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Hyperbolic function

Hyperbolic function

Overview
In mathematics
Mathematics
Mathematics is the study of quantity, space, structure, and change. Mathematicians seek out patterns and formulate new conjectures. Mathematicians resolve the truth or falsity of conjectures by mathematical proofs, which are arguments sufficient to convince other mathematicians of their validity...

, hyperbolic functions are analogs of the ordinary trigonometric
Trigonometric function
In mathematics, the trigonometric functions are functions of an angle. They are used to relate the angles of a triangle to the lengths of the sides of a triangle...

, or circular, functions. The basic hyperbolic functions are the hyperbolic sine "sinh" (icon or ˈ), and the hyperbolic cosine "cosh" (icon), from which are derived the hyperbolic tangent "tanh" (icon or , and so on, corresponding to the derived trigonometric functions. The inverse hyperbolic function
Inverse hyperbolic function
The inverses of the hyperbolic functions are the area hyperbolic functions. The names hint at the fact that they give the area of a sector of the unit hyperbola in the same way that the inverse trigonometric functions give the arc length of a sector on the unit circle...

s are the area hyperbolic sine "arsinh" (also called "asinh" or sometimes "arcsinh") and so on.

Just as the points (cos t, sin t) form a circle with a unit radius, the points (cosh t, sinh t) form the right half of the equilateral hyperbola
Hyperbola
In mathematics a hyperbola is a curve, specifically a smooth curve that lies in a plane, which can be defined either by its geometric properties or by the kinds of equations for which it is the solution set. A hyperbola has two pieces, called connected components or branches, which are mirror...

.
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Encyclopedia
In mathematics
Mathematics
Mathematics is the study of quantity, space, structure, and change. Mathematicians seek out patterns and formulate new conjectures. Mathematicians resolve the truth or falsity of conjectures by mathematical proofs, which are arguments sufficient to convince other mathematicians of their validity...

, hyperbolic functions are analogs of the ordinary trigonometric
Trigonometric function
In mathematics, the trigonometric functions are functions of an angle. They are used to relate the angles of a triangle to the lengths of the sides of a triangle...

, or circular, functions. The basic hyperbolic functions are the hyperbolic sine "sinh" (icon or ˈ), and the hyperbolic cosine "cosh" (icon), from which are derived the hyperbolic tangent "tanh" (icon or , and so on, corresponding to the derived trigonometric functions. The inverse hyperbolic function
Inverse hyperbolic function
The inverses of the hyperbolic functions are the area hyperbolic functions. The names hint at the fact that they give the area of a sector of the unit hyperbola in the same way that the inverse trigonometric functions give the arc length of a sector on the unit circle...

s are the area hyperbolic sine "arsinh" (also called "asinh" or sometimes "arcsinh") and so on.

Just as the points (cos t, sin t) form a circle with a unit radius, the points (cosh t, sinh t) form the right half of the equilateral hyperbola
Hyperbola
In mathematics a hyperbola is a curve, specifically a smooth curve that lies in a plane, which can be defined either by its geometric properties or by the kinds of equations for which it is the solution set. A hyperbola has two pieces, called connected components or branches, which are mirror...

. Hyperbolic functions occur in the solutions of some important linear differential equation
Differential equation
A differential equation is a mathematical equation for an unknown function of one or several variables that relates the values of the function itself and its derivatives of various orders...

s, for example the equation defining a catenary
Catenary
In physics and geometry, the catenary is the curve that an idealised hanging chain or cable assumes when supported at its ends and acted on only by its own weight. The curve is the graph of the hyperbolic cosine function, and has a U-like shape, superficially similar in appearance to a parabola...

, and Laplace's equation
Laplace's equation
In mathematics, Laplace's equation is a second-order partial differential equation named after Pierre-Simon Laplace who first studied its properties. This is often written as:where ∆ = ∇² is the Laplace operator and \varphi is a scalar function...

 in Cartesian coordinates. The latter is important in many areas of physics
Physics
Physics is a natural science that involves the study of matter and its motion through spacetime, along with related concepts such as energy and force. More broadly, it is the general analysis of nature, conducted in order to understand how the universe behaves.Physics is one of the oldest academic...

, including electromagnetic theory, heat transfer
Heat transfer
Heat transfer is a discipline of thermal engineering that concerns the exchange of thermal energy from one physical system to another. Heat transfer is classified into various mechanisms, such as heat conduction, convection, thermal radiation, and phase-change transfer...

, fluid dynamics
Fluid dynamics
In physics, fluid dynamics is a sub-discipline of fluid mechanics that deals with fluid flow—the natural science of fluids in motion. It has several subdisciplines itself, including aerodynamics and hydrodynamics...

, and special relativity
Special relativity
Special relativity is the physical theory of measurement in an inertial frame of reference proposed in 1905 by Albert Einstein in the paper "On the Electrodynamics of Moving Bodies".It generalizes Galileo's...

.

The hyperbolic functions take real values for a real argument called a hyperbolic angle
Hyperbolic angle
In mathematics, a hyperbolic angle is a geometric figure that divides a hyperbola. The science of hyperbolic angle parallels the relation of an ordinary angle to a circle...

. In complex analysis, they are simply rational function
Rational function
In mathematics, a rational function is any function which can be written as the ratio of two polynomial functions. Neither the coefficients of the polynomials nor the values taken by the function are necessarily rational.-Definitions:...

s of exponentials
Exponential function
In mathematics, the exponential function is the function ex, where e is the number such that the function ex is its own derivative. The exponential function is used to model a relationship in which a constant change in the independent variable gives the same proportional change In mathematics,...

, and so are meromorphic
Meromorphic function
In complex analysis, a meromorphic function on an open subset D of the complex plane is a function that is holomorphic on all D except a set of isolated points, which are poles for the function...

.

Hyperbolic functions were introduced in the 1760s independently by Vincenzo Riccati
Vincenzo Riccati
Vincenzo Riccati was an Italian mathematician and physicist. He was the brother of Giordano Riccati, and the second son of Jacopo Riccati....

 and Johann Heinrich Lambert
Johann Heinrich Lambert
Johann Heinrich Lambert was a Swiss mathematician, physicist, philosopher and astronomer.Asteroid 187 Lamberta was named in his honour.-Biography:...

. Riccati used Sc. and Cc. ([co]sinus circulare) to refer to circular functions and Sh. and Ch. ([co]sinus hyperbolico) to refer to hyperbolic functions. Lambert adopted the names but altered the abbreviations to what they are today. The abbreviations sh and ch are still used in some other languages, like French and Russian.

Standard algebraic expressions





The hyperbolic functions are:
  • Hyperbolic sine:

  • Hyperbolic cosine:

  • Hyperbolic tangent:

  • Hyperbolic cotangent:

  • Hyperbolic secant:

  • Hyperbolic cosecant:


Hyperbolic functions can be introduced via imaginary circular angles:
  • Hyperbolic sine:

  • Hyperbolic cosine:

  • Hyperbolic tangent:

  • Hyperbolic cotangent:

  • Hyperbolic secant:

  • Hyperbolic cosecant:


where i is the imaginary unit
Imaginary unit
In mathematics, the imaginary unit allows the real number system ℝ to be extended to the complex number system ℂ, which in turn provides at least one root for every polynomial . The imaginary unit is denoted by , , or the Greek...

 defined as i2 = −1.

The complex
Complex number
A complex number is a number consisting of a real part and an imaginary part. Complex numbers extend the idea of the one-dimensional number line to the two-dimensional complex plane by using the number line for the real part and adding a vertical axis to plot the imaginary part...

 forms in the definitions above derive from Euler's formula
Euler's formula
Euler's formula, named after Leonhard Euler, is a mathematical formula in complex analysis that establishes the deep relationship between the trigonometric functions and the complex exponential function...

.

Note that, by convention, sinh2 x means (sinh x)2, not sinh(sinh x); similarly for the other hyperbolic functions when used with positive exponents. Another notation for the hyperbolic cotangent function is ctnh x, though coth x is far more common.

Useful relations



Hence:


It can be seen that cosh x and sech x are even functions; the others are odd functions.




Hyperbolic sine and cosine satisfy the identity
which is similar to the Pythagorean trigonometric identity
Pythagorean trigonometric identity
The Pythagorean trigonometric identity is a trigonometric identity expressing the Pythagorean theorem in terms of trigonometric functions. Along with the sum-of-angles formulae, it is one the basic relations between the sine and cosine functions, from which all others may be derived.-Statement of...

. One also has
for the other functions.

The hyperbolic tangent is the solution to the nonlinear boundary value problem
Boundary value problem
In mathematics, in the field of differential equations, a boundary value problem is a differential equation together with a set of additional restraints, called the boundary conditions...

:


It can be shown that the area under the curve of cosh x is always equal to the arc length:

Inverse functions as logarithms







Derivatives













Standard Integrals


For a full list of integrals of hyperbolic functions, see list of integrals of hyperbolic functions











Where C is the constant of integration.

Taylor series expressions


It is possible to express the above functions as Taylor series
Taylor series
In mathematics, a Taylor series is a representation of a function as an infinite sum of terms that are calculated from the values of the function's derivatives at a single point....

:

The function sinh x has a Taylor series expression with only odd exponents for x. Thus it is an odd function, that is, −sinh x = sinh(−x), and sinh 0 = 0.


The function cosh x has a Taylor series expression with only even exponents for x. Thus it is an even function, that is, symmetric with respect to the y-axis. The sum of the sinh and cosh series is the infinite series expression of the exponential function
Exponential function
In mathematics, the exponential function is the function ex, where e is the number such that the function ex is its own derivative. The exponential function is used to model a relationship in which a constant change in the independent variable gives the same proportional change In mathematics,...

.

(Laurent series
Laurent series
In mathematics, the Laurent series of a complex function f is a representation of that function as a power series which includes terms of negative degree. It may be used to express complex functions in cases where...

)

(Laurent series
Laurent series
In mathematics, the Laurent series of a complex function f is a representation of that function as a power series which includes terms of negative degree. It may be used to express complex functions in cases where...

)

where
is the nth Bernoulli number
Bernoulli number
In mathematics, the Bernoulli numbers Bn are a sequence of rational numbers with deep connections to number theory. They are closely related to the values of the Riemann zeta function at negative integers....

is the nth Euler number

Comparison with circular trigonometric functions


Consider these two subsets of the Cartesian plane
Then A forms the right branch of the unit hyperbola
Unit hyperbola
In geometry, the unit hyperbola is the set of points in the Cartesian plane that satisfies x^2 - y^2 = 1 . In the study of indefinite orthogonal groups, the unit hyperbola forms the basis for an alternative radial lengthWhereas the unit circle surrounds its center, the unit hyperbola requires the...


{(x,y): x2 − y2 = 1},
while B is the unit circle
Unit circle
In mathematics, a unit circle is a circle with a radius of one. Frequently, especially in trigonometry, "the" unit circle is the circle of radius one centered at the origin in the Cartesian coordinate system in the Euclidean plane...

. Evidently = {(1,0)}. The primary difference is that the map t → B is a periodic function
Periodic function
In mathematics, a periodic function is a function that repeats its values in regular intervals or periods. The most important examples are the trigonometric functions, which repeat over intervals of length 2π radians. Periodic functions are used throughout science to describe oscillations,...

 while t → A is not.

There is a close analogy of A with B through split-complex number
Split-complex number
In abstract algebra, the split-complex numbers are a two-dimensional commutative algebra over the real numbers different from the complex numbers. Every split-complex number has the formwhere x and y are real numbers...

s in comparison with ordinary complex number
Complex number
A complex number is a number consisting of a real part and an imaginary part. Complex numbers extend the idea of the one-dimensional number line to the two-dimensional complex plane by using the number line for the real part and adding a vertical axis to plot the imaginary part...

s, and its circle group. In particular, the maps t → A and t → B are the exponential map
Exponential map
In differential geometry, the exponential map is a generalization of the ordinary exponential function of mathematical analysis to all differentiable manifolds with an affine connection....

 in each case. They are both instances of one-parameter group
One-parameter group
In mathematics, a one-parameter group or one-parameter subgroup usually means a continuous group homomorphismfrom the real line R to some other topological group G...

s in Lie theory
Lie theory
Lie theory is an area of mathematics, developed initially by Sophus Lie.Early expressions of Lie theory are found in books composed by Lie with Friedrich Engel and Georg Scheffers from 1888 to 1896....

 where all groups evolve out of the identity

For contrast, in the terminology of topological group
Topological group
In mathematics, a topological group is a group G together with a topology on G such that the group's binary operation and the group's inverse function are continuous functions with respect to the topology. A topological group is a mathematical object with both an algebraic structure and a...

s, B forms a compact
Compact space
In mathematics, specifically general topology and metric topology, a compact space is an abstract mathematical space whose topology has the compactness property, which has many important implications not valid in general spaces...

 group while A is non-compact since it is unbounded.

The hyperbolic functions satisfy many identities, all of them similar in form to the trigonometric identities. In fact, Osborn's rule states that one can convert any trigonometric identity into a hyperbolic identity by expanding it completely in terms of integral powers of sines and cosines, changing sine to sinh and cosine to cosh, and switching the sign of every term which contains a product of 2, 6, 10, 14, ... sinhs. This yields for example the addition theorems

the "double argument formulas"
and the "half-argument formulas"    Note: This is equivalent to its circular counterpart multiplied by −1.    Note: This corresponds to its circular counterpart.

The derivative
Derivative
In calculus, a branch of mathematics, the derivative is a measure of how a function changes as its input changes. Loosely speaking, a derivative can be thought of as how much one quantity is changing in response to changes in some other quantity; for example, the derivative of the position of a...

 of sinh x is cosh x and the derivative of cosh x is sinh x; this is similar to trigonometric functions, albeit the sign is different (i.e., the derivative of cos x is −sin x).

The Gudermannian function gives a direct relationship between the circular functions and the hyperbolic ones that does not involve complex numbers.

The graph of the function a cosh(x/a) is the catenary
Catenary
In physics and geometry, the catenary is the curve that an idealised hanging chain or cable assumes when supported at its ends and acted on only by its own weight. The curve is the graph of the hyperbolic cosine function, and has a U-like shape, superficially similar in appearance to a parabola...

, the curve formed by a uniform flexible chain hanging freely between two fixed points under uniform gravity.

Relationship to the exponential function


From the definitions of the hyperbolic sine and cosine, we can derive the following identities:


and


These expressions are analogous to the expressions for sine and cosine, based on Euler's formula
Euler's formula
Euler's formula, named after Leonhard Euler, is a mathematical formula in complex analysis that establishes the deep relationship between the trigonometric functions and the complex exponential function...

, as sums of complex exponentials.

Hyperbolic functions for complex numbers


Since the exponential function
Exponential function
In mathematics, the exponential function is the function ex, where e is the number such that the function ex is its own derivative. The exponential function is used to model a relationship in which a constant change in the independent variable gives the same proportional change In mathematics,...

 can be defined for any complex
Complex number
A complex number is a number consisting of a real part and an imaginary part. Complex numbers extend the idea of the one-dimensional number line to the two-dimensional complex plane by using the number line for the real part and adding a vertical axis to plot the imaginary part...

 argument, we can extend the definitions of the hyperbolic functions also to complex arguments. The functions sinh z and cosh z are then holomorphic.

Relationships to ordinary trigonometric functions are given by Euler's formula
Euler's formula
Euler's formula, named after Leonhard Euler, is a mathematical formula in complex analysis that establishes the deep relationship between the trigonometric functions and the complex exponential function...

 for complex numbers:


so:








Thus, hyperbolic functions are periodic
Periodic function
In mathematics, a periodic function is a function that repeats its values in regular intervals or periods. The most important examples are the trigonometric functions, which repeat over intervals of length 2π radians. Periodic functions are used throughout science to describe oscillations,...

 with respect to the imaginary component,with period ( for hyperbolic tangent and cotangent).
Hyperbolic functions in the complex plane

See also


  • Catenary
    Catenary
    In physics and geometry, the catenary is the curve that an idealised hanging chain or cable assumes when supported at its ends and acted on only by its own weight. The curve is the graph of the hyperbolic cosine function, and has a U-like shape, superficially similar in appearance to a parabola...

  • e (mathematical constant)
    E (mathematical constant)
    The mathematical constant ' is the unique real number such that the value of the derivative of the function at the point is equal to 1. The function so defined is called the exponential function, and its inverse is the natural logarithm, or logarithm to base...

  • Equal incircles theorem
    Equal incircles theorem
    In geometry, the equal incircles theorem derives from a Japanese Sangaku, and pertains to the following construction: a series of rays are drawn from a given point to a given line such that the inscribed circles of the triangles formed by adjacent rays and the base line are equal...

    , based on sinh
  • List of integrals of hyperbolic functions
  • Poinsot's spirals
  • Sigmoid function
    Sigmoid function
    Many natural processes, including those of complex system learning curves, exhibit a progression from small beginnings that accelerates and approaches a climax over time. When a detailed description is lacking, a sigmoid function is often used. A sigmoid curve is produced by a mathematical...


External links

  • Hyperbolic functions on PlanetMath
    PlanetMath
    PlanetMath is a free, collaborative, online mathematics encyclopedia. The emphasis is on rigour, openness, pedagogy, real-time content, interlinked content, and also community of about 24,000 people with various maths interests. Intended to be comprehensive, the project is hosted by the Digital...

  • Hyperbolic functions entry at MathWorld
    MathWorld
    MathWorld is an online mathematics reference work, created and largely written by Eric W. Weisstein. It is sponsored by and licensed to Wolfram Research, Inc. and was partially funded by the National Science Foundation's National Science Digital Library grant to the University of Illinois at...

  • GonioLab: Visualization of the unit circle, trigonometric and hyperbolic functions (Java Web Start
    Java Web Start
    In computing, Java Web Start is a framework developed by Sun Microsystems that allows users to start application software for the Java Platform directly from the Internet using a web browser....

    )
  • Web-based calculator of hyperbolic functions