Ifriqiya

Ifriqiya

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In medieval history
Middle Ages
The Middle Ages is a periodization of European history from the 5th century to the 15th century. The Middle Ages follows the fall of the Western Roman Empire in 476 and precedes the Early Modern Era. It is the middle period of a three-period division of Western history: Classic, Medieval and Modern...

, Ifriqiya or Ifriqiyah was the area comprising the coastal regions of what are today western Libya
Libya
Libya is an African country in the Maghreb region of North Africa bordered by the Mediterranean Sea to the north, Egypt to the east, Sudan to the southeast, Chad and Niger to the south, and Algeria and Tunisia to the west....

, Tunisia
Tunisia
Tunisia , officially the Tunisian RepublicThe long name of Tunisia in other languages used in the country is: , is the northernmost country in Africa. It is a Maghreb country and is bordered by Algeria to the west, Libya to the southeast, and the Mediterranean Sea to the north and east. Its area...

, and eastern Algeria
Algeria
Algeria , officially the People's Democratic Republic of Algeria , also formally referred to as the Democratic and Popular Republic of Algeria, is a country in the Maghreb region of Northwest Africa with Algiers as its capital.In terms of land area, it is the largest country in Africa and the Arab...

. This area included what had been the Roman province
Roman province
In Ancient Rome, a province was the basic, and, until the Tetrarchy , largest territorial and administrative unit of the empire's territorial possessions outside of Italy...

 of Africa
Africa Province
The Roman province of Africa was established after the Romans defeated Carthage in the Third Punic War. It roughly comprised the territory of present-day northern Tunisia, and the small Mediterranean coast of modern-day western Libya along the Syrtis Minor...

, whose name it inherited.

Ifriqiya was bounded on the south by the semi-arid areas and salt marshes called el-Djerid. At various times, the rulers of this area also conquered Sicily
Sicily
Sicily is a region of Italy, and is the largest island in the Mediterranean Sea. Along with the surrounding minor islands, it constitutes an autonomous region of Italy, the Regione Autonoma Siciliana Sicily has a rich and unique culture, especially with regard to the arts, music, literature,...

, and the western boundary was in continual flux but usually went as far as Bejaia
Béjaïa
Béjaïa, Vgaiet or Bejaya is a Mediterranean port city on the Gulf of Béjaïa in Algeria; it is the capital of Béjaïa Province, Kabylia. Under French rule, it was formerly known under various European names, such as Budschaja in German, Bugia in Italian, and Bougie...

. Its capital was Qayrawan
Kairouan
Kairouan , also known as Kirwan or al-Qayrawan , is the capital of the Kairouan Governorate in Tunisia. Referred to as the Islamic Cultural Capital, it is a UNESCO World Heritage site. The city was founded by the Arabs around 670...

 (Kairouan) in central Tunisia.

Arabic Thought and its Place in History, De Lacy O'Leary, London: Kegan, Paul [1922], p. 227-8 says: "Gradually the Arabs spread all along North Africa and down to the desert edge, their tribes as a rule occupying the lower ground, whilst the older population had its chief centres in the mountainous districts. During the invasion of 45 (A.H.) the city of Kairouan
Kairouan
Kairouan , also known as Kirwan or al-Qayrawan , is the capital of the Kairouan Governorate in Tunisia. Referred to as the Islamic Cultural Capital, it is a UNESCO World Heritage site. The city was founded by the Arabs around 670...

 (Qairouan, Qayrawan) was founded some distance south of Tunis. The site was badly chosen, and is now marked only by ruins and a scanty village, but for some centuries it served as the capital city of Ifrikiya, which was the name given to the province lying next to Egypt, embracing the modern states of Tripoli, Tunis, and the eastern part of Algeria up to the meridian of Bougie
Béjaïa
Béjaïa, Vgaiet or Bejaya is a Mediterranean port city on the Gulf of Béjaïa in Algeria; it is the capital of Béjaïa Province, Kabylia. Under French rule, it was formerly known under various European names, such as Budschaja in German, Bugia in Italian, and Bougie...

."

From their base in Kairouan
Kairouan
Kairouan , also known as Kirwan or al-Qayrawan , is the capital of the Kairouan Governorate in Tunisia. Referred to as the Islamic Cultural Capital, it is a UNESCO World Heritage site. The city was founded by the Arabs around 670...

  the Aghlabids conquered Sicily
Sicily
Sicily is a region of Italy, and is the largest island in the Mediterranean Sea. Along with the surrounding minor islands, it constitutes an autonomous region of Italy, the Regione Autonoma Siciliana Sicily has a rich and unique culture, especially with regard to the arts, music, literature,...

, beginning in 827 and establishing the Emirate of Sicily
Emirate of Sicily
The Emirate of Sicily was an Islamic state on the island of Sicily , which existed from 965 to 1072.-First Arab invasions of Sicily:...

, which lasted until it was displaced by the Normans, effecting lasting changes in Sicilian culture.

Umayyad
Umayyad
The Umayyad Caliphate was the second of the four major Arab caliphates established after the death of Muhammad. It was ruled by the Umayyad dynasty, whose name derives from Umayya ibn Abd Shams, the great-grandfather of the first Umayyad caliph. Although the Umayyad family originally came from the...

 Governors of Ifriqiya


  • Mu'awiya ibn Hudaij al-Kindi as-Sakuni [In Barqa], 665-666
  • Oqba ibn Nafi'i al-Fihri
    Uqba ibn Nafi
    Uqba ibn Nafi was an Arab hero and general who was serving the Umayyad dynasty, in Amir Muavia and Yazid periods, who began the Islamic conquest of the Maghreb, including present-day Algeria, Tunisia, Libya and Morocco in North Africa. He was the nephew of 'Amr ibn al-'As. Uqba is often surnamed...

    , 666-674 - Kairouan
    Kairouan
    Kairouan , also known as Kirwan or al-Qayrawan , is the capital of the Kairouan Governorate in Tunisia. Referred to as the Islamic Cultural Capital, it is a UNESCO World Heritage site. The city was founded by the Arabs around 670...

     founded (670
    670
    Year 670 was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Julian calendar. The denomination 670 for this year has been used since the early medieval period, when the Anno Domini calendar era became the prevalent method in Europe for naming years.- Europe :* On the death of his brother Clotaire,...

    )
  • Abu al-Muhajir Dinar
    Abu al-Muhajir Dinar
    Abu al-Muhajir Dinar , amir of Ifriqiya under the Umayyads. His biography is complicated by the existence of two versions of the history of the Umayyad conquest of North Africa, those written before the 11th century and those written later....

    , 674-681
  • Oqba ibn Nafi'i al-Fihri
    Uqba ibn Nafi
    Uqba ibn Nafi was an Arab hero and general who was serving the Umayyad dynasty, in Amir Muavia and Yazid periods, who began the Islamic conquest of the Maghreb, including present-day Algeria, Tunisia, Libya and Morocco in North Africa. He was the nephew of 'Amr ibn al-'As. Uqba is often surnamed...

    , (restored), 681-683
  • [ Ifriqiya occupied by Berber
    Berber people
    Berbers are the indigenous peoples of North Africa west of the Nile Valley. They are continuously distributed from the Atlantic to the Siwa oasis, in Egypt, and from the Mediterranean to the Niger River. Historically they spoke the Berber language or varieties of it, which together form a branch...

     chieftain Kusaila
    Kusaila
    Kusaila or Kasila or Kusayla was a 7th century chief of the Awraba tribe of the Berber people and head of the Sanhadja confederation...

    , 683-686 ]
  • Zohair ibn Qais al-Balawi, 683-689
  • Hassan ibn al-Nu'man al-Ghassani, 689-703
  • Musa ibn Nusair al-Lakhmi, 703-715
  • [ Abd Allah ibn Musa regent in Kairouan
    Kairouan
    Kairouan , also known as Kirwan or al-Qayrawan , is the capital of the Kairouan Governorate in Tunisia. Referred to as the Islamic Cultural Capital, it is a UNESCO World Heritage site. The city was founded by the Arabs around 670...

    , while Musa is in Spain
    Al-Andalus
    Al-Andalus was the Arabic name given to a nation and territorial region also commonly referred to as Moorish Iberia. The name describes parts of the Iberian Peninsula and Septimania governed by Muslims , at various times in the period between 711 and 1492, although the territorial boundaries...

    , 712-715 ]
  • Muhammad ibn Yazid, 715-718
  • Ismail ibn Abd Allah ibn Abi al-Muhajir
    Ismail ibn Abd Allah ibn Abi al-Muhajir
    Ismail ibn Abd Allah ibn Abi al-Muhajir was an Umayyad governor of Ifriqiya from 718 to 720.Ismail ibn Abd Allah ibn Abu al-Muhajir was from a client tribe of the Quraysh and ostensibly a grandson of Abu al-Muhajir .In 718, Ismail ibn Abd Allah was appointed by Caliph Omar II to replace his...

    , 718-720
  • Yazid ibn Abi Muslim
    Yazid ibn Abi Muslim
    Abu'l-Ala Yazid ibn Abi Muslim Dinar was the Umayyad governor of Ifriqiya from 720 until his assassination in 721.Yazid ibn Abi Muslim was of the Arab tribe of Thaqif. He served in the administration of Al-Hajjaj ibn Yusuf, the Umayyad governor of Wasit . He rose in the ranks to become...

    , 720-721
  • Muhammad ibn Yazid (restored), 721
  • Bishr ibn Safwan al-Kalbi, 721-727
  • Obeida ibn Abd al-Rahman es-Solemi, 727-32
  • Oqba ibn Qudama (temporary), 732-734
  • Obeid Allah ibn al-Habhab al-Maousili
    Obeid Allah ibn al-Habhab
    Obeid Allah ibn al-Habhab al-Maousili was an important Umayyad official in Egypt from 724 to 734, and subsequently Umayyad governor of Kairouan, Ifriqiya from 734 to 741...

    , 734-41
  • Kulthum ibn Iyad al-Qasi
    Kulthum ibn Iyad al-Qasi
    Kulthum ibn Iyad al-Qasi was an Umayyad governor of Kairouan, Ifriqiya for only a few months, from February to October, 741....

    , 741
  • Balj ibn Bishr al-Qushayri
    Balj ibn Bishr al-Qushayri
    Balj ibn Bishr al-Qushayri ; was a Syrian Arab military commander in North Africa and Iberia, and briefly ruler of al-Andalus in 742....

     (formally, in Córdoba
    Córdoba, Spain
    -History:The first trace of human presence in the area are remains of a Neanderthal Man, dating to c. 32,000 BC. In the 8th century BC, during the ancient Tartessos period, a pre-urban settlement existed. The population gradually learned copper and silver metallurgy...

    ) and Abd al-Rahman ibn Oqba al-Ghaffari (de facto, in Kairouan
    Kairouan
    Kairouan , also known as Kirwan or al-Qayrawan , is the capital of the Kairouan Governorate in Tunisia. Referred to as the Islamic Cultural Capital, it is a UNESCO World Heritage site. The city was founded by the Arabs around 670...

    ), 741-42
  • Handhala ibn Safwan al-Kalbi
    Handhala ibn Safwan al-Kalbi
    Handhala ibn Safwan al-Kalbi was an Umayyad governor of Egypt from 721 to 724 and again 737 to 741, and subsequently governor of Ifriqiya from 741 to 745.-Governor in Egypt:...

    , 742-44

Fihrid Emirs of Ifriqiya


  • Abd al-Rahman ibn Habib al-Fihri, 745-755.
  • Ilyas ibn Habib al-Fihri
    Ilyas ibn Habib al-Fihri
    Il-Yas ibn Habib al-Fihri was an Arab noble of the Oqbid or Fihrid family, and briefly ruler of Ifriqiya in 755.Ilyas ibn Habib was a son of the Ifriqiyan military commander Habib ibn Abi Obeida al-Fihri...

    , 755
  • Habib ibn Abd al-Rahman al-Fihri
    Habib ibn Abd al-Rahman al-Fihri
    Habib ibn Abd al-Rahman al-Fihri was an Arab noble of the Oqbid or Fihrid family, and briefly ruler of Ifriqiya from 755 to 757....

    , 755-57

Kharijite rulers


  • Asim ibn Jamil al-Warfajumi (Sufri
    Sufri
    The Sufris were a Khariji sect of Islam that existed in the 7th and 8th centuries. They established the Midrarid state at Sijilmassa.In Algeria , the Banu Ifran were Sufri Berbers who opposed Umayyad, Abbasids and Fatimid rule, most notably under resistance movements led by Abu Qurra and Abu...

    te), 757-758
  • Abd al-Rahman ibn Rustem (Ibadi
    Ibadi
    The Ibāḍī movement, Ibadism or Ibāḍiyya is a form of Islam distinct from the Sunni and Shia denominations. It is the dominant form of Islam in Oman and Zanzibar...

    te, governor in Kairouan, for Abu al-Khattab in Tripoli
    Tripoli
    Tripoli is the capital and largest city in Libya. It is also known as Western Tripoli , to distinguish it from Tripoli, Lebanon. It is affectionately called The Mermaid of the Mediterranean , describing its turquoise waters and its whitewashed buildings. Tripoli is a Greek name that means "Three...

    ), 758-61

Abbasid
Abbasid
The Abbasid Caliphate or, more simply, the Abbasids , was the third of the Islamic caliphates. It was ruled by the Abbasid dynasty of caliphs, who built their capital in Baghdad after overthrowing the Umayyad caliphate from all but the al-Andalus region....

 governors in Kairouan (Muhallabids
Muhallabids
The Muhallabids were a dynasty of governors in Ifriqiya under the Abbasid Caliphate Although subject to the Abbasids, they enjoyed a great deal of autonomy and were able to maintain Arab rule in the face of revolts by the Berbers...

)


  • Muhammad ibn al-Ash'ath (from Fustat), 761-765
  • Aysa ibn Mussa, 765
  • al-Aghlab ibn Salim at-Tamimi, 765-67
  • Omar ibn Hafs, 767-771
  • Yazid ibn Hatim, 772-787
  • Dawoud ibn Yazid (temporary), 787-788
  • Rouh ibn Hatim, 788-791
  • Nasr ibn Habib el-Mohellebi, 791-793
  • al-Fadl ibn Rouh, 793-795
  • Abd Allah ibn al-Djarud, 795
  • Herthema ibn Ayan, 795-797
  • Muhammad ibn Mocatel, 797-800

Aghlabid
Aghlabid
The Aghlabids were a dynasty of emirs, members of the Arab tribe of Bani Tamim, who ruled Ifriqiya, nominally on behalf of the Abbasid Caliph, for about a century, until overthrown by the new power of the Fatimid.-History:...

 Emirs of Ifriqiya


  • Ibrahim I ibn al-Aghlab
    Ibrahim I ibn al-Aghlab
    Ibrahim I ibn al-Aghlab was the first Emir of the Aghlabids in Ifriqiya He was the son of al-Aghlab, who successfully quelled the revolt of the Kharijites in Ifriqiya at the end of the 8th century...

     ibn Salim (800
    800
    Year 800 was a leap year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar. It was around this time that the Anno Domini calendar era became the prevalent method in Europe for naming years, so from this time on, the years began being known as 800 and onwards.- Europe :* December 25 - Pope Leo III...

    -812
    812
    Year 812 was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Julian calendar.- Europe :* The second Battle of Roncevaux Pass is fought between the Basques and the Franks....

    )
  • Abdullah I ibn Ibrahim (812
    812
    Year 812 was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Julian calendar.- Europe :* The second Battle of Roncevaux Pass is fought between the Basques and the Franks....

    -817
    817
    Year 817 was a common year starting on Thursday of the Julian calendar.- Europe :* Louis the Pious divides his empire among his sons; Louis the German becomes king of East Francia, Lothar I becomes co-emperor.* The Bulgarian siege of Constantinople ends.- Religion :* The Council of Aachen is...

    )
  • Ziyadat Allah I ibn Ibrahim (817
    817
    Year 817 was a common year starting on Thursday of the Julian calendar.- Europe :* Louis the Pious divides his empire among his sons; Louis the German becomes king of East Francia, Lothar I becomes co-emperor.* The Bulgarian siege of Constantinople ends.- Religion :* The Council of Aachen is...

    -838
    838
    Year 838 was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Julian calendar.- Asia :* The Byzantine emperor Theophilos is heavily defeated at the Battle of Anzen by the Abbasids...

    )
  • al-Aghlab Abu Iqal ibn Ibrahim (838
    838
    Year 838 was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Julian calendar.- Asia :* The Byzantine emperor Theophilos is heavily defeated at the Battle of Anzen by the Abbasids...

    -841
    841
    Year 841 was a common year starting on Saturday of the Julian calendar.- Europe :* June 25 – Battle of Fontenay: Louis the German and Charles the Bald defeat Lothar....

    )
  • Muhammad I Abul-Abbas
    Muhammad I Abul-Abbas
    Muhammad I Abul-Abbas was the fifth emir of the Aghlabids in Ifriqiya .Muhammad I was the son of the fourth emir, Abu Iqal . Under him the Aghlabids continued their expansion into the Mediterranean, conquering Taranto and Bari in Apulia and Messina in Sicily...

     ibn al-Aghlab Abi Affan (841
    841
    Year 841 was a common year starting on Saturday of the Julian calendar.- Europe :* June 25 – Battle of Fontenay: Louis the German and Charles the Bald defeat Lothar....

    -856
    856
    Year 856 was a leap year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar.- Asia :* December 22 – Another deadly earthquake strikes Damghan, Iran, killing 200,000 people.- Europe :...

    )
  • Ahmad ibn Muhammad (856
    856
    Year 856 was a leap year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar.- Asia :* December 22 – Another deadly earthquake strikes Damghan, Iran, killing 200,000 people.- Europe :...

    -863
    863
    Year 863 was a common year starting on Friday of the Julian calendar.- Europe :* Constantine I succeeds as king of Scotland ....

    )
  • Ziyadat Allah II ibn Abil-Abbas (863
    863
    Year 863 was a common year starting on Friday of the Julian calendar.- Europe :* Constantine I succeeds as king of Scotland ....

    )
  • Muhammad II ibn Ahmad
    Muhammad II of Aghlabids
    Muhammad II ibn Ahmad Abu al-Gharaniq was the eighth Emir of the Aghlabids in Ifriqiya He succeeded his uncle Ziyadat Allah II , inheriting from his predecessors a stable and prosperous state. An aesthete fond of wine and hunting, he felt able to devote himself to extravagance and displays of pomp...

     (863
    863
    Year 863 was a common year starting on Friday of the Julian calendar.- Europe :* Constantine I succeeds as king of Scotland ....

    -875
    875
    Year 875 was a common year starting on Saturday of the Julian calendar.- Europe :* December 29 – Charles the Bald, king of West Francia, is crowned emperor....

    )
  • Ibrahim II ibn Ahmad
    Ibrahim II of Aghlabids
    Abu Is`haq Ibrahim II was the ninth Emir of the Aghlabids in Ifriqiya He succeeded to the Emirate on the death of his brother Muhammad II . Although he inherited a kingdom depopulated by the plague of 874, his reign was economically prosperous...

     (875
    875
    Year 875 was a common year starting on Saturday of the Julian calendar.- Europe :* December 29 – Charles the Bald, king of West Francia, is crowned emperor....

    -902
    902
    Year 902 was a common year starting on Friday of the Julian calendar.- Europe :* August 1 – Taormina, the last Byzantine stronghold in Sicily, is captured by the Aghlabid army....

    )
  • Abdullah II ibn Ibrahim
    Abdullah II of Aghlabids
    Abdullah II Abu l-Abbas was the tenth Emir of the Aghlabids in Ifriqiya He took over the Emirate after his father Abu Ishaq Ibrahim II was forced to abdicate after a tyrannical rule. He immediately set about trying to reduce the autonomy of the Kutama Berbers in order to stop the Ismailite...

     (902
    902
    Year 902 was a common year starting on Friday of the Julian calendar.- Europe :* August 1 – Taormina, the last Byzantine stronghold in Sicily, is captured by the Aghlabid army....

    -903
    903
    Year 903 was a common year starting on Saturday of the Julian calendar.- Asia :* Abaoji is named commander of all Khitan military forces.- Religion :...

    )
  • Ziyadat Allah III ibn Abdillah (903
    903
    Year 903 was a common year starting on Saturday of the Julian calendar.- Asia :* Abaoji is named commander of all Khitan military forces.- Religion :...

    -909
    909
    Year 909 was a common year starting on Sunday of the Julian calendar.- Africa :* The Aghlabid dynasty in North Africa is overthrown by the Fatimids....

    )

Fatimid
Fatimid
The Fatimid Islamic Caliphate or al-Fāṭimiyyūn was a Berber Shia Muslim caliphate first centered in Tunisia and later in Egypt that ruled over varying areas of the Maghreb, Sudan, Sicily, the Levant, and Hijaz from 5 January 909 to 1171.The caliphate was ruled by the Fatimids, who established the...

 Caliphs in Ifriqiya


(909-934) founder Fatimid dynasty (934-946) (946-953) (953-975) (transferred to Egypt
Egypt
Egypt , officially the Arab Republic of Egypt, Arabic: , is a country mainly in North Africa, with the Sinai Peninsula forming a land bridge in Southwest Asia. Egypt is thus a transcontinental country, and a major power in Africa, the Mediterranean Basin, the Middle East and the Muslim world...

 in 973)

Zirid
Zirid
The Zirid dynasty were a Sanhadja Berber dynasty, originating in modern Algeria, initially on behalf of the Fatimids, for about two centuries, until weakened by the Banu Hilal and finally destroyed by the Almohads. Their capital was Kairouan...

 rulers of Ifriqiya

  • Abul-Futuh Sayf ad-Dawla Buluggin ibn Ziri
    Buluggin ibn Ziri
    Bologhine ibn Ziri was the first ruler of the Zirids in Ifriqiya .Bologhine was already given responsibility under the governorship of his father Ziri ibn Manad, during which time he founded the cities of Algiers, Miliana and Médéa. After Ziri's death in battle against renegade Berbers, Bologhine...

     (973-983)
  • Abul-Fat'h al-Mansur ibn Buluggin
    Al-Mansur ibn Buluggin
    al-Mansûr ibn Buluggin was the second ruler of the Zirids in Ifriqiya .Al-Mansur succeeded his father Buluggin ibn Ziri in Ifriqiya. Despite further campaigns by the Zirids against the Berber tribes of Morocco, he was forced to abandon the attempt at a permanent conquest of Fez and Sijilmasa...

     (983-995)
  • Abu Qatada Nasir ad-Dawla Badis ibn Mansur
    Badis ibn Mansur
    Badis ibn Mansur was the third ruler of the Zirids in Ifriqiya .Badis ibn Mansur succeeded his father Al-Mansur ibn Buluggin as viceroy of Ifriqiya...

     (995-1016)
  • Sharaf ad-Dawla al-Muizz ibn Badis
    Al-Muizz ibn Badis
    Al-Muizz ibn Badis ; 1008–1062) was the fourth ruler of the Zirids in Ifriqiya, reigning from 1016 to 1062.Al-Muizz ascended the throne as a minor following the death of his father Badis ibn Mansur, with his aunt acting as regent. In 1016 there was a bloody revolt in Ifriqiya in which the Fatimid...

     (1016–1062), - lost west Ifriqiya to Hammadids,(1018), declared independence from Fatimid
    Fatimid
    The Fatimid Islamic Caliphate or al-Fāṭimiyyūn was a Berber Shia Muslim caliphate first centered in Tunisia and later in Egypt that ruled over varying areas of the Maghreb, Sudan, Sicily, the Levant, and Hijaz from 5 January 909 to 1171.The caliphate was ruled by the Fatimids, who established the...

    s (1045)

invasion of the Banu Hillal (1057) - Kairouan destroyed, Zirids reduced to tiny coastal strip, remainder fragments into petty Bedouin
Bedouin
The Bedouin are a part of a predominantly desert-dwelling Arab ethnic group traditionally divided into tribes or clans, known in Arabic as ..-Etymology:...

 emirate
Emirate
An emirate is a political territory that is ruled by a dynastic Muslim monarch styled emir.-Etymology:Etymologically emirate or amirate is the quality, dignity, office or territorial competence of any emir ....

s,
  • Abu Tahir Tamim ibn al-Muizz (1062–1108)
  • Yahya ibn Tamim (1108–1131)
  • Ali ibn Yahya (1115–1121)
  • Abul-Hasan al-Hasan ibn Ali
    Abul-Hasan al-Hasan ibn Ali
    Abul-Hasan al-Hasan ibn Ali was the last ruler of the Zirid dynasty in Ifriqiya 1121–1152...

     (1121–1152)


Ifriqiyan coast annexed by Norman Sicily
Kingdom of Sicily
The Kingdom of Sicily was a state that existed in the south of Italy from its founding by Roger II in 1130 until 1816. It was a successor state of the County of Sicily, which had been founded in 1071 during the Norman conquest of southern Italy...

 (1143-1156)

All of Ifriqiya conquered and annexed by the Almohads (1160)

Hafsid governors of Ifriqiya

  • Abd al-Wahid (1207–1216)
  • Abd-Allah (1224–1229)
  • Abu Zakariya
    Abu Zakariya
    Abu Zakariya Yahya   was the founder and first ruler of the Hafsid dynasty in Ifriqiya.He was the Almohad governor of Gabès and then of Tunis by 1229. He seized the opportunity offered by disturbances in the Almohad Empire to declare himself independent late in 1229...

     (1229–1249)

Hafsid caliph
Caliph
The Caliph is the head of state in a Caliphate, and the title for the ruler of the Islamic Ummah, an Islamic community ruled by the Shari'ah. It is a transcribed version of the Arabic word   which means "successor" or "representative"...

s of Ifriqiya

  • Muhammad I al-Mustansir
    Muhammad I al-Mustansir
    Muhammad I al-Mustansir   was the second ruler of the Hafsid dynasty in Ifriqiya and the first to claim the title of Khalif. Al-Mustansir concluded a peace agreement to end the Eighth Crusade launched by Louis IX, King of France, in 1270...

     (1249–1277)
  • Muse Mohammed {1223-1270}
  • Yahya II al-Watiq (1277–1279)
  • Ibrahim I (1279–1283)
  • Ibn Abi Umara (1283–1284)
  • Abu Hafs Umar I (1284–1295)
  • Muhammad I (1295–1309)
  • Abu Bakr I (1309)
  • Aba al-Baqa Khalid an-Nasir (1309–1311)
  • Aba Yahya Zakariya al-Lihyani (1311–1317)
  • Muhammad II (1317–1318)
  • Abu Bakr II (1318–1346)
  • Abu Hafs Umar II (1346–1349)
  • Ahmad I (1349)
  • Ishaq II (1350–1369)
  • Abu al-Baqa Khalid (1369–1371)
  • Ahmad II
    Abu al-Abbas Ahmad II
    Abu al-Abbas Ahmad II was an Hafsid Caliph of Ifriqiya. He restored the Hafsid kingdom to full power after a period of disarray which followed the invasion of Ifriqiya led by Abu Inan Faris of the Marinid dynasty.- Sources :...

     (1371–1394)
  • Abd al-Aziz II (1394–1434)
  • Muhammad III (1434–1436)
  • Uthman
    Uthman (Hafsid)
    Uthman was an Hafsid Caliph of Ifriqiya. His rule marked the zenith of the Hafsid kingdom.He successfully brought on his grandfather Abd al-Aziz II's politics but in the long run he could avoid neither power struggles inside the Hafsid family nor the revolt of the southern Arab tribes.Initially...

     (1436–1488)
  • Abu Zakariya Yahya (1488–1489)
  • Abd al-Mu'min (Hafsid) (1489–1490)
  • Abu Yahya Zakariya (1490–1494)
  • Muhammad IV (1494–1526)
  • Muhammad V (1526–1543)
  • Ahmad III (1543–1570)
  • Muhammad VI (1574-1574)
  • Jafari "Jafari the Clean" Yahya (1574–1581)
  • Alem Nafirr (1581)

Sources

  • Ibn Khaldun
    Ibn Khaldun
    Ibn Khaldūn or Ibn Khaldoun was an Arab Tunisian historiographer and historian who is often viewed as one of the forerunners of modern historiography, sociology and economics...

    , Histoire des Berbères et des dynasties musulmanes de l'Afrique; traduite de l'arabe par le baron de Slane; nouv. éd / pub. sous la direction de Paul Casanova, et suivie d'une bibliographie d'Ibn Khaldoun. 4 vols. Paris: P. Geuthner, 1925-34.
  • Julien, Charles-André, Histoire de l'Afrique du Nord, des origines à 1830, édition originale Paris: Payot, 1931, réédition Payot, Paris, 1961

See also

  • Aghlabid
    Aghlabid
    The Aghlabids were a dynasty of emirs, members of the Arab tribe of Bani Tamim, who ruled Ifriqiya, nominally on behalf of the Abbasid Caliph, for about a century, until overthrown by the new power of the Fatimid.-History:...

  • Zirid
    Zirid
    The Zirid dynasty were a Sanhadja Berber dynasty, originating in modern Algeria, initially on behalf of the Fatimids, for about two centuries, until weakened by the Banu Hilal and finally destroyed by the Almohads. Their capital was Kairouan...

  • Hafsid
  • Maghreb
    Maghreb
    The Maghreb is the region of Northwest Africa, west of Egypt. It includes five countries: Morocco, Algeria, Tunisia, Libya, and Mauritania and the disputed territory of Western Sahara...

  • History of Roman era Tunisia
    History of Roman era Tunisia
    History of Roman-era Tunisia describes first the Roman Africa Province. Rome took control of Carthage after the Third Punic War . There was a period of Berber kings allied with Rome . Lands surrounding Carthage were annexed and reorganized, and the city of Carthage rebuilt, becoming the third city...

  • History of early Islamic Tunisia
    History of early Islamic Tunisia
    The History of early Islamic Tunisia opens with the arrival of the Arabs who brought their language and the religion of Islam, and its calendar. The Arab conquest followed strategy designed by the Umayyad Caliphate regarding ist long-term conflict with the Byzantine Empire...

  • History of medieval Tunisia
    History of medieval Tunisia
    The medieval era opens with the commencement of a process that would return Ifriqiya, i.e., Tunisia, and the entire Maghrib to local Berber rule. The precipitating cause was the departure of the Shia Fatimid Caliphate to their newly conquered territories in Egypt. To govern Ifriqiya in their stead,...