Hydrofoil

Hydrofoil

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A hydrofoil is a foil
Foil (fluid mechanics)
A foil is a solid object with a shape such that when placed in a moving fluid at a suitable angle of attack the lift is substantially larger than the drag...

 which operates in water. They are similar in appearance and purpose to airfoil
Airfoil
An airfoil or aerofoil is the shape of a wing or blade or sail as seen in cross-section....

s.

Hydrofoils can be artificial, such as the rudder
Rudder
A rudder is a device used to steer a ship, boat, submarine, hovercraft, aircraft or other conveyance that moves through a medium . On an aircraft the rudder is used primarily to counter adverse yaw and p-factor and is not the primary control used to turn the airplane...

 or keel
Keel
In boats and ships, keel can refer to either of two parts: a structural element, or a hydrodynamic element. These parts overlap. As the laying down of the keel is the initial step in construction of a ship, in British and American shipbuilding traditions the construction is dated from this event...

 on a boat
Boat
A boat is a watercraft of any size designed to float or plane, to provide passage across water. Usually this water will be inland or in protected coastal areas. However, boats such as the whaleboat were designed to be operated from a ship in an offshore environment. In naval terms, a boat is a...

, the diving plane
Diving plane
A diving plane, also known as a hydroplane, is a control surface found on submarines which allow the vessel to pitch its bow and stern up or down to assist in the process of submerging or surfacing the boat, as well as controlling depth when submerged....

s on a submarine, a surfboard fin, or occur naturally, as with fish
Fish
Fish are a paraphyletic group of organisms that consist of all gill-bearing aquatic vertebrate animals that lack limbs with digits. Included in this definition are the living hagfish, lampreys, and cartilaginous and bony fish, as well as various extinct related groups...

 fins
FINS
FINS is a network protocol used by Omron PLCs, over different physical networks like Ethernet, Controller Link, DeviceNet and RS-232C....

, the flipper
Flipper (anatomy)
A flipper is a typically flat limb evolved for movement through water. Various creatures have evolved flippers, for example penguins , cetaceans A flipper is a typically flat limb evolved for movement through water. Various creatures have evolved flippers, for example penguins (also called...

s of aquatic mammal
Aquatic mammal
Aquatic and semi-aquatic mammals are a diverse group of mammals that dwell partly or entirely in bodies of water. They include the various marine mammals who dwell in oceans, as well as various freshwater species, such as the Platypus and the European Otter.-Groups:* Order Sirenia: Sirenians**...

s, the wings of swimming seabirds, or other creatures like the sand dollar
Dendraster excentricus
Eccentric sand dollar , also known as the sea-cake, biscuit-urchin, western sand dollar, or Pacific sand dollar, is a member of the order Clypeasteroida, better known as sand dollars, a species of flattened, burrowing sea urchins found along the Pacific Ocean from Alaska to Baja California.-General...

.

The term "hydrofoil" is commonly used for the wing
Wing
A wing is an appendage with a surface that produces lift for flight or propulsion through the atmosphere, or through another gaseous or liquid fluid...

-like structure mounted on strut
Strut
A strut is a structural component designed to resist longitudinal compression. Struts provide outwards-facing support in their lengthwise direction, which can be used to keep two other components separate, performing the opposite function of a tie...

s below the hull of a variety of boat (see illustration), which lifts the boat out of the water during forward motion, in order to reduce hull drag
Drag (physics)
In fluid dynamics, drag refers to forces which act on a solid object in the direction of the relative fluid flow velocity...

. As a synecdoche
Synecdoche
Synecdoche , meaning "simultaneous understanding") is a figure of speech in which a term is used in one of the following ways:* Part of something is used to refer to the whole thing , or...

, the term "hydrofoil" is often used to refer to any boat that utilizes hydrofoil technology in this way. Most of this article is about this type of hydrofoil.

As a hydrofoil-equipped watercraft increases in speed, the hydrofoil elements below the hull(s) develop enough lift
Lift (force)
A fluid flowing past the surface of a body exerts a surface force on it. Lift is the component of this force that is perpendicular to the oncoming flow direction. It contrasts with the drag force, which is the component of the surface force parallel to the flow direction...

 to raise the hull up and out of the water. This results in a great reduction in hull drag, and a further corresponding increase in speed
Speed
In kinematics, the speed of an object is the magnitude of its velocity ; it is thus a scalar quantity. The average speed of an object in an interval of time is the distance traveled by the object divided by the duration of the interval; the instantaneous speed is the limit of the average speed as...

.

A wider adoption of the technical innovations of a hydrofoils is prevented by the increased complexity of building and maintaining them. Hydrofoils are generally prohibitively more expensive than conventional watercraft. However, the design is simple enough that there are many human-powered hydrofoil
Human-powered hydrofoil
thumb|Starting an AquaSkipper on the river [[Spree]] in [[Berlin]]A human-powered hydrofoil is a small hydrofoil watercraft propelled entirely by the muscle power of its operator. Human-powered hydrofoils may be driven by pedals, as in a hydrocycle, by paddles, as in a Flyak, or by bouncing, as in...

 designs. Amateur experimentation and development of the concept is popular.

Hydrodynamics of hydrofoil-equipped boats ("hydrofoils")


Since air and water are governed by similar fluid equations
Fluid dynamics
In physics, fluid dynamics is a sub-discipline of fluid mechanics that deals with fluid flow—the natural science of fluids in motion. It has several subdisciplines itself, including aerodynamics and hydrodynamics...

, albeit with vastly different levels of viscosity
Viscosity
Viscosity is a measure of the resistance of a fluid which is being deformed by either shear or tensile stress. In everyday terms , viscosity is "thickness" or "internal friction". Thus, water is "thin", having a lower viscosity, while honey is "thick", having a higher viscosity...

, density
Density
The mass density or density of a material is defined as its mass per unit volume. The symbol most often used for density is ρ . In some cases , density is also defined as its weight per unit volume; although, this quantity is more properly called specific weight...

, and compressibility
Compressible flow
Compressible flow is the area of fluid mechanics that deals with fluids in which the fluid density varies significantly in response to a change in pressure. Compressibility effects are typically considered significant if the Mach number of the flow exceeds 0.3, or if the fluid undergoes very large...

, the hydrofoil and airfoil
Airfoil
An airfoil or aerofoil is the shape of a wing or blade or sail as seen in cross-section....

 create lift
Lift (force)
A fluid flowing past the surface of a body exerts a surface force on it. Lift is the component of this force that is perpendicular to the oncoming flow direction. It contrasts with the drag force, which is the component of the surface force parallel to the flow direction...

 in identical ways (see foil (fluid mechanics)
Foil (fluid mechanics)
A foil is a solid object with a shape such that when placed in a moving fluid at a suitable angle of attack the lift is substantially larger than the drag...

). The foil is shaped to move smoothly through the water causing the flow to be deflected downward which according to Newton's Third Law of Motion exerts an upward force on the foil. This turning of the water causes higher pressure on the bottom and reduced pressure on the top of the foil. This pressure difference is accompanied by a velocity difference, via Bernoulli's principle
Bernoulli's principle
In fluid dynamics, Bernoulli's principle states that for an inviscid flow, an increase in the speed of the fluid occurs simultaneously with a decrease in pressure or a decrease in the fluid's potential energy...

, so the resulting flowfield about the foil has a higher average velocity on one side than the other.

When used as a lifting element on a "hydrofoil" boat, this upward force lifts the body of the vessel, decreasing drag and increasing speed. The lifting force eventually balances with the weight of the craft, reaching a point where the hydrofoil no longer lifts out of the water, but remains in equilibrium. Since wave resistance and other impeding forces such as various types of drag (physics)
Drag (physics)
In fluid dynamics, drag refers to forces which act on a solid object in the direction of the relative fluid flow velocity...

 on the hull are eliminated as the hull is lifted clear, turbulence and drag act only on the much smaller surface area of the hydrofoil and there is a marked increase in speed.

Foil configurations


Early hydrofoils used U-shaped foils. Hydrofoils of this type are known as surface-piercing since portions of the U-shape hydrofoils will rise above the water surface when foilborne. Some modern hydrofoils use inverted T-shape foils which are fully submerged. Fully submerged hydrofoils are less subject to the effects of wave action, and are therefore more stable at sea and are more comfortable for the crew and passengers. This type of configuration, however, is not self-stabilizing. The angle of attack
Angle of attack
Angle of attack is a term used in fluid dynamics to describe the angle between a reference line on a lifting body and the vector representing the relative motion between the lifting body and the fluid through which it is moving...

 on the hydrofoils needs to be adjusted continuously in accordance to the changing conditions, a control process that is performed by sensors, computer and active surfaces.

History



Prototypes


Between 1899 and 1901, British boat designer John Thornycroft
John Isaac Thornycroft
Sir John Isaac Thornycroft was a British shipbuilder, the founder of the Thornycroft shipbuilding company and member of the Thornycroft family.-Biography:He was born in 1843 to Mary Francis and Thomas Thornycroft....

 worked on a series of models with a stepped hull and single bow foil. In 1909 his company built the full scale 22 feet (6.7 m) long boat, Miranda III. Driven by a 60 hp engine, it rode on a bowfoil and flat stern. The subsequent Miranda IV was credited with a speed of 35 knots (68.6 km/h).
A March 1906 Scientific American
Scientific American
Scientific American is a popular science magazine. It is notable for its long history of presenting science monthly to an educated but not necessarily scientific public, through its careful attention to the clarity of its text as well as the quality of its specially commissioned color graphics...

 article by American hydrofoil pioneer William E. Meacham explained the basic principle of hydrofoils. Alexander Graham Bell
Alexander Graham Bell
Alexander Graham Bell was an eminent scientist, inventor, engineer and innovator who is credited with inventing the first practical telephone....

 considered the invention of the hydroplane
Hydroplane
A hydroplane is a fast motorboat, where the hull shape is such that at speed, the weight of the boat is supported by planing forces, rather than simple buoyancy....

 a very significant achievement, and after reading the article began to sketch concepts of what is now called a hydrofoil boat. With his chief engineer Casey Baldwin
Frederick W. Baldwin
Frederick Walker Baldwin , also known as Casey Baldwin, was an engineer and a hydrofoil and aviation pioneer who was also the first Canadian to pilot an aircraft.-Biography:...

, Bell began hydrofoil experiments in the summer of 1908. Baldwin studied the work of the Italian inventor Enrico Forlanini
Enrico Forlanini
Enrico Forlanini was an Italian engineer, inventor and aeronautical pioneer, well known for his works on helicopters, aircraft, hydrofoils and dirigibles. He was born in Milan...

 and began testing models based on his designs, which led them to the development of hydrofoil watercraft. During Bell's world tour of 1910–1911, Bell and Baldwin met with Forlanini in Italy, where they rode in his hydrofoil boat over Lake Maggiore
Lake Maggiore
Lake Maggiore is a large lake located on the south side of the Alps. It is the second largest of Italy and largest of southern Switzerland. Lake Maggiore is the most westerly of the three great prealpine lakes of Italy, it extends for about 70 km between Locarno and Arona.The climate is mild...

. Baldwin described it as being as smooth as flying. On returning to Bell's large laboratory at his Beinn Bhreagh
Beinn Bhreagh, Nova Scotia
Beinn Bhreagh, generally pronounced "ban vreeagh", is the name of the estate founded by Dr. Alexander Graham Bell, which has become an unincorporated rural community located in Victoria County, Nova Scotia, Canada...

 estate near Baddeck, Nova Scotia
Baddeck, Nova Scotia
Baddeck is a Canadian village in Victoria County, Nova Scotia.It is the county's shire town and is situated on the northern shore of Bras d'Or Lake on Cape Breton Island...

, they experimented with a number of designs, culminating in Bell's HD-4. Using Renault
Renault
Renault S.A. is a French automaker producing cars, vans, and in the past, autorail vehicles, trucks, tractors, vans and also buses/coaches. Its alliance with Nissan makes it the world's third largest automaker...

 engines, a top speed of 87 km/h (54 mph) was achieved, accelerating rapidly, taking waves without difficulty, steering well and showing good stability. Bell's report to the United States Navy
United States Navy
The United States Navy is the naval warfare service branch of the United States Armed Forces and one of the seven uniformed services of the United States. The U.S. Navy is the largest in the world; its battle fleet tonnage is greater than that of the next 13 largest navies combined. The U.S...

 permitted him to obtain two 260 kW (350 horsepower) engines. On September 9, 1919 the HD-4 set a world marine speed record of 114 km/h (70.86 mph), a record which stood for two decades. A full-scale replica of Bell's HD-4 is viewable at the Alexander Graham Bell National Historic Site museum in Baddeck, Nova Scotia.

First passenger boats


German engineer Hanns von Schertel worked on hydrofoils prior to and during World War II
World War II
World War II, or the Second World War , was a global conflict lasting from 1939 to 1945, involving most of the world's nations—including all of the great powers—eventually forming two opposing military alliances: the Allies and the Axis...

 in Germany
Germany
Germany , officially the Federal Republic of Germany , is a federal parliamentary republic in Europe. The country consists of 16 states while the capital and largest city is Berlin. Germany covers an area of 357,021 km2 and has a largely temperate seasonal climate...

. After the war Schertel's team was captured by the Russians. As Germany was not authorized to build fast boats, Schertel himself went to Switzerland
Switzerland
Switzerland name of one of the Swiss cantons. ; ; ; or ), in its full name the Swiss Confederation , is a federal republic consisting of 26 cantons, with Bern as the seat of the federal authorities. The country is situated in Western Europe,Or Central Europe depending on the definition....

, where he established the Supramar company. In 1952, Supramar launched the first commercial hydrofoil, PT10 "Freccia d'Oro" (Golden Arrow), in Lake Maggiore, between Switzerland and Italy
Italy
Italy , officially the Italian Republic languages]] under the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages. In each of these, Italy's official name is as follows:;;;;;;;;), is a unitary parliamentary republic in South-Central Europe. To the north it borders France, Switzerland, Austria and...

. The PT10 is of surface-piercing type, it can carry 32 passengers and travel at 35 knots (68.6 km/h). In 1968, Hussain Najadi
Hussain Najadi
Hussain Najadi is an international banker born in Bahrain. He is the Chairman & CEO of AIAK Group,, based in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.-Banking career:...

 the Bahraini born banker, acquired the Supramar AG and expanded its operations into Japan, Hong Kong, Singapore, the UK, Norway and the US. General Dynamics
General Dynamics
General Dynamics Corporation is a U.S. defense conglomerate formed by mergers and divestitures, and as of 2008 it is the fifth largest defense contractor in the world. Its headquarters are in West Falls Church , unincorporated Fairfax County, Virginia, in the Falls Church area.The company has...

 of the United States became its licensee, and the Pentagon awarded its first R&D naval research project in the field of supercavitation
Supercavitation
Supercavitation is the use of cavitation effects to create a bubble of gas inside a liquid large enough to encompass an object traveling through the liquid, greatly reducing the skin friction drag on the object and enabling achievement of very high speeds...

. Hitachi
Hitachi, Ltd.
is a Japanese multinational conglomerate headquartered in Marunouchi 1-chome, Chiyoda, Tokyo, Japan. The company is the parent of the Hitachi Group as part of the larger DKB Group companies...

 Shipbuilding of Osaka, Japan, was another licensee of Supramar, as well as many leading ship owners and shipyards in the OECD countries.

From 1952 to 1971, Supramar designed many models of hydrofoils: PT20, PT50, PT75, PT100 and PT150. All are of surface-piercing type, except the PT150 combining a surface-piercing foil forward with a fully submerged foil in the aft location. Over 200 of Supramar's design were built, most of them by Rodriquez in Italy.

During the same period the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
The Soviet Union , officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics , was a constitutionally socialist state that existed in Eurasia between 1922 and 1991....

 experimented extensively with hydrofoils, constructing hydrofoil river boats and ferries with streamlined designs during the cold war period and into the 1980s. Such vessels include the Raketa
Raketa (hydrofoil)
Raketa was the first type of hydrofoil boats commercially produced in the Soviet Union. They were manufactured from 1957 until the early 1970s...

 (1957) type, followed by the larger Meteor type and the smaller Voskhod
Voskhod (hydrofoil)
Voskhod is a type of passenger hydrofoil boat built in the Soviet Union and later in Ukraine. They are intended for use in rivers and lakes, but good seaworthiness allows them to operate coastal sea areas as well.-History:...

 type. One of the most successful Soviet designer/inventor in this area was Rostislav Alexeyev
Rostislav Alexeyev
Rostislav Evgenievich Alexeyev , Russian Empire – February 9, 1980, Gorky, USSR) was a designer of highspeed shipbuilding. He invented and designed the world's first Ekranoplans. His work has been compared to that of A.N. Tupolev in aviation and S.P...

 who some consider the 'father' of the modern hydrofoil due to his 1950's era high speed hydrofoil designs. Later, circa 1970's, Alexeyev combined his hydrofoil experience with the surface effect principle to create the Ekranoplan.

In 1961, SRI International
SRI International
SRI International , founded as Stanford Research Institute, is one of the world's largest contract research institutes. Based in Menlo Park, California, the trustees of Stanford University established it in 1946 as a center of innovation to support economic development in the region. It was later...

 issued a study on "The Economic Feasibility of Passenger Hydrofoil Craft in U.S. Domestic and Foreign Commerce". Commercial use of hydrofoils in the U.S. first appeared in 1961 when two commuter vessels were commissioned by Harry Gale Nye, Jr.
Harry Gale Nye, Jr.
Harry Gale Nye, Jr. was a Chicago-born American industrialist, entrepreneur, and world champion sailor. He graduated from the Berkshire School and joined the class of 1933 at Yale University where he was a member of the Society of Book and Snake...

's North American Hydrofoils to service the route from Atlantic Highlands, New Jersey to the financial district of Lower Manhattan.

Uses





Military applications


Canada - During World War II, Baldwin worked on an experimental smoke laying hydrofoil (later called the Comox Torpedo) which was superseded by other smoke-laying technology and an experimental target-towing hydrofoil. The forward two foil assemblies of what is believed to be the latter hydrofoil were salvaged in the mid-1960s from a derelict hulk in Baddeck, Nova Scotia by Colin MacGregor Stevens and were donated to the Maritime Museum in Halifax, Nova Scotia. The Canadian Armed Forces
Canadian Forces Maritime Command
The Royal Canadian Navy , is the naval force of Canada. The RCN is one of three environmental commands within the unified Canadian Forces. Operating 33 warships and several auxiliary vessels, the Royal Canadian Navy consists of 8,500 Regular Force and 5,100 Primary Reserve sailors, supported by...

 built and tested a number of hydrofoils (e.g. Baddeck and two vessels named Bras d'Or) culminating in the high-speed anti-submarine hydrofoil HMCS Bras d'Or
HMCS Bras d'Or (FHE 400)
HMCS Bras d'Or was a hydrofoil that served in the Canadian Forces from 1968 to 1971. During sea trials in 1969, the vessel exceeded , making her the fastest unarmed warship in the world....

 in the late 1960s, but the program was cancelled in the early 1970s due to a shift away from anti-submarine warfare
Anti-submarine warfare
Anti-submarine warfare is a branch of naval warfare that uses surface warships, aircraft, or other submarines to find, track and deter, damage or destroy enemy submarines....

 by the Canadian military. The Bras d'Or was a surface-piercing type which performed well during her trials, reaching a maximum speed of 63 knots (123.5 km/h).

The USSR introduced several hydrofoil-based fast attack craft into their navy
Soviet Navy
The Soviet Navy was the naval arm of the Soviet Armed Forces. Often referred to as the Red Fleet, the Soviet Navy would have played an instrumental role in a Warsaw Pact war with NATO, where it would have attempted to prevent naval convoys from bringing reinforcements across the Atlantic Ocean...

, principally:
  • the Turya class torpedo boat
    Turya class torpedo boat
    The Turya class is the NATO reporting name for a class of hydrofoil torpedo boats built for the Soviet Navy and Soviet allies. The Soviet designation was Project 206M.-Design:...

     was introduced in 1972 and some are still in service
  • the Matka class missile boat
    Matka class missile boat
    The Matka class is the NATO reporting name for a group of hydrofoil missile boats built for the Soviet Navy. The Soviet designation is Project 206MR Vikhr.-Design:...

     introduced in the 1980s and still in service
  • the Muravey class patrol boat
    Muravey class patrol boat
    The Muravey class is the NATO reporting name for a class of hydrofoil patrol boats built for the Soviet Navy between 1983 and 1989. The Soviet designation was Project 133 Antares.-Design:...

      introduced in the 1980s and still in service
  • the Sarancha class missile boat
    Sarancha class missile boat
    The Sarancha class is the NATO reporting name for a hydrofoil missile boat built for the Soviet Navy. The Soviet designation was Project 1240 Uragan -Design:...

     a unique vessel built in the 1970s


The U.S. Navy
United States Navy
The United States Navy is the naval warfare service branch of the United States Armed Forces and one of the seven uniformed services of the United States. The U.S. Navy is the largest in the world; its battle fleet tonnage is greater than that of the next 13 largest navies combined. The U.S...

 operated combat hydrofoils, such as the Pegasus class
Pegasus class hydrofoil
The Pegasus-class hydrofoils were a series of fast attack patrol boats employed by the U.S. Navy. They were in service from 1977 through 1993...

, from 1977 through 1993. These hydrofoils were fast and well armed, and were capable of sinking all but the largest surface vessels. In their narcotics interdiction role, they were a nightmare for illegal drug runners
Illegal drug trade
The illegal drug trade is a global black market, dedicated to cultivation, manufacture, distribution and sale of those substances which are subject to drug prohibition laws. Most jurisdictions prohibit trade, except under license, of many types of drugs by drug prohibition laws.A UN report said the...

, being very fast, and also possessing armaments to stop anything they could not catch, as well as the ability to call in air support.

The Italian Navy
Marina Militare
The Italian Navy is the navy of the Italian Republic. It is one of the four branches of military forces of Italy; formed in 1946, from what remained of the Regia Marina . As of 2008, the Italian Navy had 35,200 active personnel with 180 commissioned ships, 19 Floating Docks, and 123 aircraft...

 has used six hydrofoils of the Sparviero
Sparviero class patrol boat
The Sparviero class is a Guided Missile Patrol Boat designed for and formerly used by the Italian Navy. The Japanese 1-go class missile boat is an updated version formerly used by the Japan Maritime Self-Defense Force . They are the fastest craft in Italian and Japanese naval history...

class from the late 1970s. These were armed with a 76 mm gun, two missiles and were capable of speed up to 50 knots (98 km/h). Three similar boats were built for the Japan Maritime Self-Defense Force
Japan Maritime Self-Defense Force
The , or JMSDF, is the naval branch of the Japan Self-Defense Forces, tasked with the naval defense of Japan. It was formed following the dissolution of the Imperial Japanese Navy after World War II....

.

Sailing and sports


The French experimental sail
Sail
A sail is any type of surface intended to move a vessel, vehicle or rotor by being placed in a wind—in essence a propulsion wing. Sails are used in sailing.-History of sails:...

 powered hydrofoil Hydroptère
Hydroptère
The Hydroptère is an experimental sailing hydrofoil designed by French yachtsman Alain Thébault. Her multihull hydrofoil design allows the sail-powered vessel to reach high speeds on water. The design is based on experience from a range of hydrofoil sailcraft that Thébault built in cooperation with...

is the result of a research project that involves advanced engineering skills and technologies. In September 2009, the Hydroptère set new sailcraft world speed records in the 500 m category, with a speed of 51.36 knots (100.7 km/h) and in the one nautical mile (1.9 km) category with a speed of 50.17 knots (98.3 km/h).

Another trimaran sailboat is the Windrider Rave. The Rave is a commercially available 17 feet (5.2 m), two person, hydrofoil trimaran, capable of reaching speeds of 40 kn (78.4 km/h). The boat was designed by Jim Brown.

The Moth dinghy
Moth (dinghy)
The Moth Class is the name for a small development class sailing dinghy. There are three "species" of moths currently in existence: the International Moth, a fast sailing hydrofoil dinghy with liberal restrictions; the Classic Moth, a traditional dinghy with tighter restrictions; and the British...

 has evolved into some radical foil configurations.

Hobie Sailboats once produced a production foiling trimaran. It was and is the fastest production sailboat in history. It is called the Hobie Trifoiler. Trifoilers have clocked speeds upward of thirty knots.

A new kayak design, called Flyak
Flyak
The Flyak is a hydrofoil adaptation to the conventional kayak. It uses twin hydrofoils designed to raise the hull out of the water to increase the speed. Speeds of up to 27.2 km/h can be achieved on calm water....

, has hydrofoils that lift the kayak enough to significantly reduce drag, allowing speeds of up to 27 km/h (17 mph). Some surfers
Surfing
Surfing' is a surface water sport in which the surfer rides a surfboard on the crest and face of a wave which is carrying the surfer towards the shore...

 have developed surfboards with hydrofoils called foilboard
Foilboard
A foilboard or hydrofoil board is a surfboard with a hydrofoil that extends below the board into the water. This design causes the board to leave the surface of the water at various speeds....

s, specifically aimed at surfing big waves further out to sea.

Passenger boats today


Soviet Union built Voskhods
Voskhod (hydrofoil)
Voskhod is a type of passenger hydrofoil boat built in the Soviet Union and later in Ukraine. They are intended for use in rivers and lakes, but good seaworthiness allows them to operate coastal sea areas as well.-History:...

 are one of the most successful passenger hydrofoil designs. It was developed by soviets and manufactured in Russia and Ukraine. Currently, they are in service in more than 20 countries. The most recent model Voskhod-2M FFF
Voskhod (hydrofoil)
Voskhod is a type of passenger hydrofoil boat built in the Soviet Union and later in Ukraine. They are intended for use in rivers and lakes, but good seaworthiness allows them to operate coastal sea areas as well.-History:...

, also known as Eurofoil, was built in Feodosiya, Ukraine, for the Dutch public transport operator Connexxion
Connexxion
Connexxion is the largest public transport bus company in the Netherlands, operating in the west, middle, east and far northern part of the country. It was formed in 1999 as result of a fusion between the public transport companies NZH, ZWN, Midnet and Oostnet. Its name is a mutation of the French...

.

The Boeing 929 is widely used in Asia
Asia
Asia is the world's largest and most populous continent, located primarily in the eastern and northern hemispheres. It covers 8.7% of the Earth's total surface area and with approximately 3.879 billion people, it hosts 60% of the world's current human population...

 for passenger services between the many islands of Japan
Japan
Japan is an island nation in East Asia. Located in the Pacific Ocean, it lies to the east of the Sea of Japan, China, North Korea, South Korea and Russia, stretching from the Sea of Okhotsk in the north to the East China Sea and Taiwan in the south...

, between Hong Kong
Hong Kong
Hong Kong is one of two Special Administrative Regions of the People's Republic of China , the other being Macau. A city-state situated on China's south coast and enclosed by the Pearl River Delta and South China Sea, it is renowned for its expansive skyline and deep natural harbour...

 and Macau
Macau
Macau , also spelled Macao , is, along with Hong Kong, one of the two special administrative regions of the People's Republic of China...

 and on the Korean peninsula
Korean Peninsula
The Korean Peninsula is a peninsula in East Asia. It extends southwards for about 684 miles from continental Asia into the Pacific Ocean and is surrounded by the Sea of Japan to the south, and the Yellow Sea to the west, the Korea Strait connecting the first two bodies of water.Until the end of...

.

Current operation


Some operators of hydrofoil include:
  • TurboJET
    TurboJET
    TurboJET is the brand name for the operations of the Hong Kong-headquartered Shun Tak-China Travel Ship Management Limited , which was established from the joint venture between Shun Tak Holdings Limited and China Travel International Investment Hong Kong Limited in July 1999...

     service, which speeds passengers across the Pearl River Delta
    Pearl River Delta
    The Pearl River Delta , Zhujiang Delta or Zhusanjiao in Guangdong province, People's Republic of China is the low-lying area surrounding the Pearl River estuary where the Pearl River flows into the South China Sea...

     between Hong Kong
    Hong Kong
    Hong Kong is one of two Special Administrative Regions of the People's Republic of China , the other being Macau. A city-state situated on China's south coast and enclosed by the Pearl River Delta and South China Sea, it is renowned for its expansive skyline and deep natural harbour...

     and Macau
    Macau
    Macau , also spelled Macao , is, along with Hong Kong, one of the two special administrative regions of the People's Republic of China...

     in less than an hour, with an average speed of 45 knots (83 km/h), mainly using Boeing
    Boeing
    The Boeing Company is an American multinational aerospace and defense corporation, founded in 1916 by William E. Boeing in Seattle, Washington. Boeing has expanded over the years, merging with McDonnell Douglas in 1997. Boeing Corporate headquarters has been in Chicago, Illinois since 2001...

    's Jetfoil. Also services Shenzhen
    Shenzhen
    Shenzhen is a major city in the south of Southern China's Guangdong Province, situated immediately north of Hong Kong. The area became China's first—and one of the most successful—Special Economic Zones...

    , Guangzhou
    Guangzhou
    Guangzhou , known historically as Canton or Kwangchow, is the capital and largest city of the Guangdong province in the People's Republic of China. Located in southern China on the Pearl River, about north-northwest of Hong Kong, Guangzhou is a key national transportation hub and trading port...

     and Kowloon
    Kowloon
    Kowloon is an urban area in Hong Kong comprising the Kowloon Peninsula and New Kowloon. It is bordered by the Lei Yue Mun strait in the east, Mei Foo Sun Chuen and Stonecutter's Island in the west, Tate's Cairn and Lion Rock in the north, and Victoria Harbour in the south. It had a population of...

    . Operated by Shun Tak-China Travel Ship Management Limited.
  • Cometa service between Nijneangarsk and Irkutsk
    Irkutsk
    Irkutsk is a city and the administrative center of Irkutsk Oblast, Russia, one of the largest cities in Siberia. Population: .-History:In 1652, Ivan Pokhabov built a zimovye near the site of Irkutsk for gold trading and for the collection of fur taxes from the Buryats. In 1661, Yakov Pokhabov...

     on the Lake Baikal
    Lake Baikal
    Lake Baikal is the world's oldest at 30 million years old and deepest lake with an average depth of 744.4 metres.Located in the south of the Russian region of Siberia, between Irkutsk Oblast to the northwest and the Buryat Republic to the southeast, it is the most voluminous freshwater lake in the...

    .
  • Cometa service between Vladivostok
    Vladivostok
    The city is located in the southern extremity of Muravyov-Amursky Peninsula, which is about 30 km long and approximately 12 km wide.The highest point is Mount Kholodilnik, the height of which is 257 m...

     and Slavyanka
    Slavyanka, Primorsky Krai
    Slavyanka is an urban locality and the administrative center of Khasansky District of Primorsky Krai, Russia, located on the opposite side of the Amursky Bay as seen from Vladivostok...

    .
  • Polesye service between Mozyr and Turov on the Pripyat River
    Pripyat River
    The Pripyat River or Prypiat River is a river in Eastern Europe, approximately long. It flows east through Ukraine, Belarus, and Ukraine again, draining into the Dnieper....

    .
  • Meteor service between Saint Petersburg
    Saint Petersburg
    Saint Petersburg is a city and a federal subject of Russia located on the Neva River at the head of the Gulf of Finland on the Baltic Sea...

    , Russia
    Russia
    Russia or , officially known as both Russia and the Russian Federation , is a country in northern Eurasia. It is a federal semi-presidential republic, comprising 83 federal subjects...

     and the Peterhof Palace
    Peterhof Palace
    The Peterhof Palace in Russian, so German is transliterated as "Петергoф" Petergof into Russian) for "Peter's Court") is actually a series of palaces and gardens located in Saint Petersburg, Russia, laid out on the orders of Peter the Great. These Palaces and gardens are sometimes referred as the...

    , a summer palace of Russian tsars.

  • Meteor service between Saint Petersburg
    Saint Petersburg
    Saint Petersburg is a city and a federal subject of Russia located on the Neva River at the head of the Gulf of Finland on the Baltic Sea...

    , Russia
    Russia
    Russia or , officially known as both Russia and the Russian Federation , is a country in northern Eurasia. It is a federal semi-presidential republic, comprising 83 federal subjects...

     and the Kronstadt
    Kronstadt
    Kronstadt , also spelled Kronshtadt, Cronstadt |crown]]" and Stadt for "city"); is a municipal town in Kronshtadtsky District of the federal city of St. Petersburg, Russia, located on Kotlin Island, west of Saint Petersburg proper near the head of the Gulf of Finland. Population: It is also...

    , a strongly fortified Russian seaport town, located on Kotlin Island, near the head of the Gulf of Finland. It lies thirty kilometers west of Saint Petersburg.
  • Meteor, Raketa and Voskhod hydrofoil types operate all over Volga, Don
    Don River (Russia)
    The Don River is one of the major rivers of Russia. It rises in the town of Novomoskovsk 60 kilometres southeast from Tula, southeast of Moscow, and flows for a distance of about 1,950 kilometres to the Sea of Azov....

     and Kama River
    Kama River
    Kama is a major river in Russia, the longest left tributary of the Volga and the largest one in discharge; in fact, it is larger than the Volga before junction....

    s in Russia
    Russia
    Russia or , officially known as both Russia and the Russian Federation , is a country in northern Eurasia. It is a federal semi-presidential republic, comprising 83 federal subjects...

    . Also the Lena River
    Lena River
    The Lena is the easternmost of the three great Siberian rivers that flow into the Arctic Ocean . It is the 11th longest river in the world and has the 9th largest watershed...

     and Amur River.
  • Meteor hydrofoils are operated by a number of tour operators in Croatia
    Croatia
    Croatia , officially the Republic of Croatia , is a unitary democratic parliamentary republic in Europe at the crossroads of the Mitteleuropa, the Balkans, and the Mediterranean. Its capital and largest city is Zagreb. The country is divided into 20 counties and the city of Zagreb. Croatia covers ...

    , mostly for packaged tours, but there are also some scheduled services to islands in Adriatic.
  • Hydrofoils are regularly operated on the three major Italian Lakes by branches of Ministry Of Transportation: Navigazione Lago Maggiore services routes on the Lake Maggiore
    Lake Maggiore
    Lake Maggiore is a large lake located on the south side of the Alps. It is the second largest of Italy and largest of southern Switzerland. Lake Maggiore is the most westerly of the three great prealpine lakes of Italy, it extends for about 70 km between Locarno and Arona.The climate is mild...

     between Locarno
    Locarno
    Locarno is the capital of the Locarno district, located on the northern tip of Lake Maggiore in the Swiss canton of Ticino, close to Ascona at the foot of the Alps. It has a population of about 15,000...

     and Arona, Navigazione Lago di Como services routes on the Lake Como
    Lake Como
    Lake Como is a lake of glacial origin in Lombardy, Italy. It has an area of 146 km², making it the third largest lake in Italy, after Lake Garda and Lake Maggiore...

     and Navigazione Lago di Garda services routes on the Lake Garda
    Lake Garda
    Lake Garda is the largest lake in Italy. It is located in Northern Italy, about half-way between Brescia and Verona, and between Venice and Milan. Glaciers formed this alpine region at the end of the last ice age...

    . Three units of the Rodriquez RHS150 type operate on each lake, for a total of nine hydrofoils. Navigazione Lago di Como still operates the last Rodriquez RHS70 in active service in Italy.
  • Former Russian hydrofoils are used in southern Italy for connection with islands of Lazio and Campania
    Campania
    Campania is a region in southern Italy. The region has a population of around 5.8 million people, making it the second-most-populous region of Italy; its total area of 13,590 km² makes it the most densely populated region in the country...

    . SNAV has 5 RHS200, RHS160 and RHS150 used in the connections between Naples
    Naples
    Naples is a city in Southern Italy, situated on the country's west coast by the Gulf of Naples. Lying between two notable volcanic regions, Mount Vesuvius and the Phlegraean Fields, it is the capital of the region of Campania and of the province of Naples...

     and the islands of Capri
    Capri
    Capri is an Italian island in the Tyrrhenian Sea off the Sorrentine Peninsula, on the south side of the Gulf of Naples, in the Campania region of Southern Italy...

     and Ischia
    Ischia
    Ischia is a volcanic island in the Tyrrhenian Sea. It lies at the northern end of the Gulf of Naples, about 30 km from the city of Naples. It is the largest of the Phlegrean Islands. Roughly trapezoidal in shape, it measures around 10 km east to west and 7 km north to south and has...

    .
  • Regular hydrofoil service from Istanbul
    Istanbul
    Istanbul , historically known as Byzantium and Constantinople , is the largest city of Turkey. Istanbul metropolitan province had 13.26 million people living in it as of December, 2010, which is 18% of Turkey's population and the 3rd largest metropolitan area in Europe after London and...

     to Yalova
    Yalova
    Yalova is a city located in northwestern Turkey, on the eastern coast of the Sea of Marmara, and is the capital of the Yalova Province. Yalova has a city population of 92,166, while the population of the Yalova Province is 202,531. as of 2009...

    .
  • Fast Flying Ferries operated by Connexxion
    Connexxion
    Connexxion is the largest public transport bus company in the Netherlands, operating in the west, middle, east and far northern part of the country. It was formed in 1999 as result of a fusion between the public transport companies NZH, ZWN, Midnet and Oostnet. Its name is a mutation of the French...

    , provides a regular public transport
    Public transport
    Public transport is a shared passenger transportation service which is available for use by the general public, as distinct from modes such as taxicab, car pooling or hired buses which are not shared by strangers without private arrangement.Public transport modes include buses, trolleybuses, trams...

     service over the North Sea Canal
    North Sea Canal
    The North Sea Canal is a Dutch ship canal from Amsterdam to the North Sea at IJmuiden, constructed between 1865 and 1876 to enable seafaring vessels to reach the port of Amsterdam...

     between Amsterdam Central Station
    Amsterdam Centraal
    ' is the central station of Amsterdam. It is one of the main railway hubs of the Netherlands and is used by 250,000 passengers a day, excluding transferring passengers. It is also the starting point of Amsterdam Metro lines 51, 53, and 54. The station building of Amsterdam Centraal was designed by...

     and Velsen-Zuid
    Velsen
    Velsen is a municipality in the Netherlands, in the province of North Holland. It is located on both sides of the North Sea Canal.On the north side of the North Sea Canal, in IJmuiden, there is a major steel plant, Corus Strip Products IJmuiden, formerly known as Koninklijke Hoogovens...

     in the Netherlands
    Netherlands
    The Netherlands is a constituent country of the Kingdom of the Netherlands, located mainly in North-West Europe and with several islands in the Caribbean. Mainland Netherlands borders the North Sea to the north and west, Belgium to the south, and Germany to the east, and shares maritime borders...

    , using Voskhod
    Voskhod (hydrofoil)
    Voskhod is a type of passenger hydrofoil boat built in the Soviet Union and later in Ukraine. They are intended for use in rivers and lakes, but good seaworthiness allows them to operate coastal sea areas as well.-History:...

     2M hydrofoils.
  • Hellenic Seaways
    Hellenic Seaways
    Hellenic Seaways is a Greek shipping company operating passenger and freight ferry services in the Aegean and Adriatic Seas. The company is owned by Cyprus based Sea Star Capital Plc.-History:...

     operate their Flying Dolphins service over many routes in the Aegean
    Aegean Sea
    The Aegean Sea[p] is an elongated embayment of the Mediterranean Sea located between the southern Balkan and Anatolian peninsulas, i.e., between the mainlands of Greece and Turkey. In the north, it is connected to the Marmara Sea and Black Sea by the Dardanelles and Bosporus...

    , between the Cycladic islands
    Cyclades
    The Cyclades is a Greek island group in the Aegean Sea, south-east of the mainland of Greece; and a former administrative prefecture of Greece. They are one of the island groups which constitute the Aegean archipelago. The name refers to the islands around the sacred island of Delos...

    , Saronic Gulf
    Saronic Gulf
    The Saronic Gulf or Gulf of Aegina in Greece forms part of the Aegean Sea and defines the eastern side of the isthmus of Corinth. It is the eastern terminus of the Corinth Canal, which cuts across the isthmus.-Geography:The gulf includes the islands of; Aegina, Salamis, and Poros along with...

     islands such as Aegina and Poros and Athens
    Athens
    Athens , is the capital and largest city of Greece. Athens dominates the Attica region and is one of the world's oldest cities, as its recorded history spans around 3,400 years. Classical Athens was a powerful city-state...

    .
  • Meteor (2), Polesye (4) and Voskhod (3) hydrofoil types operate in Hungary
    Hungary
    Hungary , officially the Republic of Hungary , is a landlocked country in Central Europe. It is situated in the Carpathian Basin and is bordered by Slovakia to the north, Ukraine and Romania to the east, Serbia and Croatia to the south, Slovenia to the southwest and Austria to the west. The...

    . MAHART PassNave Ltd. operates scheduled hydrofoil liners between Budapest
    Budapest
    Budapest is the capital of Hungary. As the largest city of Hungary, it is the country's principal political, cultural, commercial, industrial, and transportation centre. In 2011, Budapest had 1,733,685 inhabitants, down from its 1989 peak of 2,113,645 due to suburbanization. The Budapest Commuter...

    , Bratislava
    Bratislava
    Bratislava is the capital of Slovakia and, with a population of about 431,000, also the country's largest city. Bratislava is in southwestern Slovakia on both banks of the Danube River. Bordering Austria and Hungary, it is the only national capital that borders two independent countries.Bratislava...

     and Vienna
    Vienna
    Vienna is the capital and largest city of the Republic of Austria and one of the nine states of Austria. Vienna is Austria's primary city, with a population of about 1.723 million , and is by far the largest city in Austria, as well as its cultural, economic, and political centre...

    , inland liners between Budapest and the Danube Bend, and theme cruises to Komárom, Solt, Kalocsa and Mohács.
  • Russian hydrofoils of the Kometa type operated on the Bulgarian Black Sea Coast
    Bulgarian Black Sea Coast
    The Bulgarian Black Sea Coast covers the entire eastern bound of Bulgaria stretching from the Romanian Black Sea resorts in the north to European Turkey in the south, along 378 km of coastline. White and golden sandy beaches occupy approximately 130 km of the 378 km long coast...

     connecting Varna
    Varna
    Varna is the largest city and seaside resort on the Bulgarian Black Sea Coast and third-largest in Bulgaria after Sofia and Plovdiv, with a population of 334,870 inhabitants according to Census 2011...

    , Nesebar
    Nesebar
    Nesebar is an ancient town and one of the major seaside resorts on the Bulgarian Black Sea Coast, located in Burgas Province. It is the administrative centre of the homonymous Nesebar Municipality...

    , Burgas
    Burgas
    -History:During the rule of the Ancient Romans, near Burgas, Debeltum was established as a military colony for veterans by Vespasian. In the Middle Ages, a small fortress called Pyrgos was erected where Burgas is today and was most probably used as a watchtower...

    , Sozopol
    Sozopol
    Sozopol is an ancient seaside town located 35 km south of Burgas on the southern Bulgarian Black Sea Coast. Today it is one of the major seaside resorts in the country, known for the Apollonia art and film festival that is named after one of the town's ancient names.The busiest times of the year...

    , Primorsko
    Primorsko
    Primorsko is a town and seaside resort in southeastern Bulgaria, part of Burgas Province. A well-known resort on the Bulgarian Black Sea Coast, it is located on a gore 52 km south of Burgas and has a beach strip of about 1 km². The average temperature is 27°C in July, often reaching...

    , and Tsarevo
    Tsarevo
    Tsarevo is a town and seaside resort in southeastern Bulgaria, an administrative centre of the homonymous Municipality of Tsarevo in Burgas Province. It lies on a cove 70 km southeast of Burgas, on the southern Bulgarian Black Sea Coast at the eastern foot of Strandzha mountain...

    , and Raketa and Meteor models served the Bulgarian Danube
    Danube
    The Danube is a river in the Central Europe and the Europe's second longest river after the Volga. It is classified as an international waterway....

     ports between Rousse
    Rousse
    Ruse is the fifth-largest city in Bulgaria. Ruse is situated in the northeastern part of the country, on the right bank of the Danube, opposite the Romanian city of Giurgiu, from the capital Sofia and from the Bulgarian Black Sea Coast...

     and Vidin
    Vidin
    Vidin is a port town on the southern bank of the Danube in northwestern Bulgaria. It is close to the borders with Serbia and Romania, and is also the administrative centre of Vidin Province, as well as of the Metropolitan of Vidin...

    . Both services were discontinued in the 1990s but may be reopened.
  • Vietnamese Greenline Company operates hourly shuttle service between Ho Chi Minh city
    Ho Chi Minh City
    Ho Chi Minh City , formerly named Saigon is the largest city in Vietnam...

    , Vung Tau
    Vung Tàu
    Vũng Tàu is a city in southern Vietnam. Its population in 2005 was 240,000. The city area is including 13 urban wards and one village. It is the capital of Ba Ria-Vung Tau province, and is the crude oil extraction center of Vietnam. It is also known as one of the most beautiful cities of tourism...

     and Con Dao
    Con Dao
    The Con Dao Islands are an archipelago of Ba Ria-Vung Tau province, in southeastern Vietnam, and a district of this province.-Description:Situated at about from Vung Tau and from Ho Chi Minh City, the group includes 16 mountainous islands and islets...

     island. Hydrofoil lines using the Russian-built Meteor type also connect Hai Phong, Ha Long
    Ha Long
    Hạ Long also known as Hong Gai, Hon Gai and Hongay, is the capital city of Quang Ninh province, Vietnam. The city mainly lies on Bai Tu Long Bay, which is part of the Hạ Long Bay. It is located at about 160 km northeast of Hanoi...

     and Mong Cai
    Mong Cai
    Móng Cái is a district-level city of Quang Ninh province in northern Vietnam, on the border with Dongxing town, Fangchenggang, Guangxi Province, China. It has a population of about 103,000. It is known as one of the wealthiest cities in Vietnam with the average income in some areas exceeding...

     in North Vietnam, Phan Thiet
    Phan Thiết
    Phan Thiết town is the capital of Binh Thuan province, in southeastern Vietnam. Phan Thiet is a municipality in central, south central sector, however, the development plan to 2025, it would be municipality Southeast Vietnam. The population of Phan Thiết city in 2005 is roughly 350,000 and is...

     and Phu Quy Island and between Rach Gia
    Rach Gia
    Rạch Giá is the capital city of Kien Giang province, Vietnam. It is located around on the coast of Gulf of Thailand, 250 kilometers from Ho Chi Minh City...

     and Phu Quoc Island in the South.
  • The service between Busan
    Busan
    Busan , formerly spelled Pusan is South Korea's second largest metropolis after Seoul, with a population of around 3.6 million. The Metropolitan area population is 4,399,515 as of 2010. It is the largest port city in South Korea and the fifth largest port in the world...

    , South Korea
    South Korea
    The Republic of Korea , , is a sovereign state in East Asia, located on the southern portion of the Korean Peninsula. It is neighbored by the People's Republic of China to the west, Japan to the east, North Korea to the north, and the East China Sea and Republic of China to the south...

     and Fukuoka
    Fukuoka, Fukuoka
    is the capital city of Fukuoka Prefecture and is situated on the northern shore of the island of Kyushu in Japan.Voted number 14 in a 2010 poll of the World's Most Livable Cities, Fukuoka is praised for its green spaces in a metropolitan setting. It is the most populous city in Kyushu, followed by...

    , Japan
    Japan
    Japan is an island nation in East Asia. Located in the Pacific Ocean, it lies to the east of the Sea of Japan, China, North Korea, South Korea and Russia, stretching from the Sea of Okhotsk in the north to the East China Sea and Taiwan in the south...

     is operated by the two companies. Japanese JR Kyūshū Jet Ferry operates Beetle
    Beetle (JR Kyushu)
    is a hydrofoil ferry service operated by JR Kyushu Jet Ferry, a division of Kyushu Railway Company.The ferry travels between Fukuoka, Japan and Busan, South Korea.-External links:* *...

    five times a day. Korean Miraejet operates Kobee
    Kobee
    Kobee is a South Korean jet hydrofoil ferry line that operates services between Busan, South Korea and Fukuoka, Japan. Miraejet operates the ferry line.-See also:...

    three to four times a day. All of their fleets are Boeing 929.
  • As of February 2008, all of the commercial lines in Japan use Boeing 929. The routes include:
    • Sado Kisen operates the route between Sado
      Sado, Niigata
      is a city located on Sado Island in Niigata Prefecture, in the Chūbu region of Japan. Since 2004, the city has comprised the entire island, although not all of its total area of 855.26 km2 is urbanized...

       and Niigata
      Niigata, Niigata
      is the capital and the most populous city of Niigata Prefecture, Japan. It lies on the northwest coast of Honshu, the largest island of Japan, and faces the Sea of Japan and Sado Island....

      .
    • Tōkai Kisen operates Seven Island, running between Tokyo
      Tokyo
      , ; officially , is one of the 47 prefectures of Japan. Tokyo is the capital of Japan, the center of the Greater Tokyo Area, and the largest metropolitan area of Japan. It is the seat of the Japanese government and the Imperial Palace, and the home of the Japanese Imperial Family...

       and Izu Islands
      Izu Islands
      The are a group of volcanic islands stretching south and east from the Izu Peninsula of Honshū, Japan. Administratively, they form two towns and six villages; all part of Tokyo. The largest is Izu Ōshima, usually called simply Ōshima....

      , via Tateyama
      Tateyama, Chiba
      is a city located in Chiba Prefecture, Japan. As of September 2010, the city had an estimated population of 49,315 and the population density of 447 persons per km². The total area was 110.21 km²...

       or Yokosuka
      Yokosuka, Kanagawa
      is a city located in Kanagawa, Japan. As of 2010, the city had an estimated population of 419,067 and a population density of 4,160 people per km². It covered an area of 100.62 km²...

      . The destinations include Izu Ōshima
      Izu Oshima
      is a volcanic island in the Izu Islands and administered by the Tokyo Metropolitan government, Japan, lies about 100 km south of Tokyo, 22 km east of the Izu Peninsula and 36 km southwest of Bōsō Peninsula. serves as the local government of the island...

      , Toshima
      Toshima Island
      , a volcanic island in the Izu Islands and administered by the Tokyo Metropolitan government, Japan, lies south of Tokyo and east of the Izu Peninsula, Shizuoka prefecture. Toshima forms part of the Fuji-Hakone-Izu National Park. serves as the local government of the island.The island, at...

      , Niijima, Shikinejima
      Shikinejima
      is a volcanic Japanese island in the Philippine Sea, administered by Tōkyō and located approximately south of Tōkyō and south of Shimoda Shizuoka Prefecture. It is one of the of the Izu Seven Islands group of the seven northern islands of the Izu archipelago...

      , and Kōzushima
      Kozushima
      is a volcanic Japanese island in the Philippine Sea, administered by Tōkyō and located approximately northwest of the Miyakejima and southwest of the Niijima. It is one of the Izu Seven Islands group of the seven northern islands of the Izu archipelago....

      . The same ship also liks Atami
      Atami, Shizuoka
      is a city located in the eastern end of Shizuoka Prefecture, Japan. As of February 2010, the city has an estimated population of 39,755 and a population density of 645 people per km². The total area is 61.56 km².-Geography:...

       and Izu Ōshima.
    • Kyūshū Yūsen operates the route between Fukuoka
      Fukuoka, Fukuoka
      is the capital city of Fukuoka Prefecture and is situated on the northern shore of the island of Kyushu in Japan.Voted number 14 in a 2010 poll of the World's Most Livable Cities, Fukuoka is praised for its green spaces in a metropolitan setting. It is the most populous city in Kyushu, followed by...

      , Iki
      Iki Island
      Iki Island is an island lying between the island of Kyūshū and the Tsushima islands in the Tsushima Strait, the eastern channel of the Korea Strait. It is currently part of Nagasaki Prefecture of Japan. The city of Iki is the centre of the local government. The island has three ports.The island’s...

      , and the two ports of Tsushima
      Tsushima Island
      Tsushima Island is an island of the Japanese Archipelago situated in the middle of the Tsushima Strait at 34°25'N and 129°20'E. The main island of Tsushima was once a single island, but the island was divided into two in 1671 by the Ōfunakosiseto canal and into three in 1900 by the Manzekiseto canal...

      .
    • Kyūshū Shōsen operates the route between Nagasaki and the two of Gotō Islands
      Goto Islands
      The are Japanese islands in the East China Sea, off the western coast of Kyūshū. The islands are a part of Nagasaki Prefecture.- Geography :There are 140 islands in total, including five main islands:,,,, and....

      , namely Fukuejima and Nakadōrijima
      Nakadorijima
      is an island in the Gotō Islands, Japanese islands in the East China Sea, off the western coast of Kyūshū. The islands are a part of Nagasaki Prefecture in Japan.Nakadōrijima is often referred to as Kamigotō, but this is a misnomer.-Geography:...

      .
    • Kagoshima Shōsen and Cosmo Line operate the various routes between Kagoshima
      Kagoshima, Kagoshima
      is the capital city of Kagoshima Prefecture at the southwestern tip of the Kyūshū island of Japan, and the largest city in the prefecture by some margin...

       and Tanegashima
      Tanegashima
      is an island lying to the south of Kyushu, in southern Japan, and is part of Kagoshima Prefecture. The island is the second largest of the Ōsumi Islands....

       or Yakushima
      Yakushima
      , one of the Ōsumi Islands, is an island of about 500 km² and roughly 15,000 islanders to the south of Kyūshū in Kagoshima Prefecture, Japan. The Vincennes Strait separates it from Tanegashima. The highest point on the island is Miyanoura-dake at 1,935 metres...

      .

See also

  • Boeing hydrofoils
  • Disco Volante (ship)
    Disco Volante (ship)
    The Disco Volante is a fictional ship in the James Bond novel Thunderball and its 1965 film adaptation of the same name. It was a hydrofoil craft owned by Emilio Largo, an agent of SPECTRE. It was purchased with SPECTRE funds for £200,000. The craft plays a pivotal role in the seizure and...

  • Flyak
    Flyak
    The Flyak is a hydrofoil adaptation to the conventional kayak. It uses twin hydrofoils designed to raise the hull out of the water to increase the speed. Speeds of up to 27.2 km/h can be achieved on calm water....

     – a hydrofoil kayak
  • The Hydrofoil Mystery
    The Hydrofoil Mystery
    The Hydrofoil Mystery was written in 2003 by Canadian author Eric Walters. It is about a teenage boy named Billy McCracken whose mother arranges for him to go away for the summer to work with none other than the well-known inventor of the telephone, Alexander Graham Bell...

    – historical fiction
  • Planing (sailing)
    Planing (sailing)
    Planing is the mode of operation for a waterborne craft in which its weight is predominantly supported by hydrodynamic lift, rather than hydrostatic lift .-History:...

  • Raketa (hydrofoil)
    Raketa (hydrofoil)
    Raketa was the first type of hydrofoil boats commercially produced in the Soviet Union. They were manufactured from 1957 until the early 1970s...

  • Riverboat
    Riverboat
    A riverboat is a ship built boat designed for inland navigation on lakes, rivers, and artificial waterways. They are generally equipped and outfitted as work boats in one of the carrying trades, for freight or people transport, including luxury units constructed for entertainment enterprises, such...

  • Sailing hydrofoil
    Sailing hydrofoil
    A sailing hydrofoil, hydrofoil sailboat, or hydrosail is a sailboat with wing-like foils mounted under the hull. As the craft increases its speed the hydrofoils lift the hull up and out of the water, greatly reducing wetted area, resulting in decreased drag and increased speed...

  • Sit-down hydrofoil
    Sit-down hydrofoil
    The sit-down hydrofoil is a fairly new water sport. Unlike water skiing and wakeboarding you do not ride on the water, instead your body and the board rise above the water, supported by the hydrofoil wing which is still under the water. This is done by being towed by a towboat with a driver and...

  • Supercavitation
    Supercavitation
    Supercavitation is the use of cavitation effects to create a bubble of gas inside a liquid large enough to encompass an object traveling through the liquid, greatly reducing the skin friction drag on the object and enabling achievement of very high speeds...

  • Trampofoil – a one-person human-powered hydrofoil
  • Voskhod (hydrofoil)
    Voskhod (hydrofoil)
    Voskhod is a type of passenger hydrofoil boat built in the Soviet Union and later in Ukraine. They are intended for use in rivers and lakes, but good seaworthiness allows them to operate coastal sea areas as well.-History:...


External links