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Indian Institute of Science

Indian Institute of Science

Overview
Indian Institute of Science (IISc) is a research institution of higher learning located in Bangalore
Bangalore
Bengaluru , formerly called Bengaluru is the capital of the Indian state of Karnataka. Bangalore is nicknamed the Garden City and was once called a pensioner's paradise. Located on the Deccan Plateau in the south-eastern part of Karnataka, Bangalore is India's third most populous city and...

, India
India
India , officially the Republic of India , is a country in South Asia. It is the seventh-largest country by geographical area, the second-most populous country with over 1.2 billion people, and the most populous democracy in the world...

. It was established in 1909.




After a chance meeting between Jamsetji N. Tata and Swami Vivekananda
Swami Vivekananda
Swami Vivekananda , born Narendranath Dutta , was the chief disciple of the 19th century mystic Ramakrishna Paramahansa and the founder of the Ramakrishna Math and the Ramakrishna Mission...

 on a ship in 1893 where they discussed Tata's plan of bringing the steel industry to India, Tata wrote to Vivekananda five years later:
Impressed by Vivekananda's views on science and leadership abilities, Tata wanted him to guide his campaign.
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Encyclopedia
Indian Institute of Science (IISc) is a research institution of higher learning located in Bangalore
Bangalore
Bengaluru , formerly called Bengaluru is the capital of the Indian state of Karnataka. Bangalore is nicknamed the Garden City and was once called a pensioner's paradise. Located on the Deccan Plateau in the south-eastern part of Karnataka, Bangalore is India's third most populous city and...

, India
India
India , officially the Republic of India , is a country in South Asia. It is the seventh-largest country by geographical area, the second-most populous country with over 1.2 billion people, and the most populous democracy in the world...

. It was established in 1909.

History




After a chance meeting between Jamsetji N. Tata and Swami Vivekananda
Swami Vivekananda
Swami Vivekananda , born Narendranath Dutta , was the chief disciple of the 19th century mystic Ramakrishna Paramahansa and the founder of the Ramakrishna Math and the Ramakrishna Mission...

 on a ship in 1893 where they discussed Tata's plan of bringing the steel industry to India, Tata wrote to Vivekananda five years later:
Impressed by Vivekananda's views on science and leadership abilities, Tata wanted him to guide his campaign. Vivekananda endorsed the project with enthusiasm, and Tata, with the aim of advancing the scientific capabilities of the country, constituted a Provisional Committee to prepare a plan for setting up of an Institute of research and higher education. The committee presented a draft proposal to Lord Curzon on 31 December 1898. Subsequently, Sir William Ramsay
William Ramsay
Sir William Ramsay was a Scottish chemist who discovered the noble gases and received the Nobel Prize in Chemistry in 1904 "in recognition of his services in the discovery of the inert gaseous elements in air" .-Early years:Ramsay was born in Glasgow on 2...

, a Nobel Laureate, was called on to propose a suitable place for such an institution who suggested Bangalore
Bangalore
Bengaluru , formerly called Bengaluru is the capital of the Indian state of Karnataka. Bangalore is nicknamed the Garden City and was once called a pensioner's paradise. Located on the Deccan Plateau in the south-eastern part of Karnataka, Bangalore is India's third most populous city and...

 as the best location.

The land and other facilities for the institution were donated by Krishnaraja Wodeyar IV, the Maharaja
Maharaja
Mahārāja is a Sanskrit title for a "great king" or "high king". The female equivalent title Maharani denotes either the wife of a Maharaja or, in states where that was customary, a woman ruling in her own right. The widow of a Maharaja is known as a Rajamata...

 of Mysore
Kingdom of Mysore
The Kingdom of Mysore was a kingdom of southern India, traditionally believed to have been founded in 1399 in the vicinity of the modern city of Mysore. The kingdom, which was ruled by the Wodeyar family, initially served as a vassal state of the Vijayanagara Empire...

,( now called State of Karnataka
Karnataka
Karnataka , the land of the Kannadigas, is a state in South West India. It was created on 1 November 1956, with the passing of the States Reorganisation Act and this day is annually celebrated as Karnataka Rajyotsava...

) and Tata himself. The Maharaja donated about 400 acres (1.6 km²) of land worth 2 billion US dollars
today. Tata gave several buildings towards the creation of IISc.

The constitution of the Institute was approved by the Viceroy Lord Minto, and the necessary Vesting Order was signed on 27 May 1909. Early in 1911, the Maharaja of Mysore laid the foundation stone of the Institute, and on 24 July, the first batch of students were admitted in the Departments of General and Applied Chemistry under Norman Rudolf and Electro-Technology under Alferd Hay. Within two months, the Department of Organic Chemistry was opened. With the establishment of the University Grants Commission in 1956, the Institute came under its purview as a deemed university.

At the time of the inception of IISc in 1909, Morris Travers
Morris Travers
Morris William Travers , the founding director of the Indian Institute of Science, was an English chemist who worked along with Sir William Ramsay in the discovery of xenon, neon and krypton...

, William Ramsay
William Ramsay
Sir William Ramsay was a Scottish chemist who discovered the noble gases and received the Nobel Prize in Chemistry in 1904 "in recognition of his services in the discovery of the inert gaseous elements in air" .-Early years:Ramsay was born in Glasgow on 2...

's co-worker in the discovery of the noble gases, became its first Director. For Travers, this was a natural continuation of his work on the Institute, since he had played a role in its founding. The first Indian Director was the Nobel Laureate Sir C. V. Raman
Chandrasekhara Venkata Raman
Sir Chandrasekhara Venkata Raman, FRS was an Indian physicist whose work was influential in the growth of science in the world. He was the recipient of the Nobel Prize for Physics in 1930 for the discovery that when light traverses a transparent material, some of the light that is deflected...

, and the current Director is Padmanabhan Balaram
Padmanabhan Balaram
Padmanabhan Balaram is an Indian biochemist and the director of the Indian Institute of Science in Bangalore, India.-Education:Balaram received his Bachelors degree in Chemistry from Fergusson College, Pune followed by a Master's degree from the Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur and his PhD...

.

The Institute was the first to introduce (i) Masters programs in engineering; (ii) more recently, the Integrated Ph. D. Programs in Biological, Chemical, Physical and Mathematical Sciences for science graduates; (iii) the new IISc Young Fellowship program for the first 20 rank holders at the +2 level; and (iv) IISc Young Engineering Fellowship program for merited III year B. E. / B. Tech. students.
Directors
  • M. W. Travers
    Morris Travers
    Morris William Travers , the founding director of the Indian Institute of Science, was an English chemist who worked along with Sir William Ramsay in the discovery of xenon, neon and krypton...

    , FRS, 1909–1914
  • Sir A. G. Bourne
    Alfred Gibbs Bourne
    Sir Alfred Gibbs Bourne KCIE, DSc, FRS, FLS was a zoologist, botanist and educator....

    , FRS, 1915–1921
  • Sir M. O. Forster
    Martin Onslow Forster
    Sir Martin Onslow Forster, FRS was a chemist and a director of the Indian Institute of Science in Bangalore, India....

    , FRS, 1922–1933
  • Sir C. V. Raman
    Chandrasekhara Venkata Raman
    Sir Chandrasekhara Venkata Raman, FRS was an Indian physicist whose work was influential in the growth of science in the world. He was the recipient of the Nobel Prize for Physics in 1930 for the discovery that when light traverses a transparent material, some of the light that is deflected...

    , FRS, 1933–1937
  • Sir J. C. Ghosh, 1939–1948
  • M. S. Thacker, 1949–1955
  • S. Bhagavantam, 1957–1962
  • S. Dhawan
    Satish Dhawan
    Satish Dhawan was an Indian rocket scientist and a pioneer aerospace engineer who was born in Srinagar, India and educated in India and the United States...

    , 1962–1981
  • D. K. Banerjee, 1971–1972
  • S. Ramaseshan
    S. Ramaseshan
    Sivaraj Ramseshan was an Indian scientist known for his work in the field of crystallography. Ramaseshan served as Director of the Indian Institute of Science and was awarded the Padma Bhushan. Ramaseshan is the nephew of Indian scientist and Nobel laureate Sir C. V...

    , 1981–1984
  • C. N. R. Rao, FRS, 1984–1994
  • G. Padmanaban, 1994–1998
  • G. Mehta, 1998–2005
  • P. Balaram
    Padmanabhan Balaram
    Padmanabhan Balaram is an Indian biochemist and the director of the Indian Institute of Science in Bangalore, India.-Education:Balaram received his Bachelors degree in Chemistry from Fergusson College, Pune followed by a Master's degree from the Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur and his PhD...

    , 2005–Present

Campus


The IISc campus is located in North Bangalore about 4 kilometers from the city's main railway station and bus stand on the way to Yeshwantpur. Bus routes from 250-series through 276 serve this institute from the Kempegowda Bus Station
Kempegowda Bus Station
Kempegowda Bus Station, also called Majestic Station, is a large bus station in central Bangalore, India. It is located opposite the Bangalore City Railway Station.This bus station provides connectivity to almost all the areas of Bangalore...

 (also known as Majestic) and it is also easily accessible by auto-rikshaws.

The campus houses more than 40 departments, six canteens (cafeterias), a gymkhana (gymnasium and sports complex), a football and a cricket ground, three dining messes (halls), one multicuisine family restaurant, nine men's and five women's hostels (dormitories), an air strip, a library, two shopping centers, a massage parlour, a beauty parlour and residence areas for faculties and other staff members.

The IISc campus harbors both exotic and indigenous plant species with about 110 species of woody plants, including quite a number of Jackfruit
Jackfruit
The jackfruit is a species of tree in the Artocarpus genus of the mulberry family . It is native to parts of Southern and Southeast Asia. It is the national fruit of Bangladesh, . The jackfruit tree is believed to be indigenous to the southwestern rain forests of India...

 trees.
The roads on the campus are named after the dominant avenue tree species. The campus was intended to be maintained with sufficient green cover and open areas.

The institute is an island of greenery within Bangalore and about twelve different species of snakes and endangered species like the Gray Slender Loris
Gray Slender Loris
The gray slender loris is a species of primate in the Loridae family. It is found in India and Sri Lanka. Its natural habitats are subtropical or tropical dry forests and subtropical or tropical moist lowland forests. It is threatened by habitat loss...

 have been found in its campus. A Snake Rescue group is available on call to translocate and prevent the killing of snakes.

Main building


The architecture of the main building, which today houses the administration and the prestigious Faculty Hall, is in classical style, carried out in a grey handsome tower. In front of it stands the work of Gilbert Bayes
Gilbert Bayes
Gilbert William Bayes RA was a British sculptor and medalist.-Career:Born in London into a family of artists, Bayes' lengthy and illustrious career began as a student under Sir George Frampton and Harry Bates, and so became associated with the British New Sculpture movement and its focus on...

, a noble monument erected in memory of J. N. Tata.

At its feet is an inscription which will serve to remind future generations of the generosity of Jamsetji Tata and the persistence with which he worked for the welfare of India.

Library


The library was established in 1911 and it is one of the first three departments started in the Institute (the other two are Departments of General and Applied Chemistry and Electrotechnology). It is regarded as one of the best scientific and technical libraries in India. Apart from the main library, the Institute also has independent departmental libraries. The library moved in to the present premises in January 1965, built out of grants provided by University Grants Commission (UGC), in commemoration of the golden jubilee celebrations of the Institute in 1959. In 1995, the library was renamed as "J. R. D. Tata Memorial Library". The National Board for Higher Mathematics (NBHM) has recognised this library as Regional Center for Mathematics for the south region and continued to award a special grant towards subscription of Journals in Mathematics.

The annual budget of the library is over Rs. 100 million (almost US$ 2,500,000) of which subscription towards periodicals alone is about Rs. 90 million. The library currently receives over 1,734 periodical titles, of which 1381 are subscribed, while the remaining titles are received as gratis or on an exchange basis. About 600 titles are accessible through the library subscription. In addition, over 10,000 journals are accessible online, thanks to INDEST subscription. The total holdings of the library exceed 411,000 documents.

Central computing facility


The Computer Centre, established in 1970 as a central computing facility, became Supercomputer Education and Research Centre (SERC) in 1990 to provide state-of-the-art computing facility to the faculty and students of the Institute. SERC is created and fully funded by the Ministry of Human Resource Development (MHRD) to commemorate the platinum jubilee of the Institute.

SERC is the country's leading computing centre having the state-of-the art computing facilities, catering to the ever-increasing demands of high performance computing for scientific and engineering research. The supercomputing facility at SERC is a symbiosis of computing, network, graphics, and visualization and is conceived as a functionally distributed supercomputing environment housing state-of-the-art computing systems with sophisticated software packages and connected by a powerful high-speed network. It has the fastest supercomputer of India.

Apart from functioning as a central computing facility of IISc, the SERC is engaged in education and research programs in areas relating to supercomputer development and application. The Centre is also involved in several sponsored research projects in collaboration with several high-profile government and private agencies.

Organization


Departments and centers in the Institute are broadly assigned to two categories: science and engineering. Two Deans, one each for Science and Engineering administer their respective category.

The faculty of science comprises three divisions:
  • Division of Biological Sciences (headed by Prof. D.N. Rao)
  • Division of Chemical Sciences (headed by Prof. S. Ramakrishnan)
  • Division of Mathematical & Physical Sciences (headed by Prof. Rahul Pandit)
  • Division of Earth & Environmental Sciences (headed by Prof. B.N. Raghunandan)


The engineering faculty are divided into two divisions:
  • Division of Electrical Sciences (headed by Prof. Anurag Kumar
    Anurag Kumar
    Prof. Anurag Kumar is currently a professor at the Department of Electrical Communication and the chairman of Electrical Sciences Division at Indian Institute of Science Bangalore, India. He holds a PhD from Cornell University, obtained after graduating from Dhirubhai Ambani International School....

    )
  • Division of Mechanical Sciences (headed by Prof. K Chattopadhyay)


Each of these five divisions are administered by a divisional chairman. Each department or centre, under these divisions, is administered by a Chairman of the department or centre.

The following centers are directly under the director (without a divisional chairman):
  • Centre For Electronics Design And Technology
    Centre For Electronics Design And Technology
    The Centre For Electronics Design And Technology or CEDT is one of the departments under the division of Electrical Sciences in Indian Institute of Science...

  • Centre for Continuing Education
  • Center for Sponsored Schemes and Projects
  • Centre for Scientific & Industrial Consultancy
  • J. R. D. Tata Memorial Library
  • National Centre for Science Information
    National Centre for Science Information
    National Centre for Science Information is the information centre of Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore, that provides electronic information services to the Institute academic community. The Centre also undertakes sponsored R&D projects and conducts a training programme on Information and...

  • Supercomputer Education and Research Centre
  • BioInformatics Centre
  • Digital Information Services Centre
  • Archives and Publication Cell

Degrees


Degrees offered by the institute may be broadly classified into two categories: Degrees by Research (PhD, integrated PhD, BS (core science and interdisciplinary topics) and MS(Engg.)), and degrees by coursework (ME/MTech/MBA/MDes).

Research programs leading to M.Sc(Engg)/PhD degrees are the main thrust in many departments. The program has a limited amount of course work, essentially to prepare the student to carry out the research, but the main emphasis is on the thesis work. PhD and M.S(Engg) degrees each year, which is probably the largest for any institution in India. The annual intake of research students is approximately 250 with several candidates sponsored from educational institutions and industries. The research students constitute the largest group(50%) on the campus.

The Integrated PhD program is designed to offer exciting opportunities to motivated and talented BSc/BE graduates with a keen sense of scientific inquiry for pursuing advanced research in frontier areas of Biological, Chemical and Physical Sciences, leading to the Ph. D. degree of the Institute.

Two-year programs leading to the ME/MTech/MSc(Engg) degree by course work are available in almost all engineering departments. One needs to score a very high percentile in GATE (GATE
Gate
A gate is a point of entry to a space enclosed by walls, or a moderately sized opening in a fence. Gates may prevent or control entry or exit, or they may be merely decorative. Other terms for gate include yett and port...

) to get admission into these programs. A unique feature of the ME/MTech/MS(Engg) programs at the institute is the credit system which allows students to tailor the courses to suit their aptitude, interest and research requirements. Most ME/MTech programs have a set of hard core courses specified as an essential requirement whereas students can take rest of the credits from many courses available in their parent or other departments and also do a dissertation work on the topic of their choice. These courses attract highly motivated accomplished students, in addition to several sponsored candidates from R&D labs/industries and also from educational institutions under the Quality Improvement Programme (QIP).

The Department of Management Studies, one of the oldest management schools in the country (established in 1948), offers an MBA program exclusively for engineering graduates. The Center for Product Design and Manufacturing offers the Master of Design course. Started in 1996, the MDes program is a two-year, full-time graduate program.

Bachelor of Science (BS) Program is a new program offered from 2011. It is designed to serve as a launching pad for research and doctoral studies in science and technology. Major disciplines currently offered include Biology, Chemistry, Environmental Science, Materials, Mathematics and Physics. Admissions are based on scores from the following national examinations: KVPY-SA , KVPY-SB, KVPY-SX/SB+2, IIT-JEE, AIEEE and AIPMT .

Rankings



In 2011, IISc was the only Indian institute ranked by the Academic Ranking of World Universities
Academic Ranking of World Universities
The Academic Ranking of World Universities , commonly known as the Shanghai ranking, is a publication that was founded and compiled by the Shanghai Jiaotong University to rank universities globally. The rankings have been conducted since 2003 and updated annually...

, at 301–400 overall. It was also ranked 49 in Chemistry and 76–100 in Engineering/Technology and Computer Science. In the QS World University Rankings
QS World University Rankings
The QS World University Rankings is a ranking of the world’s top 500 universities by Quacquarelli Symonds using a method that has published annually since 2004....

 it was ranked 142 in Natural Sciences, 96 in Engineering & IT and 188 in Life Sciences, with no overall ranking.

Admissions


Admission into IISc is highly competitive. Usually only the top 0.1 percent candidates qualifying the GATE
Graduate Aptitude Test in Engineering
Graduate Aptitude Test in Engineering is an examination administered and conducted jointly by the Indian Institute of Science and the Indian Institutes of Technologies on behalf of the National Coordination Board – GATE, Department of Higher Education, Ministry of Human Resource Development ,...

 examination are able to clear the cutoff for M. E. / M. Tech. admissions. Depending on the department and the number of students, the cutoff can get much higher. Admission to research programmes of the Institute, both PhD and M.Sc(Engg), is based on career analysis and (possibly) multiple rounds of technical interviews in the campus. Candidates are called for interview based on the entrance test of the Institute or GATE
Graduate Aptitude Test in Engineering
Graduate Aptitude Test in Engineering is an examination administered and conducted jointly by the Indian Institute of Science and the Indian Institutes of Technologies on behalf of the National Coordination Board – GATE, Department of Higher Education, Ministry of Human Resource Development ,...

 or any other test recognised by the Institute (which depends on the choice of department and specialization). For course oriented degrees -- M. E.
Master of Engineering
A Master of Engineering or Master of Technology or Master of Science in Engineering A Master of Engineering (Magister in Ingeniaria) (abbreviated M.Eng., ME or MEng) or Master of Technology (abbreviated M.Tech. or MTech) or Master of Science in Engineering A Master of Engineering (Magister in...

 and M. Tech. -- the admission is through the GATE
Graduate Aptitude Test in Engineering
Graduate Aptitude Test in Engineering is an examination administered and conducted jointly by the Indian Institute of Science and the Indian Institutes of Technologies on behalf of the National Coordination Board – GATE, Department of Higher Education, Ministry of Human Resource Development ,...

 examination conducted every year. For research oriented degree -- M.Sc(Engg) which is similar to MS with Thesis—the admission is through the GATE
Graduate Aptitude Test in Engineering
Graduate Aptitude Test in Engineering is an examination administered and conducted jointly by the Indian Institute of Science and the Indian Institutes of Technologies on behalf of the National Coordination Board – GATE, Department of Higher Education, Ministry of Human Resource Development ,...

. For Master of Business Administration (M.B.A.), which has a ceiling strength of only 25 seats across India, the admission is through CAT (Common Admission Test) starting from 2011

Academic/ Industrial Collaborations


IISc collaborates with various government organizations like DRDO, ISRO, Bharat Electronics Limited
Bharat Electronics Limited
Bharat Electronics Limited is a state-owned electronics company with about nine factories, and few regional offices in India. It is owned by the Indian Government & primarily manufactures advanced electronic products for the Indian Armed Forces.BEL is one of the eight PSUs under Ministry of...

, Aeronautical Development Agency
Aeronautical Development Agency
The Aeronautical Development Agency of India's Ministry of Defence was established in Bangalore in 1984 to oversee the development of the nation's Light Combat Aircraft programme.- Airframe :...

, National Aerospace Laboratories
National Aerospace Laboratories
National Aerospace Laboratories , is India's second largest aerospace firm after Hindustan Aeronautics . It was established by the Council of Scientific and Industrial Research at Delhi in 1959 and its headquarters was later moved to Bangalore in 1960...

, CSIR, Department of IT(Government of India
Government of India
The Government of India, officially known as the Union Government, and also known as the Central Government, was established by the Constitution of India, and is the governing authority of the union of 28 states and seven union territories, collectively called the Republic of India...

). IISc also works in collaboration with private industry and research labs like Centre for Development of Advanced Computing
Centre for Development of Advanced Computing
Centre for Development of Advanced Computing is a research and development organization under the Department of Information Technology, India.-History:...

, Google Inc, General Motors
General Motors
General Motors Company , commonly known as GM, formerly incorporated as General Motors Corporation, is an American multinational automotive corporation headquartered in Detroit, Michigan and the world's second-largest automaker in 2010...

, Microsoft Research
Microsoft Research
Microsoft Research is the research division of Microsoft created in 1991 for developing various computer science ideas and integrating them into Microsoft products. It currently employs Turing Award winners C.A.R. Hoare, Butler Lampson, and Charles P...

, IBM Research
IBM Research
IBM Research, a division of IBM, is a research and advanced development organization and currently consists of eight locations throughout the world and hundreds of projects....

. Few organisations have been incubated in campus viz Mahindra Satyam, Cranes Software
Cranes Software
Cranes Software is a Bangalore based organization which deals with engineering and scientific software tools and products. Asif Khader is the company's promoter and its CEO. Cranes Software offers training in Embedded Systems & RTOs ....

. IISc actively promotes and supports ventures by faculty, students and alumni. Strand Life Sciences
Strand Life Sciences
Strand Life Sciences, formerly Strand Genomics, is a Bangalore, India-based in silico technology company. Strand focuses in data mining, predictive modeling, computational chemistry, software engineering, bioinformatics, and research biology to develop software and services for life sciences...

, Pico pita and Ittiam are some success stories of this initiative.

See also



  • NIAS
    National Institute of Advanced Studies
    The National Institute of Advanced Studies , is a research institute in India.It is one of the unique institutions in the country conducting research in multidisciplinary areas....

  • Jawaharal Nehru Centre for Advanced Scientific Research (JNCASR)
    JNCASR
    The Jawaharlal Nehru Centre for Advanced Scientific Research is a relatively young but already well-known multidisciplinary research institute. It was established by the Department of Science and Technology of the Government of India, to mark the birth centenary of Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru. It is...

  • IISER
  • IISER Bhopal
    IISER Bhopal
    The Indian Institute of Science Education and Research, Bhopal , commonly known as IISER Bhopal or IISERb, is a higher education institute established in 2008 in Bhopal, Madhya Pradesh, India...

  • NISER Bhubaneswar


  • IISER Kolkata
  • IISER Mohali
    IISER Mohali
    The Indian Institute of Science Education Research Mohali has been established as an autonomous academic institution in 2007 by the Ministry of Human Resources and Development, Government of India, New Delhi, to research in frontier areas of science and to provide science education at the...

  • IISER Pune
    IISER Pune
    The Government of India, based on the recommendation of Scientific Advisory Council to the Prime Minister, through the Ministry of Human Resource Development , has established five Indian Institutes of Science Education and Research in 2006. These institutes are currently located in Kolkata, Pune,...

  • IISER Thiruvananthapuram
    IISER Thiruvananthapuram
    The Indian Institute of Science Education and Research, Thiruvananthapuram , often abbreviated to IISER Thiruvananthapuram or IISER-TVM, is an institution of higher education established by the Government of India in 2008 based on the recommendations of the Scientific Advisory Council of India...

  • Digital Library of India
    Digital Library of India
    Digital Library of India, part of the online services of the Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore and partner in the Million Book Project, provides free access to many books in English and Indian languages. The scanning of Indian language books has created an opportunity for developing Indian...

  • UM DAE CBS


External links