 has confirmed that Iran is able to build all its needed sea fleets inside the country.

See also


  • Economy of Iran
    Economy of Iran
    The economy of Iran is the eighteenth largest in the world by purchasing power parity and according to Iranian officials' claims is going to become the 12th largest by 2015. The economy of Iran is a mixed and transition economy with a large public sector and some 50% of the economy centrally planned...

  • Foreign Direct Investment in Iran
    Foreign Direct Investment in Iran
    Foreign direct investment in Iran has been hindered by unfavorable or complex operating requirements and by international sanctions, although in the early 2000s the Iranian government liberalized investment regulations. Iran ranks 62nd in the World Economic Forum's 2011 analysis of the global...

  • Labor and tax laws in Iran
  • Economic history of Iran
    Economic history of Iran
    -Pahlavi Era :Reza Shah Pahlavi improved the country’s overall infrastructure, implemented educational reform, campaigned against foreign influence, reformed the legal system, and introduced modern industries...

  • Bonyad
    Bonyad
    Bonyads are charitable trusts in Iran that play a significant role in Iran's non-petroleum economy, controlling an estimated 20% of Iran's GDP. Exempt from taxes, they have been called "bloated", and "a major weakness of Iran’s economy", and criticized for reaping "huge subsidies from government",...

  • Bank of Industry and Mine
  • List of Iranian companies
  • Iran Chamber of Commerce Industries and Mines
    Iran Chamber of Commerce Industries and Mines
    The Iran Chamber of Commerce, Industries and Mines is a non-profit semi-governmental institution, established to facilitate economic growth and development in the country. ICCIM is a forum in the field of industries, mines and agriculture...

  • Industrial Development and Renovation Organization of Iran (IDRO)
  • Institute of Standards and Industrial Research of Iran
    Institute of Standards and Industrial Research of Iran
    The Institute of Standards and Industrial Research of Iran is the Iranian governmental institution for standardization and certification...

  • Science and technology in Iran
    Science and technology in Iran
    Persia was a cradle of science in earlier times. Persian scientists contributed to the current understanding of nature, medicine, mathematics, and philosophy. Persians made important contributions to algebra and chemistry, invented the wind-power machine, and the first distillation of alcohol...

  • Privatization in Iran
    Privatization in Iran
    According to the Fourth Five-Year Economic Development Plan , the Privatization Organization of Iran affiliated to the Ministry of Economic Affairs and Finance is in charge of setting prices and ceding shares to the general public and on the Tehran Stock Exchange...

  • Tehran Stock Exchange
    Tehran Stock Exchange
    The Tehran Stock Exchange is Iran's largest stock exchange, which first opened in 1967. The TSE is based in Tehran. As of July 2010, 337 companies with a market capitalization of US$72 billion were listed on TSE...

  • International rankings of Iran
  • Environmental issues in Iran
    Environmental issues in Iran
    Environmental issues in Iran include, especially in urban areas, vehicle emissions, refinery operations, and industrial effluents which contribute to poor air quality. Most cars use leaded gas and lack emissions control equipment. Tehran is rated as one of the world’s most polluted cities...

  • Industry
    Industry
    Industry refers to the production of an economic good or service within an economy.-Industrial sectors:There are four key industrial economic sectors: the primary sector, largely raw material extraction industries such as mining and farming; the secondary sector, involving refining, construction,...

  • Machine tool
    Machine tool
    A machine tool is a machine, typically powered other than by human muscle , used to make manufactured parts in various ways that include cutting or certain other kinds of deformation...


External links