ICP-MS

ICP-MS

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Encyclopedia
Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) is a type of mass spectrometry
Mass spectrometry
Mass spectrometry is an analytical technique that measures the mass-to-charge ratio of charged particles.It is used for determining masses of particles, for determining the elemental composition of a sample or molecule, and for elucidating the chemical structures of molecules, such as peptides and...

 that is highly sensitive and capable of the determination of a range of metals and several non-metals at concentrations below one part in 1012 (part per trillion). It is based on coupling together an inductively coupled plasma
Inductively coupled plasma
An inductively coupled plasma is a type of plasma source in which the energy is supplied by electric currents which are produced by electromagnetic induction, that is, by time-varying magnetic fields.-Operation:...

 as a method of producing ions (ionization
Ionization
Ionization is the process of converting an atom or molecule into an ion by adding or removing charged particles such as electrons or other ions. This is often confused with dissociation. A substance may dissociate without necessarily producing ions. As an example, the molecules of table sugar...

) with a mass spectrometer as a method of separating and detecting the ions.

In trace elemental analysis, the method has advantages of high speed, precision and sensitivity compared to atomic absorption techniques
Atomic absorption spectroscopy
Atomic absorption spectroscopy is a spectroanalytical procedure for the qualitative and quantitative determination of chemical elements employing the absorption of optical radiation by free atoms in the gaseous state. In analytical chemistry the technique is used for determining the concentration...

. Analysis of lower concentrations at the same time is more prone to disruption by trace contaminants in labware and reagents used. Specific analytes suffer from interferences exclusive to ICP-MS technique. Verification of analysis results requires additional effort.

The variety of applications exceeds that of ICP-OES and includes isotopic speciation. Due to possible applications in nuclear technologies, ICP-MS hardware is a subject for special exporting
Export
The term export is derived from the conceptual meaning as to ship the goods and services out of the port of a country. The seller of such goods and services is referred to as an "exporter" who is based in the country of export whereas the overseas based buyer is referred to as an "importer"...

 regulations.

Inductively coupled plasma



An inductively coupled plasma
Inductively coupled plasma
An inductively coupled plasma is a type of plasma source in which the energy is supplied by electric currents which are produced by electromagnetic induction, that is, by time-varying magnetic fields.-Operation:...

 is a plasma
Plasma (physics)
In physics and chemistry, plasma is a state of matter similar to gas in which a certain portion of the particles are ionized. Heating a gas may ionize its molecules or atoms , thus turning it into a plasma, which contains charged particles: positive ions and negative electrons or ions...

 that contains a sufficient concentration of ions and electrons to make the gas electrically conductive. The plasmas used in spectrochemical analysis are essentially electrically neutral, with each positive charge on an ion balanced by a free electron. In these plasmas the positive ions are almost all singly charged and there are few negative ions, so there are nearly equal amounts of ions and electrons in each unit volume of plasma.

An inductively coupled plasma (ICP) for spectrometry is sustained in a torch that consists of three concentric tubes, usually made of quartz
Quartz
Quartz is the second-most-abundant mineral in the Earth's continental crust, after feldspar. It is made up of a continuous framework of SiO4 silicon–oxygen tetrahedra, with each oxygen being shared between two tetrahedra, giving an overall formula SiO2. There are many different varieties of quartz,...

. The end of this torch is placed inside an induction coil supplied with a radio-frequency electric current. A flow of argon gas (usually 14 to 18 liters per minute) is introduced between the two outermost tubes of the torch and an electric spark
Electric spark
An electric spark is a type of electrostatic discharge that occurs when an electric field creates an ionized electrically conductive channel in air producing a brief emission of light and sound. A spark is formed when the electric field strength exceeds the dielectric field strength of air...

 is applied for a short time to introduce free electrons into the gas stream. These electrons interact with the radio-frequency magnetic field of the induction coil and are accelerated first in one direction, then the other, as the field changes at high frequency (usually 27.12 million cycles per second). The accelerated electrons collide with argon atoms, and sometimes a collision causes an argon atom to part with one of its electrons. The released electron is in turn accelerated by the rapidly changing magnetic field. The process continues until the rate of release of new electrons in collisions is balanced by the rate of recombination of electrons with argon ions (atoms that have lost an electron). This produces a ‘fireball’ that consists mostly of argon atoms with a rather small fraction of free electrons and argon ions. The temperature of the plasma is very high, of the order of 10,000 K.

The ICP can be retained in the quartz torch because the flow of gas between the two outermost tubes keeps the plasma away from the walls of the torch. A second flow of argon (around 1 liter per minute) is usually introduced between the central tube and the intermediate tube to keep the plasma away from the end of the central tube. A third flow (again usually around 1 liter per minute) of gas is introduced into the central tube of the torch. This gas flow passes through the centre of the plasma, where it forms a channel that is cooler than the surrounding plasma but still much hotter than a chemical flame. Samples to be analyzed are introduced into this central channel, usually as a mist of liquid formed by passing the liquid sample into a nebulizer.

As a droplet of nebulized sample enters the central channel of the ICP, it evaporates and any solids that were dissolved in the liquid vaporize and then break down into atoms. At the temperatures prevailing in the plasma a significant proportion of the atoms of many chemical elements are ionized, each atom losing its most loosely bound electron to form a singly charged ion.

Mass spectrometry



For coupling to mass spectrometry
Mass spectrometry
Mass spectrometry is an analytical technique that measures the mass-to-charge ratio of charged particles.It is used for determining masses of particles, for determining the elemental composition of a sample or molecule, and for elucidating the chemical structures of molecules, such as peptides and...

, the ions from the plasma are extracted through a series of cones into a mass spectrometer, usually a quadrupole
Quadrupole mass analyzer
The quadrupole mass analyzer is one type of mass analyzer used in mass spectrometry. As the name implies, it consists of 4 circular rods, set parallel to each other. In a quadrupole mass spectrometer the quadrupole is the component of the instrument responsible for filtering sample ions, based on...

. The ions are separated on the basis of their mass-to-charge ratio and a detector receives an ion signal proportional
Proportionality (mathematics)
In mathematics, two variable quantities are proportional if one of them is always the product of the other and a constant quantity, called the coefficient of proportionality or proportionality constant. In other words, are proportional if the ratio \tfrac yx is constant. We also say that one...

 to the concentration.

The concentration of a sample can be determined through calibration with certified reference material such as single or multi-element reference standards. ICP-MS also lends itself to quantitative determinations through Isotope Dilution, a single point method based on an isotopically enriched standard.

Other mass analyzers coupled to ICP systems include double focusing magnetic-electrostatic sector systems with both single and multiple collector, as well as time of flight
Time-of-flight mass spectrometry
Time-of-flight mass spectrometry is a method of mass spectrometry in which an ion's mass-to-charge ratio is determined via a time measurement. Ions are accelerated by an electric field of known strength. This acceleration results in an ion having the same kinetic energy as any other ion that has...

 systems (both axial and orthogonal accelerators have been used

Routine maintenance


As with any piece of instrumentation or equipment, there are many aspects of maintenance that need to be encompassed by daily, weekly and annual procedures. The frequency of maintenance is typically determined by the sample volume and cumulative run time that the instrument is subjected to.

One of the first things that should be carried out before the calibration of the ICP-MS is a sensitivity check and optimization. This ensures that the operator is aware of any possible issues with the instrument and if so, may address them before beginning a calibration. Typical indicators of sensitivity are Rhodium levels, Cerium/Oxide ratios and DI water blanks.

One of the most frequent forms of routine maintenance is replacing sample and waste tubing on the peristaltic pump, as these tubes can get worn fairly quickly resulting in holes and clogs in the sample line, resulting in skewed results. Other parts that will need regular cleaning and/or replacing are sample tips, nebulizer tips, sample cones, skimmer cones, injector tubes, torches and lenses. It may also be necessary to change the oil in the interface roughing pump as well as the vacuum backing pump, depending on the workload put on the instrument.

Metal speciation


A growing trend in the world of elemental analysis has revolved around the speciation of certain metals such as chromium and arsenic. One of the primary techniques to achieve this is to use an ICP-MS in combination with an HPLC
High-performance liquid chromatography
High-performance liquid chromatography , HPLC, is a chromatographic technique that can separate a mixture of compounds and is used in biochemistry and analytical chemistry to identify, quantify and purify the individual components of the mixture.HPLC typically utilizes different types of stationary...

. There are many advantages, from a clinical standpoint, in knowing the specific species present within a patient's body. For example, one species of chromium
Chromium
Chromium is a chemical element which has the symbol Cr and atomic number 24. It is the first element in Group 6. It is a steely-gray, lustrous, hard metal that takes a high polish and has a high melting point. It is also odorless, tasteless, and malleable...

, known as Chromium III or Trivalent Chromium, is needed by the body and causes no ill effects; however, Chromium VI or Hexavalent Chromium, is very toxic to the body. Chromium VI can cause mutations that may lead to cancer if not repaired by the body.

It is also beneficial for a clinician to utilize speciation analysis from a preventative standpoint. Many patients, who suffer from elevated levels of certain metals, do not know when or where the exposure incident(s) are occurring. By identifying the exact species, a physician can better narrow the search for possible exposure sites, therefore helping the patient to avoid certain areas in the future.

Quantification of proteins and biomolecules by ICP-MS


There is an increasing trend of using ICP-MS as a tool in speciation analysis, which normally involves a front end chromatograph separation and an elemental selective detector, such as AAS and ICP-MS. For example, ICP-MS may be combined with size exclusion chromatography
Size exclusion chromatography
Size-exclusion chromatography is a chromatographic method in which molecules in solution are separated by their size, and in some cases molecular weight . It is usually applied to large molecules or macromolecular complexes such as proteins and industrial polymers...

 and quantitative preparative native continuous polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (QPNC-PAGE
QPNC-PAGE
QPNC-PAGE, or quantitative preparative native continuous polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, is a high-resolution technique applied in biochemistry and bioinorganic chemistry to separate proteins by isoelectric point...

) for identifying and quantifying native metal cofactor containing proteins
Metalloprotein
Metalloprotein is a generic term for a protein that contains a metal ion cofactor. Metalloproteins have many different functions in cells, such as enzymes, transport and storage proteins, and signal transduction proteins. Indeed, about one quarter to one third of all proteins require metals to...

 in biofluids. Also the phosphorylation status of proteins can be analyzed.

Recently a new type of protein tagging reagents called metal coded affinity tags (MeCAT) were introduced to label proteins quantitatively with metals, especially lanthanides. The MeCAT labelling allows relative and absolute quantification of all kind of proteins or other biomolecules like peptides. MeCAT comprises a site-specific biomolecule tagging group with at least a strong chelate group which binds metals. The MeCAT labelled proteins can be accurately quantified by ICP-MS down to low attomol amount of analyte which is at least 2–3 orders of magnitude more sensitive than other mass spectrometry based quantification methods. By introducing several MeCAT labels to a biomolecule and further optimization of LC-ICP-MS detection limits in the zeptomol range are within the realms of possibility. By using different lanthanides MeCAT multiplexing can be used for pharmacokinetics
Pharmacokinetics
Pharmacokinetics, sometimes abbreviated as PK, is a branch of pharmacology dedicated to the determination of the fate of substances administered externally to a living organism...

 of proteins and peptides or the analysis of the differential expression of proteins (proteomics
Proteomics
Proteomics is the large-scale study of proteins, particularly their structures and functions. Proteins are vital parts of living organisms, as they are the main components of the physiological metabolic pathways of cells. The term "proteomics" was first coined in 1997 to make an analogy with...

) e.g. in biological fluids. Breakable PAGE SDS-PAGE
SDS-PAGE
SDS-PAGE, sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, describes a collection of related techniques widely used in biochemistry, forensics, genetics and molecular biology to separate proteins according to their electrophoretic mobility...

 (DPAGE, dissolvable PAGE), two-dimensional gel electrophoresis
Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis
Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis, abbreviated as 2-DE or 2-D electrophoresis, is a form of gel electrophoresis commonly used to analyze proteins...

 or chromatography
Chromatography
Chromatography is the collective term for a set of laboratory techniques for the separation of mixtures....

 is used for separation of MeCAT labelled proteins. Flow-injection ICP-MS analysis of protein bands or spots from DPAGE SDS-PAGE gels can be easily performed by dissolving the DPAGE gel after electrophoresis and staining of the gel. MeCAT labelled proteins are identified and relatively quantified on peptide level by MALDI-MS or ESI-MS.

Sample introduction


The first step in analysis is the introduction of the sample. This has been achieved in ICP-MS through a variety of means.

The most common method is the use of a nebulizer
Nebulizer
In medicine, a nebulizer is a device used to administer medication in the form of a mist inhaled into the lungs....

. This is a device which converts liquids into an aerosol, and that aerosol can then be swept into the plasma to create the ions. Nebulizers work best with simple liquid samples (i.e. solutions). However, there have been instances of their use with more complex materials like a slurry
Slurry
A slurry is, in general, a thick suspension of solids in a liquid.-Examples of slurries:Examples of slurries include:* Lahars* A mixture of water and cement to form concrete* A mixture of water, gelling agent, and oxidizers used as an explosive...

. Many varieties of nebulizers have been coupled to ICP-MS, including pneumatic, cross-flow, Babington, ultrasonic, and desolvating types. The aerosol generated is often treated to limit it to only smallest droplets, commonly by means of a double pass or cyclonic spray chamber. Use of autosamplers makes this easier and faster.

Less commonly, the laser ablation
Laser ablation
Laser ablation is the process of removing material from a solid surface by irradiating it with a laser beam. At low laser flux, the material is heated by the absorbed laser energy and evaporates or sublimates. At high laser flux, the material is typically converted to a plasma...

 has been used as a means of sample introduction. In this method, a laser is focused on the sample and creates a plume of ablated material which can be swept into the plasma. This is particularly useful for solid samples, though can be difficult to create standards for leading the challenges in quantitative analysis.

Other methods of sample introduction are also utilized. Electrothermal vaporization (ETV) and in torch vaporization (ITV) use hot surfaces (graphite or metal, generally) to vaporize samples for introduction. These can use very small amounts of liquids, solids, or slurries. Other methods like vapor generation are also known.

Plasma torch


The plasma used in an ICP-MS is made by partially ionizing argon gas (Ar → Ar+ + e). The energy required for this reaction is obtained by pulsing an electrical current in wires that surround the argon gas.

After the sample is injected, the plasma's extreme temperature causes the sample to separate into individual atoms (atomization). Next, the plasma ionizes these atoms (M → M+ + e) so that they can be detected by the mass spectrometer.

An inductively coupled plasma (ICP) for spectrometry is sustained in a torch that consists of three concentric tubes, usually made of quartz. The end of this torch is placed inside an induction coil supplied with a radio-frequency electric current. A flow of argon gas (usually 14 to 18 liters per minute) is introduced between the two outermost tubes of the torch and an electrical spark is applied for a short time to introduce free electrons into the gas stream. These electrons interact with the radio-frequency magnetic field of the induction coil and are accelerated first in one direction, then the other, as the field changes at high frequency (usually 27.12 MHz). The accelerated electrons collide with argon atoms, and sometimes a collision causes an argon atom to part with one of its electrons. The released electron is in turn accelerated by the rapidly changing magnetic field. The process continues until the rate of release of new electrons in collisions is balanced by the rate of recombination of electrons with argon ions (atoms that have lost an electron). This produces a ‘fireball’ that consists mostly of argon atoms with a rather small fraction of free electrons and argon ions.

Advantage of argon


Making the plasma from argon, instead of other gases, has several advantages. First, argon is abundant (in the atmosphere, as a result of the radioactive decay of potassium
Potassium
Potassium is the chemical element with the symbol K and atomic number 19. Elemental potassium is a soft silvery-white alkali metal that oxidizes rapidly in air and is very reactive with water, generating sufficient heat to ignite the hydrogen emitted in the reaction.Potassium and sodium are...

) and therefore cheaper than other noble gases. Argon also has a higher first ionization potential
Ionization energy
The ionization energy of a chemical species, i.e. an atom or molecule, is the energy required to remove an electron from the species to a practically infinite distance. Large atoms or molecules have a low ionization energy, while small molecules tend to have higher ionization energies.The property...

 than all other elements except He
Helium
Helium is the chemical element with atomic number 2 and an atomic weight of 4.002602, which is represented by the symbol He. It is a colorless, odorless, tasteless, non-toxic, inert, monatomic gas that heads the noble gas group in the periodic table...

, F
Fluorine
Fluorine is the chemical element with atomic number 9, represented by the symbol F. It is the lightest element of the halogen column of the periodic table and has a single stable isotope, fluorine-19. At standard pressure and temperature, fluorine is a pale yellow gas composed of diatomic...

, and Ne
Neon
Neon is the chemical element that has the symbol Ne and an atomic number of 10. Although a very common element in the universe, it is rare on Earth. A colorless, inert noble gas under standard conditions, neon gives a distinct reddish-orange glow when used in either low-voltage neon glow lamps or...

. Because of this high ionization energy, the reaction (Ar+ + e → Ar) is more energetically favorable than the reaction (M+ + e → M). This ensures that the sample remains ionized (as M+) so that the mass spectrometer can detect it.

Argon can be purchased for use with the ICP-MS in either a refrigerated liquid or a gas form. However it is important to note that whichever form of argon purchased, it should have a guaranteed purity of 99.9% Argon at a minimum. It is important to determine which type of argon will be best suited for the specific situation. Liquid argon is typically cheaper and can be stored in a greater quantity as opposed to the gas form, which is more expensive and takes up more tank space. If the instrument is in an environment where it gets infrequent use, then buying argon in the gas state will be most appropriate as it will be more than enough to suit smaller run times and gas in the cylinder will remain stable for longer periods of time, whereas liquid argon will suffer loss to the environment due to venting of the tank when stored over extended time frames. However if the ICP-MS is to be used routinely and is on and running for eight or more hours each day for several days a week, then going with liquid argon will be the most suitable. If there are to be multiple ICP-MS instruments running for long periods of time, then it will most likely be beneficial for the laboratory to install a bulk or micro bulk argon tank which will be maintained by a gas supply company, thus eliminating the need to change out tanks frequently as well as minimizing loss of argon that is left over in each used tank as well as down time for tank changeover.

There are rare ICP-MS solutions that utilize helium
Helium
Helium is the chemical element with atomic number 2 and an atomic weight of 4.002602, which is represented by the symbol He. It is a colorless, odorless, tasteless, non-toxic, inert, monatomic gas that heads the noble gas group in the periodic table...

 for plasma generation.

Transfer of ions into vacuum


The carrier gas is sent through the central channel and into the very hot plasma. The sample is then exposed to radio frequency
Radio frequency
Radio frequency is a rate of oscillation in the range of about 3 kHz to 300 GHz, which corresponds to the frequency of radio waves, and the alternating currents which carry radio signals...

 which converts the gas into a plasma
Plasma (physics)
In physics and chemistry, plasma is a state of matter similar to gas in which a certain portion of the particles are ionized. Heating a gas may ionize its molecules or atoms , thus turning it into a plasma, which contains charged particles: positive ions and negative electrons or ions...

. The high temperature of the plasma is sufficient to cause a very large portion of the sample to form ions. This fraction of ionization can approach 100% for some elements (e.g. sodium), but this is dependent on the ionization potential. A fraction of the formed ions passes through a ~1 mm hole (sampler cone) and then a ~0.4 mm hole (skimmer cone). The purpose of which is to allow a vacuum
Vacuum
In everyday usage, vacuum is a volume of space that is essentially empty of matter, such that its gaseous pressure is much less than atmospheric pressure. The word comes from the Latin term for "empty". A perfect vacuum would be one with no particles in it at all, which is impossible to achieve in...

 that is required by the mass spectrometer.

The vacuum is created and maintained by a series of pumps. The first stage is usually based on a roughing pump, most commonly a standard rotary vane pump. This removes most of the gas and typically reaches a pressure of around 133 Pa. Later stages have their vacuum generated by more powerful vacuum systems, most often turbomolecular pumps. Older instruments may have used oil diffusion pumps for high vacuum regions.

Ion optics


Before mass separation, a beam of positive ions has to be extracted from the plasma and focused into the mass-analyzer. It is important to separate the ions from UV photons, energetic neutrals and from any solid particles that may have been carried into the instrument from the ICP. Traditionally, ICP-MS instruments have used transmitting ion lens arrangements for this purpose. Examples include the Einzel lens, the Barrel lens, Agilent's Omega Lens and Perkin-Elmer's Shadow Stop. Another approach is to use ion guides (quadrupoles, hexapoles, or octopoles) to guide the ions into mass analyzer along a path away from the trajectory of photons or neutral particles. Yet another approach is Varian
Varian, Inc.
Varian, Inc. was one of the largest manufacturers of scientific instruments for the scientific industry; they had offerings over the whole range of chemical analysis equipment, with a particular focus on Information Rich Detection and Vacuum technology...

 patented used by Bruker
Bruker
Bruker is a leading provider of high-performance scientific instruments and solutions for molecular and materials research, as well as for industrial and applied analysis...

  90 degrees reflecting "Ion Mirror" optics, which are claimed to provide more efficient ion transport into the mass-analyzer, resulting in better sensitivity and reduced background

Collision reaction cell and CRI



The collision/reaction cell is used to remove interfering ions through ion/neutral reactions. Collision/reaction cells are known under several trade names. The dynamic reaction cell was introduced by Perkin-Elmer on their Elan DRC (followed by Elan DRC II and Elan DRC-e) instrument and is located before the quadrupole
Quadrupole
A quadrupole or quadrapole is one of a sequence of configurations of—for example—electric charge or current, or gravitational mass that can exist in ideal form, but it is usually just part of a multipole expansion of a more complex structure reflecting various orders of complexity.-Mathematical...

 in the ICP-MS device. The chamber has a quadrupole and can be filled-up with reaction (or collision) gases (ammonia
Ammonia
Ammonia is a compound of nitrogen and hydrogen with the formula . It is a colourless gas with a characteristic pungent odour. Ammonia contributes significantly to the nutritional needs of terrestrial organisms by serving as a precursor to food and fertilizers. Ammonia, either directly or...

, methane
Methane
Methane is a chemical compound with the chemical formula . It is the simplest alkane, the principal component of natural gas, and probably the most abundant organic compound on earth. The relative abundance of methane makes it an attractive fuel...

, oxygen
Oxygen
Oxygen is the element with atomic number 8 and represented by the symbol O. Its name derives from the Greek roots ὀξύς and -γενής , because at the time of naming, it was mistakenly thought that all acids required oxygen in their composition...

 or hydrogen
Hydrogen
Hydrogen is the chemical element with atomic number 1. It is represented by the symbol H. With an average atomic weight of , hydrogen is the lightest and most abundant chemical element, constituting roughly 75% of the Universe's chemical elemental mass. Stars in the main sequence are mainly...

), with one gas type at a time or a mixture of two of them, which reacts with the introduced sample, eliminating some of the interference. The collisional reaction interface (CRI) technology used in the Bruker
Bruker
Bruker is a leading provider of high-performance scientific instruments and solutions for molecular and materials research, as well as for industrial and applied analysis...

 (former Varian) ICP-MS is another effective approach to removing interfering ions. Axial field technology (AFT) is a DRC modification by Perkin-Elmer, which consists in two supplementary rods placed in the DRC cell that move the ions faster through the cell and improving analysis speed. Thermo Scientific's XSeries2 instrument utilizes a collision/reaction cell for interference removal, consisting of a non-consumable hexapole and chicane ion deflector, which takes the ion beam off-axis. The Agilent octopole reaction system (ORS)) uses only helium or hydrogen and the volume of the cell is smaller than that of a DRC, but is based only on collision reactions and not on chemical reactions.

Collisional reaction interface (CRI)


The proprietary collisional reaction interface (CRI) used in the Bruker
Bruker
Bruker is a leading provider of high-performance scientific instruments and solutions for molecular and materials research, as well as for industrial and applied analysis...

 ICP-MS destroying interfering ions. These ions are removed by injecting a collisional gas (He), or a reactive gas (H2), or a mixture of the two, directly into the plasma as it flows through the skimmer cone and/or the sampler cone. Supplying the reactive/collisional gas into the tip of the skimmer cone and/or into the tip of the sampler cone induces extra collisions and reactions that destroy polyatomic ions in the passing plasma.

Sample preparation


For most clinical methods using ICP-MS, there is a relatively simple and quick sample prep process. The main component to the sample is an internal standard, which also serves as the diluent. This internal standard consists primarily of deionized water, with nitric or hydrochloric acid, and Indium and/or Gallium. Depending on the sample type, usually 5 ml of the internal standard is added to a test tube along with 10–500 microliters of sample. This mixture is then vortexed for several seconds or until mixed well and then loaded onto the autosampler tray.
For other applications that may involve very viscous samples or samples that have particulate matter, a process known as sample digestion may have to be carried out, before it can be pipetted and analyzed. This adds an extra first step to the above process, and therefore makes the sample prep more lengthy.

Elemental analysis


The ICP-MS allows determination of elements
Chemical element
A chemical element is a pure chemical substance consisting of one type of atom distinguished by its atomic number, which is the number of protons in its nucleus. Familiar examples of elements include carbon, oxygen, aluminum, iron, copper, gold, mercury, and lead.As of November 2011, 118 elements...

 with atomic mass ranges 7 to 250. This encompasses Li
Lithium
Lithium is a soft, silver-white metal that belongs to the alkali metal group of chemical elements. It is represented by the symbol Li, and it has the atomic number 3. Under standard conditions it is the lightest metal and the least dense solid element. Like all alkali metals, lithium is highly...

 to U
Uranium
Uranium is a silvery-white metallic chemical element in the actinide series of the periodic table, with atomic number 92. It is assigned the chemical symbol U. A uranium atom has 92 protons and 92 electrons, of which 6 are valence electrons...

. Some masses are prohibited such as 40 due to the abundance of argon in the sample. Other blocked regions may include mass 80 (due to the argon dimer), and mass 56 (due to ArO), the latter of which greatly hinders Fe
FE
Fe or FE may refer to:* Iron * Fe , the f-rune of the Younger Futhark* Fe * Fe * "Fe" , a song by Jorge González...

 analysis unless the instrumentation is fitted with a reaction chamber.

A typical ICP-MS will be able to detect in the region of nanograms per litre to 10 or 100 milligrams per litre or around 8 orders of magnitude of concentration units.

Unlike atomic absorption spectroscopy
Atomic absorption spectroscopy
Atomic absorption spectroscopy is a spectroanalytical procedure for the qualitative and quantitative determination of chemical elements employing the absorption of optical radiation by free atoms in the gaseous state. In analytical chemistry the technique is used for determining the concentration...

, which can only measure a single element at a time ICP-MS has the capability to scan for all elements simultaneously. This allows rapid sample processing. A simultaneous ICP-MS that can record the entire analytical spectrum from lithium to uranium in every analysis won the Silver Award at the 2010 Pittcon Editors' Awards
Pittcon Editors' Awards
Pittcon Editors’ Awards have honoured the best new products on show at The Pittsburgh Conference on Analytical Chemistry and Applied Spectroscopy, or Pittcon, since being established in 1996 by Dr Gordon Wilkinson, managing editor of Analytical Instrument Industry Report...

.

Usage


One of the largest volume uses for ICP-MS is in the medical and forensic field, specifically, toxicology. A physician may order a metal assay for a number of reasons, such as suspicion of heavy metal poisoning, metabolic concerns, and even hepatological issues. Depending on the specific parameters unique to each patient's diagnostic plan, samples collected for analysis can range from whole blood, urine, plasma, serum, to even packed red blood cells. Another primary use for this instrument lies in the environmental field. Such applications include water testing for municipalities or private individuals all the way to soil, water and other material analysis for industrial purposes.

In recent years, industrial and biological monitoring has presented another major need for metal analysis via ICP-MS. Individuals working in plants where exposure to metals is likely and unavoidable, such as a battery factory, are required by their employer, to have their blood or urine analyzed for metal toxicity on a regular basis. This monitoring has become a mandatory practice implemented by OSHA
Occupational Safety and Health Administration
The United States Occupational Safety and Health Administration is an agency of the United States Department of Labor. It was created by Congress of the United States under the Occupational Safety and Health Act, signed by President Richard M. Nixon, on December 29, 1970...

, in an effort to protect workers from their work environment and ensure proper rotation of work duties (i.e. rotating employees from a high exposure position to a low exposure position).

Regardless of the sample type, blood, water, etc., it is important that it be free of clots or other particulate matter, as even the smallest clot can disrupt sample flow and block or clog the sample tips within the spray chamber. Very high concentrations of salts, e.g. sodium chloride in sea water, can eventually lead to blockages as some of the ions reunite after leaving the torch and build up around the orifice of the skimmer cone. This can be avoided by diluting samples whenever high salt concentrations are suspected, though at a cost to detection limits.

This technique is also widely used the field of radiometric dating, in which it is used to analyze relative abundance of different isotopes. ICP-MS is more suitable for this application than the previously used Thermal Ionization Mass Spectrometry, as species with high ionization energy such as Osmium (Os) and Tungsten (Hf-W) can be easily ionised.

In the field of flow cytometry
Flow cytometry
Flow cytometry is a technique for counting and examining microscopic particles, such as cells and chromosomes, by suspending them in a stream of fluid and passing them by an electronic detection apparatus. It allows simultaneous multiparametric analysis of the physical and/or chemical...

, a new technique uses ICP-MS to replace the traditional fluorochromes. Briefly, instead of labelling antibodies (or other biological probes) with fluorochromes, each antibody is labelled with a distinct combinations of lanthanides. When the sample of interest is analysed by ICP-MS in a specialised flow cytometer, each antibody can be identified and quantitated by virtue of a distinct ICP "footprint". In theory, hundreds of different biological probes can thus be analysed in an individual cell, at a rate of ca. 1,000 cells per second. Because elements are easily distinguished in ICP-MS, the problem of compensation in multiplex flow cytometry is effectively eliminated.

See also

  • Inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES), also known as Inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES)

External links