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Ice IX

Ice IX

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Encyclopedia
Ice IX is a form of solid water
Water
Water is a chemical substance with the chemical formula H2O. A water molecule contains one oxygen and two hydrogen atoms connected by covalent bonds. Water is a liquid at ambient conditions, but it often co-exists on Earth with its solid state, ice, and gaseous state . Water also exists in a...

 stable at temperatures below 140 K
Kelvin
The kelvin is a unit of measurement for temperature. It is one of the seven base units in the International System of Units and is assigned the unit symbol K. The Kelvin scale is an absolute, thermodynamic temperature scale using as its null point absolute zero, the temperature at which all...

 and pressures between 200 and 400 MPa
MPA
-Academic degrees:* Master of Professional Accountancy* Master of Public Administration* Master of Public Affairs* Master of Physician's Assistant-Chemicals:* Medroxyprogesterone acetate, also known by the brand name Depo-Provera* Morpholide of pelargonic acid...

. It has a tetragonal crystal lattice and a density of 1.16 g/cm³, 26% higher than ordinary ice. It is formed by cooling ice III
Ice III
Ice III is a form of solid matter which consists of tetragonal crystalline ice, formed by cooling water down to at . It is the least dense of the high-pressure water phases, with a density of . The proton-ordered form of is ice IX....

 from 208 K to 165 K (rapidly—to avoid forming ice II
Ice II
Ice II is a rhombohedral crystalline form of ice with highly ordered structure. It is formed from ice Ih by compressing it at temperature of 198 K at 300 MPa or by decompressing ice V. When heated it undergoes transformation to ice III....

). Its structure is identical to ice III other than being proton-ordered.

Ordinary water ice is known as ice Ih
Ice Ih
thumb|Photograph showing details of an ice cube under magnification. Ice Ih is the form of ice commonly seen on earth.Ice Ih is the hexagonal crystal form of ordinary ice, or frozen water. Virtually all ice in the biosphere is ice Ih, with the exception only of a small amount of ice Ic which is...

 in the Bridgman
Percy Williams Bridgman
Percy Williams Bridgman was an American physicist who won the 1946 Nobel Prize in Physics for his work on the physics of high pressures. He also wrote extensively on the scientific method and on other aspects of the philosophy of science.- Biography :Bridgman entered Harvard University in 1900,...

 nomenclature. Different types of ice, from ice II
Ice II
Ice II is a rhombohedral crystalline form of ice with highly ordered structure. It is formed from ice Ih by compressing it at temperature of 198 K at 300 MPa or by decompressing ice V. When heated it undergoes transformation to ice III....

 to ice XV
Ice XV
Ice XV is a crystalline form of ice, the proton-ordered form of ice VI. It is created by cooling water to around 130 K at 1 GPa .Ordinary water ice is known as ice Ih,...

, have been created in the laboratory at different temperatures and pressures.

In fiction


Ice-nine
Ice-nine
Ice-nine is a fictional material appearing in Kurt Vonnegut's novel Cat's Cradle. It is supposed to be a more stable polymorph of water than common ice which instead of melting at 0 degrees Celsius , melts at 45.8 °C...

 is a fictional material conceived by writer Kurt Vonnegut
Kurt Vonnegut
Kurt Vonnegut, Jr. was a 20th century American writer. His works such as Cat's Cradle , Slaughterhouse-Five and Breakfast of Champions blend satire, gallows humor and science fiction. He was known for his humanist beliefs and was honorary president of the American Humanist Association.-Early...

 in his 1963 novel Cat's Cradle
Cat's Cradle
Cat's Cradle is the fourth novel by American writer Kurt Vonnegut, first published in 1963. It explores issues of science, technology, and religion, satirizing the arms race and many other targets along the way...

. It is different from, and does not have the same properties as, the real-world ice polymorph Ice IX -- existing, for instance, as a stable solid at room temperature and regular atmospheric pressure.

A substance called ice-9 is referred to in the Nintendo DS
Nintendo DS
The is a portable game console produced by Nintendo, first released on November 21, 2004. A distinctive feature of the system is the presence of two separate LCD screens, the lower of which is a touchscreen, encompassed within a clamshell design, similar to the Game Boy Advance SP...

 game 999: Nine Hours, Nine Persons, Nine Doors
999: Nine Hours, Nine Persons, Nine Doors
is an adventure game developed by Chunsoft and published in Japan by Spike on December 10, 2009, and in North America by Aksys Games on November 16, 2010. The game's design team was led by Kotaro Uchikoshi, who is also the writer of the acclaimed visual novel Ever 17: The Out of Infinity...

. It seems to be a reference to the Vonnegut substance, not the real thing.

In music


The song "Ice 9" appears on Joe Satriani
Joe Satriani
Joseph "Joe" Satriani is an American instrumental rock guitarist and multi-instrumentalist, with multiple Grammy Award nominations...

's album Surfing with the Alien
Surfing with the Alien
Surfing with the Alien is the second album by instrumental rock guitarist Joe Satriani, released in 1987. Surfing with the Alien contributed greatly to establishing Satriani's reputation as a respected rock guitarist....

. The song's title is a reference to the material found in Vonnegut's novel.

External links