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Hybrid Open Access journal

Hybrid Open Access journal

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A newly popular variation on open access journal
Open access journal
Open access journals are scholarly journals that are available online to the reader "without financial, legal, or technical barriers other than those inseparable from gaining access to the internet itself." Some are subsidized, and some require payment on behalf of the author.Subsidized journals...

s is the Hybrid Open Access Journal. This refers to a journal where only some of the articles are open access. This status typically requires the payment of a publication fee (also called a processing fee) to the publisher.

Terminology


Hybrid OA Journal seems to be the customary term, although OA by the Article, Optional OA and Paid Option for OA have also been used. Open Choice, which properly means Springer's scheme, is sometimes used as the generic. From its originators, it has also been called the Walker-Prosser model for open access journals.

Open Access may be defined differently by different publishers. Open access involves more than free access. Permission barriers should also be minimized. For example, there are various versions of Creative Commons Licenses. The most restrictive of the six main Creative Commons
Creative Commons
Creative Commons is a non-profit organization headquartered in Mountain View, California, United States devoted to expanding the range of creative works available for others to build upon legally and to share. The organization has released several copyright-licenses known as Creative Commons...

 Licenses allows anyone to download authors' works and share them with others, provided that the works are properly attributed and linked back to the original authors, and also provided that the works aren't changed in any way, nor used commercially. Other licenses are more accommodating.

History


The concept was first proposed a few years ago. Thomas Walker
Thomas Walker
Thomas or Tom Walker may refer to:*Thomas Walker , English academic at Oxford University*Thomas Walker , American explorer*Thomas Walker , English ancestor of Bush family...

 first suggested that authors could purchase extra visibility at a price. The first journal recognized as using this plan was Walker's own Florida Journal of Entomology; it was later extended to the other publications of the Entomological Society of America
Entomological Society of America
The Entomological Society of America was founded in 1889 and today has more than 6,000 members, including educators, extension personnel, consultants, students, researchers, and scientists from agricultural departments, health agencies, private industries, colleges and universities, and state and...

. The idea was later refined by David Prosser in 2003 in the journal Learned Publishing.

Publishers and names


Each publisher that offers this plan uses a distinctive name. The SHERPA/RoMEO site provides a list of publishers and the names of their plans: Publishers with Paid Options for Open Access

Some examples are listed below:
  • AlphaMed Press: Open Access Option (described in the Information for Authors).
  • American Chemical Society
    American Chemical Society
    The American Chemical Society is a scientific society based in the United States that supports scientific inquiry in the field of chemistry. Founded in 1876 at New York University, the ACS currently has more than 161,000 members at all degree-levels and in all fields of chemistry, chemical...

    : ACS AuthorChoice.
  • American Dairy Science Association
    American Dairy Science Association
    The American Dairy Science Association is a non-profit professional organization for the advancement of dairy science. ADSA is headquartered in Savoy, Illinois, located near the Urbana-Champaign, Illinois area....

    : Open Access at JDS.
  • American Institute of Physics
    American Institute of Physics
    The American Institute of Physics promotes science, the profession of physics, publishes physics journals, and produces publications for scientific and engineering societies. The AIP is made up of various member societies...

    : Author Select.
  • American Physical Society
    American Physical Society
    The American Physical Society is the world's second largest organization of physicists, behind the Deutsche Physikalische Gesellschaft. The Society publishes more than a dozen scientific journals, including the world renowned Physical Review and Physical Review Letters, and organizes more than 20...

    : Free to Read.
  • American Physiological Society
    American Physiological Society
    The American Physiological Society was founded in 1887 with 28 members. Of them, 21 were graduates of medical schools, but only 12 had studied in schools that had a professor of physiology. Today, the APS has 10,500 members, most of whom hold doctoral degrees in medicine, physiology or other...

    : AuthorChoice.
  • American Society of Animal Science
    American Society of Animal Science
    The American Society of Animal Science is a non-profit professional organization for the advancement of livestock and meat science. Founded in 1908, ASAS is headquartered in Champaign, Illinois....

    : Open Access option.
  • American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
    American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
    The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology is a learned society that was founded on December 26, 1906 at a meeting organized by John Jacob Abel...

    : Author Choice Option.
  • American Society of Hematology
    American Society of Hematology
    The American Society of Hematology is a professional organization representing hematologists. It was founded in 1958. Its annual meeting is held in December of every year and has attracted nearly 20,000 attendees. The society publishes the medical journal Blood, one of the most cited peer-review...

    : ASH Author Choice.
  • American Society of Limnology and Oceanography
    American Society of Limnology and Oceanography
    Initiated in 1947, the American Society of Limnology and Oceanography is a scientific society with the goal of Advancing the Sciences of Limnology and Oceanography. With approximately 4000 members in nearly 60 different countries, ASLO is the largest scientific society, worldwide, devoted to...

    : Free Access Publication.
  • American Society of Neuroradiology: Open Access Option.
  • American Society of Plant Biologists
    American Society of Plant Biologists
    The American Society of Plant Biologists is a professional society devoted to the advancement of the plant sciences. It was founded in 1924 as the American Society of Plant Physiologists and renamed in 2001...

    : Open Access Experiment.
  • BMJ Publishing Group Ltd
    BMJ Publishing Group Ltd
    The BMJ Group is a wholly owned subsidiary of the British Medical Association.. Established in 1840 with the publication of the first edition of the British Medical Journal, it is now a fully commercial organisation with over 380 staff based in locations around the world.BMJ’s mission statement...

    : BMJ Unlocked.
  • Cambridge University Press
    Cambridge University Press
    Cambridge University Press is the publishing business of the University of Cambridge. Granted letters patent by Henry VIII in 1534, it is the world's oldest publishing house, and the second largest university press in the world...

    : Cambridge Open Option.
  • Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press
    Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press
    Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press was founded in 1933 to aid in Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory's purpose of furthering the advance and spread of scientific knowledge....

    : Open Access Option.
  • Elsevier
    Elsevier
    Elsevier is a publishing company which publishes medical and scientific literature. It is a part of the Reed Elsevier group. Based in Amsterdam, the company has operations in the United Kingdom, USA and elsewhere....

    : Sponsored Article.
  • Inderscience: Author Open Access Option.
  • International Union of Crystallography
    International Union of Crystallography
    The International Union of Crystallography is a member of the International Council for Science and exists to serve the world community of crystallographers....

    : IUCr Open Access.
  • John Wiley & Sons
    John Wiley & Sons
    John Wiley & Sons, Inc., also referred to as Wiley, is a global publishing company that specializes in academic publishing and markets its products to professionals and consumers, students and instructors in higher education, and researchers and practitioners in scientific, technical, medical, and...

    : OnlineOpen.
  • Karger Publishers: Author's Choice.
  • Longwoods Publishing: Optional Open Access.
  • Mary Ann Liebert, Inc.
    Mary Ann Liebert, Inc.
    Mary Ann Liebert, Inc. is a publishing company founded by its current president, Mary Ann Liebert, in 1980. The company publishes peer-reviewed academic journals, books, and trade magazines in the areas of biotechnology, biomedical research/life sciences, clinical medicine, alternative/integrative...

    : Liebert Open Option.
  • Mineralogical Society of America
    Mineralogical Society of America
    The Mineralogical Society of America is a scientific membership organization. MSA was founded in 1919 for the advancement of mineralogy, crystallography, geochemistry, and petrology, and promotion of their uses in other sciences, industry, and the arts...

    : (described under the heading: Open-access and self-archiving).
  • Nature Publishing Group
    Nature Publishing Group
    Nature Publishing Group is an international publishing company that publishes academic journals, online databases, and services across the life, physical, chemical and applied sciences and clinical medicine...

    : open-access option.
  • Nature Publishing Group
    Nature Publishing Group
    Nature Publishing Group is an international publishing company that publishes academic journals, online databases, and services across the life, physical, chemical and applied sciences and clinical medicine...

     (British Journal of Cancer): BJC OPEN.
  • Nature Publishing Group
    Nature Publishing Group
    Nature Publishing Group is an international publishing company that publishes academic journals, online databases, and services across the life, physical, chemical and applied sciences and clinical medicine...

     (British Journal of Pharmacology): BJP Open.
  • Nature Publishing Group
    Nature Publishing Group
    Nature Publishing Group is an international publishing company that publishes academic journals, online databases, and services across the life, physical, chemical and applied sciences and clinical medicine...

     (The EMBO Journal): EMBO Open.
  • NRC Research Press
    NRC Research Press
    NRC Research Press is a scientific publisher in Canada. It publishes 15 journals in a broad range of scientific and technical disciplines. All journals are available online full-text in both pdf and HTML format and are accessible before print publication....

    : OpenArticle.
  • Oxford University Press
    Oxford University Press
    Oxford University Press is the largest university press in the world. It is a department of the University of Oxford and is governed by a group of 15 academics appointed by the Vice-Chancellor known as the Delegates of the Press. They are headed by the Secretary to the Delegates, who serves as...

    : Oxford Open.
  • Portal de Revistas de El Colegio de México
  • Royal Society (UK)
    Royal Society
    The Royal Society of London for Improving Natural Knowledge, known simply as the Royal Society, is a learned society for science, and is possibly the oldest such society in existence. Founded in November 1660, it was granted a Royal Charter by King Charles II as the "Royal Society of London"...

    : EXiS Open Choice.
  • Royal Society of Chemistry
    Royal Society of Chemistry
    The Royal Society of Chemistry is a learned society in the United Kingdom with the goal of "advancing the chemical sciences." It was formed in 1980 from the merger of the Chemical Society, the Royal Institute of Chemistry, the Faraday Society and the Society for Analytical Chemistry with a new...

     (UK): RSC Open Science.
  • SAGE Publications
    SAGE Publications
    SAGE is an independent academic publisher of books, journals, and electronic products in the humanities and social sciences and the scientific, technical, and medical fields. SAGE was founded in 1965 by George McCune and Sara Miller McCune. The company is headquartered in Thousand Oaks, California,...

    : SAGE Open.
  • Society for Endocrinology: Free Access Option.
  • Spandidos Publications: (mentioned at the end of: Information for Authors.
  • SPIE: (described under the heading: SPIE adds to open-access suite with JBO delayed-open option, NIH deposits).
  • Springer
    Springer Science+Business Media
    - Selected publications :* Encyclopaedia of Mathematics* Ergebnisse der Mathematik und ihrer Grenzgebiete * Graduate Texts in Mathematics * Grothendieck's Séminaire de géométrie algébrique...

    : Open Choice.
  • Taylor & Francis
    Taylor & Francis
    Taylor & Francis Group is an international company originating in the United Kingdom which publishes books and academic journals. It is a division of Informa plc, a United Kingdom-based publisher and conference company.- Overview :...

    : iOpen Access.
  • United States National Academy of Sciences
    United States National Academy of Sciences
    The National Academy of Sciences is a corporation in the United States whose members serve pro bono as "advisers to the nation on science, engineering, and medicine." As a national academy, new members of the organization are elected annually by current members, based on their distinguished and...

    : PNAS Open Access Option.
  • Wiley-Blackwell: OnlineOpen.
  • World Scientific
    World Scientific
    World Scientific Publishing is a publisher of scientific, technical, and medical books and journals. The company was founded in 1981 and now employs more than 200 staff at its headquarters in Singapore, with offices worldwide in New Jersey, California, London, New Delhi, Tianjin, Sydney, Hong...

    : WorldSciNet OPEN ACCESS.


See also :Category:Hybrid open access journals

Postulated effect on subscription prices


Since one of the proposed sources for the necessary funds for open access articles might be the library subscription budget, there needs to be a decrease in the subscription cost to the library. Therefore, the article payments must not merely add to the normal subscription cost, but rather reduce the cost. For example, the Open Access Authors Fund of the University of Calgary
University of Calgary
The University of Calgary is a public research university located in Calgary, Alberta, Canada. Founded in 1966 the U of C is composed of 14 faculties and more than 85 research institutes and centres.More than 25,000 undergraduate and 5,500 graduate students are currently...

 Library (2009/09) requires that: "To be eligible for funding in this [hybrid Open Access] category, the publisher must plan to make (in the next subscription year) reductions to the institutional subscription prices based on the number of Open Access articles in those journals. To date, the only publishers that have done this are Oxford University Press
Oxford University Press
Oxford University Press is the largest university press in the world. It is a department of the University of Oxford and is governed by a group of 15 academics appointed by the Vice-Chancellor known as the Delegates of the Press. They are headed by the Secretary to the Delegates, who serves as...

, which has reduced subscription fees for the hybrid journals in its Oxford Open program, and the American Institute of Physics
American Institute of Physics
The American Institute of Physics promotes science, the profession of physics, publishes physics journals, and produces publications for scientific and engineering societies. The AIP is made up of various member societies...

, which has done the same for its Author Select program. Other publishers may follow this lead in the future". On 12 November 2009, Nature Publishing Group
Nature Publishing Group
Nature Publishing Group is an international publishing company that publishes academic journals, online databases, and services across the life, physical, chemical and applied sciences and clinical medicine...

 (NPG) issued this news release: Open Access uptake prompts 9% price reduction for The EMBO Journal and EMBO reports. On 13 November 2009, critical comments about the news release were posted, by a university librarian, to the LIS-E-RESOURCES discussion list.

University funds to support open access journals


Some universities have funds designed to pay publication fees of fee-based open access journals. Of these, some will pay publication fees of hybrid open access journals. However, policies about such payments differ. The Open Access Directory provides a list of university funds that support open access journals, and provides information about which funds will pay fees of hybrid OA journals.

A report on work carried out by the University of Nottingham, since 2006, to introduce and manage an institutional open access fund has been published by Stephen Pinfield in Learned Publishing (Jan 2010). In this article, the author comments that: "As publishers’ income has increased from OA fees in the hybrid model, there has been little or no let up in journal subscription inflation, and only a small minority of publishers have yet committed to adjusting their subscription prices as they receive increasing levels of income from OA options."

Advantages and disadvantages for the publisher


One of the difficulties with "full" open access journals, or the subset of them that charge author-side fees, is the difficulty of getting started. The publisher must be ready to take the risk of not having subscription income, in the hope that payments will materialize. But with a hybrid open access journal, the publisher only provides open access to those articles for which the payment is made. To the extent the plan succeeds, the publisher has an adequate revenue stream from fees. To the extent that it fails, the publisher has an adequate revenue stream from subscriptions.

Advantages and disadvantages to the author


The author wanting to publish in an open access journal, is not limited to the relatively small number of "full" open access journals, but can also choose from the available hybrid open access journals, which includes journals published by many of the largest academic publishers.

The author must still find the money. Many funding agencies are ready to let authors use grant funds, or apply for supplementary funds, to pay publication fees at Open Access journals. (Only a minority of Open Access journals charge such fees, but nearly all hybrid Open Access journals do so.) So far, the funding agencies that are willing to pay these fees do not distinguish between full and hybrid open access journals. On 19 October 2009, one such funding agency, the Wellcome Trust
Wellcome Trust
The Wellcome Trust was established in 1936 as an independent charity funding research to improve human and animal health. With an endowment of around £13.9 billion, it is the United Kingdom's largest non-governmental source of funds for biomedical research...

, expressed concerns about hybrid open access fees being paid twice, through subscriptions and through publication fees: Wellcome Trust calls for greater transparency from journals on open access publishing costs.

Variations


The American Society of Plant Biologists
American Society of Plant Biologists
The American Society of Plant Biologists is a professional society devoted to the advancement of the plant sciences. It was founded in 1924 as the American Society of Plant Physiologists and renamed in 2001...

(ASPB) has adopted a unique policy that articles contributed by society members to its journal, Plant Physiology, will be made Open Access immediately upon publication at no additional charge. Non-member authors can receive OA through payment of $1,000, but since membership is only $115/year, it is expected this initiative will boost membership.

External links