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Hong Kong International Airport

Hong Kong International Airport

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Hong Kong International Airport is the main airport in Hong Kong
Hong Kong
Hong Kong is one of two Special Administrative Regions of the People's Republic of China , the other being Macau. A city-state situated on China's south coast and enclosed by the Pearl River Delta and South China Sea, it is renowned for its expansive skyline and deep natural harbour...

. It is colloquially known as Chek Lap Kok Airport (赤鱲角機場), being built on the island of Chek Lap Kok
Chek Lap Kok
Chek Lap Kok was an island in the western waters of Hong Kong. Together with the smaller Lam Chau, it was leveled and merged via land reclamation into the platform for the current Hong Kong International Airport, which opened for commercial operations in 1998...

 by land reclamation
Land reclamation in Hong Kong
Land is in short supply in Hong Kong, and land reclamation has been conducted there since the mid-19th century.-Projects:One of the earliest and famous project was the Praya Reclamation Scheme, which added 50 to of land in 1890 during the second phase of construction...

, and also to distinguish it from its predecessor, the closed Kai Tak Airport
Kai Tak Airport
Kai Tak Airport was the international airport of Hong Kong from 1925 until 1998. It was officially known as the Hong Kong International Airport from 1954 to 6 July 1998, when it was closed and replaced by the new Hong Kong International Airport at Chek Lap Kok, 30 km to the west...

.

The airport opened for commercial operations in 1998, replacing Kai Tak, and is an important regional trans-shipment centre, passenger hub and gateway for destinations in Mainland China
Mainland China
Mainland China, the Chinese mainland or simply the mainland, is a geopolitical term that refers to the area under the jurisdiction of the People's Republic of China . According to the Taipei-based Mainland Affairs Council, the term excludes the PRC Special Administrative Regions of Hong Kong and...

 (with over 40 destinations) and the rest of Asia. Hong Kong International Airport has won eight Skytrax
Skytrax
Skytrax is a United Kingdom-based consultancy, the public face of Inflight Research Services, which has the largest airline and airport review and ranking site. It conducts research for commercial airlines...

 World Airport Awards for customer satisfaction in eleven years. HKIA ranked second and third in 2009 and 2010 respectively for the Skytrax World Airport Awards, and has also won the Skytrax World Airport of the Year 2011.

HKIA also operates one of the world's largest passenger terminal buildings (the largest when opened in 1998) and operates twenty-four hours a day. The airport is operated by the Airport Authority Hong Kong
Airport Authority Hong Kong
The Airport Authority Hong Kong is the statutory body of the government of Hong Kong that is responsible for the operations of the Hong Kong International Airport.-History:...

 and is the primary hub for Cathay Pacific
Cathay Pacific
Cathay Pacific is the flag carrier of Hong Kong, with its head office and main hub located at Hong Kong International Airport, although the airline's registered office is on the 33rd floor of One Pacific Place...

, Dragonair
Dragonair
Hong Kong Dragon Airlines Limited , operating as Dragonair, is an international airline and flag carrier headquartered in Hong Kong; with its corporate headquarters, Dragonair House Hong Kong Dragon Airlines Limited (T: 港龍航空有限公司, S: 港龙航空有限公司, Cantonese: gong2 lung4 hong4 hung1 jau5 haan6 gung1 si1,...

, Hong Kong Express Airways
Hong Kong Express Airways
Hong Kong Express Airways Limited , is an airline based in Hong Kong, with its main hub at Hong Kong International Airport. The airline operates scheduled passenger services to 19 destinations in seven countries across Asia, including codeshares with its sister airline, Hong Kong Airlines...

, Hong Kong Airlines and Air Hong Kong
Air Hong Kong
AHK Air Hong Kong Limited is the only all cargo airline based in Hong Kong, with its main hub at Hong Kong International Airport. The airline operates an express freight network to 12 destinations in nine countries, including China, Japan, Malaysia, Philippines, Republic of China , Singapore,...

 (cargo). The airport is also one of the Asian-Pacific cargo hubs for UPS Airlines
UPS Airlines
UPS Airlines is an American cargo airline owned by United Parcel Service Inc. . The company is headquartered in Louisville, Kentucky. Its home airport is located at Louisville International Airport...

. It is a focus city
Focus city
In the airline industry, a focus city is a location that is not a hub, but from which the airline has non-stop flights to several destinations other than its hubs...

 for many airlines, including China Airlines
China Airlines
China Airlines is both the flag carrier and the largest airline of Republic of China . Although not directly state-owned, the airline is owned by China Airlines Group, which is owned by the China Aviation Development Foundation...

 and Air New Zealand
Air New Zealand
Air New Zealand Limited is the national airline and flag carrier of New Zealand. Based in Auckland, New Zealand, the airline operates scheduled passenger flights to 26 domestic destinations and 24 international destinations in 15 countries across Asia, Europe, North America and Oceania, and is...

, and to a lesser extent Qantas
Qantas
Qantas Airways Limited is the flag carrier of Australia. The name was originally "QANTAS", an initialism for "Queensland and Northern Territory Aerial Services". Nicknamed "The Flying Kangaroo", the airline is based in Sydney, with its main hub at Sydney Airport...

 and Virgin Atlantic, both of which use Hong Kong as a stopover point for flights on the Kangaroo Route
Kangaroo route
The Kangaroo Route traditionally refers to air routes flown by Qantas between the countries of Australia and the United Kingdom, via the Eastern Hemisphere. The term is trademarked by Qantas, although it is used in the media and by airline competitors....

 between Australasia and Europe. Both Continental Airlines
Continental Airlines
Continental Airlines was a major American airline now merged with United Airlines. On May 3, 2010, Continental Airlines, Inc. and UAL, Inc. announced a merger via a stock swap, and on October 1, 2010, the merger closed and UAL changed its name to United Continental Holdings, Inc...

 and Air India
Air India
Air India is the flag carrier airline of India. It is part of the government of India owned Air India Limited . The airline operates a fleet of Airbus and Boeing aircraft serving Asia, Australia, Europe and North America. Its corporate office is located at the Air India Building at Nariman...

 use Hong Kong as a stopover point for flights respectively from the United States to Singapore, Tokyo and Ho Chi Minh City as well as from India to Osaka and Seoul. In the near future, Garuda Indonesia
Garuda Indonesia
PT Garuda Indonesia Tbk , publicly known as Garuda Indonesia, is the flag carrier of Indonesia. It is named after the mystical giant bird Garuda of Hinduism and Buddhist mythology. It is headquartered at Soekarno-Hatta International Airport in Tangerang, near Jakarta, the capital city of Indonesia...

 is considering making Hong Kong their transit hub for flights to Europe while Swiss International Air Lines
Swiss International Air Lines
Swiss International Air Lines AG is the principal airline of Switzerland operating scheduled services in Europe and to North America, South America, Africa and Asia. Its main hub is Zurich Airport...

 considers Hong Kong to be a major transfer hub for its network.

HKIA is an important contributor to the Hong Kong economy, employing 60,000. About 90 airlines operate flights from the airport to over 150 cities across the globe. In 2010 HKIA handled 50,348,960 passengers, making it the 11th busiest airport worldwide
World's busiest airports by passenger traffic
The world's busiest airports by passenger traffic are measured by number of total passengers . One passenger is described as someone who arrives in, departs from, or transfers through the airport on a given day...

 by passenger traffic. It also surpassed Memphis International Airport
Memphis International Airport
Memphis International Airport is a joint civil-military public airport located three miles south of the central business district of Memphis, a city in Shelby County, Tennessee, United States....

 to become the world's busiest airport by cargo traffic
World's busiest airports by cargo traffic
The world's thirty busiest airports by cargo traffic for various periods . Numbers listed refer to loaded and unloaded freight in metric tonnes.-2010 final statistics:...

.

History




Chek Lap Kok Airport was designed as a replacement for the former Hong Kong International Airport (commonly known as Kai Tak Airport) originally built in 1925. Located in the densely built-up Kowloon City District
Kowloon City District
Kowloon City District is one of the 18 districts of Hong Kong. It is located in Kowloon. It had a population of 381,352 in 2001. The district has the third most educated residents while its residents enjoy the highest income in Kowloon....

 with a single runway extending into Kowloon Bay
Kowloon Bay
Kowloon Bay is a bay located at the east of the Kowloon Peninsula and north of Hong Kong Island in Hong Kong. It is the eastern portion of Victoria Harbour, between Hung Hom and Lei Yue Mun...

, Kai Tak had only limited room for expansion to cope with steadily increasing air traffic. By the 1990s, Kai Tak had become one of the world's busiest airports – it far exceeded its annual passenger and cargo design capacities, and one out of every three flights met delays, largely due to lack of space for aircraft, gates, and a second runway. In addition, noise mitigation
Noise mitigation
Noise mitigation is a set of strategies to reduce noise pollution. The main areas of noise mitigation or abatement are: transportation noise control, architectural design, and occupational noise control...

 measures restricted nighttime flights, as severe noise pollution (exceeding 105 dB(A) in Kowloon City) was estimated to adversely affect at least 340,000 people.

A 1974 planning study by the Hong Kong Civil Aviation and Public Works department identified the small island of Chek Lap Kok, off Lantau Island
Lantau Island
Lantau Island , based on the old local name of Lantau Peak , is the largest island in Hong Kong, located at the mouth of the Pearl River. Administratively, most of Lantau Island is part of the Islands District of Hong Kong...

, as a possible airport replacement site. Away from the congested city centre, flight paths would be routed over the South China Sea
South China Sea
The South China Sea is a marginal sea that is part of the Pacific Ocean, encompassing an area from the Singapore and Malacca Straits to the Strait of Taiwan of around...

 rather than populous urban areas, enabling efficient round-the-clock operation of multiple runways. Construction of the new airport, however, did not begin until 1991. The construction period was very rushed; specialists considered only a 10–20 year period was sufficient for this massive project. Another cause for this rush was due to the uncertain future of the airport construction after the transfer of sovereignty of Hong Kong to the People's Republic of China. It was originally believed that Beijing preferred to keep everything basically intact and minimise financial commitments for big projects, therefore stopping all construction despite the need for the new airport. At last, the airport did not finish in time for the Handover. However, China gave an additional year's grace period to finish the project. It was finished just in time.

Hong Kong International Airport was built on a large artificial island
Artificial island
An artificial island or man-made island is an island or archipelago that has been constructed by people rather than formed by natural means...

, formed by levelling Chek Lap Kok
Chek Lap Kok
Chek Lap Kok was an island in the western waters of Hong Kong. Together with the smaller Lam Chau, it was leveled and merged via land reclamation into the platform for the current Hong Kong International Airport, which opened for commercial operations in 1998...

 and Lam Chau
Lam Chau
Lam Chau was one of the two original islands that made up the site of the current Hong Kong International Airport.The small island lay to the west of Chek Lap Kok and north of Lantau Island. It had an area of 0.08 km² and was long. It had a narrow rocky shoreline and small hills covered by...

 islands (3.02 km² and 0.08 km² respectively), and reclaiming
Land reclamation in Hong Kong
Land is in short supply in Hong Kong, and land reclamation has been conducted there since the mid-19th century.-Projects:One of the earliest and famous project was the Praya Reclamation Scheme, which added 50 to of land in 1890 during the second phase of construction...

 9.38 km² of the adjacent seabed. The 12.48 km² airport site added nearly 1% to Hong Kong's total surface area, connecting to the north side of Lantau Island near Tung Chung
Tung Chung
Tung Chung, meaning 'eastern stream', is an area situated on the north-western coast of Lantau Island in Hong Kong. Tung Chung, currently one of the latest generation of new towns, was formerly a rural village around Tung Chung Wan, and along the delta and lower courses of Tung Chung River and Ma...

 new town
New town
A new town is a specific type of a planned community, or planned city, that was carefully planned from its inception and is typically constructed in a previously undeveloped area. This contrasts with settlements that evolve in a more ad hoc fashion. Land use conflicts are uncommon in new...

.

Construction of the new airport was only part of the Airport Core Programme
Airport Core Programme
The Hong Kong Airport Core Programme was a series of infrastructure projects centred around the new Hong Kong International Airport during the early 1990s...

, which also involved construction of new road and rail links to the airport, with associated bridges and tunnels, and major land reclamation projects on both Hong Kong Island
Hong Kong Island
Hong Kong Island is an island in the southern part of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region. It has a population of 1,289,500 and its population density is 16,390/km², as of 2008...

 and in Kowloon
Kowloon
Kowloon is an urban area in Hong Kong comprising the Kowloon Peninsula and New Kowloon. It is bordered by the Lei Yue Mun strait in the east, Mei Foo Sun Chuen and Stonecutter's Island in the west, Tate's Cairn and Lion Rock in the north, and Victoria Harbour in the south. It had a population of...

. The project is the most expensive airport project ever, according to Guinness World Records. Construction of the new airport was voted as one of the Top 10 Construction Achievements of the 20th Century at the ConExpo conference in 1999.

The sides of the terminals, predominantly glass, were designed to break during high speed winds, relieving pressure and allowing the terminal to withstand an intense typhoon.

Opened on 6 July 1998, a week later than the new Kuala Lumpur International Airport
Kuala Lumpur International Airport
Kuala Lumpur International Airport , or KLIA serves the capital city of Malaysia, Kuala Lumpur, and is one of Southeast Asia's largest airports. It is also Malaysia's main international airport. It is situated in the Sepang district, in the south of the state of Selangor, about from Kuala Lumpur...

, it took six years and US$20 billion to build. On that day at 6:25 am, Cathay Pacific flight 889 was the first commercial flight to land at the airport, pipping the original CX292 from Rome which was the scheduled first arrival. The architects were Foster and Partners
Foster and Partners
Foster + Partners is an architectural firm based in London. The practice is led by its founder and Chairman, Norman Foster, and has constructed many high-profile glass-and-steel buildings....

. However, on the first day of opening, the airport had already started to experience some technical difficulties. The flight information display system
Flight information display system
A Flight Information Display system is a computer system used in airports to display flight information to passengers, in which a computer system controls mechanical or electronic display boards or TV screens in order to display arrivals and departures flight information in real-time. The displays...

 (FIDS) had suddenly shut down which caused long delays. Shortly afterwards, the cargo communication link with Kai Tak, where all the data was stored, went down. In the same period of time, someone had accidentally deleted a critical database for cargo services. This meant that cargo had to be manually stored. At one point, the airport had to turn away freight headed for and exported from Hong Kong (except food and medical supplies) while it sorted out the mess. HKIA simply could not keep up without an automated computer assisting. For three to five months after its opening, it suffered various severe organisational, mechanical and technical problems that almost crippled the airport. Computer glitches were to blame for the crisis. Lau Kang-way, a Hong Kong politician, was quoted saying "This was meant to be a first-class project, but it has turned into a ninth-class airport and a disgrace. Our airport has become the laughing stock of the world. At one time, the government reopened the cargo terminal at Kai Tak Airport to handle freight traffic because of a breakdown at the new cargo terminal, named Super Terminal One (ST1). However, after six months the airport started to operate normally.

Officially opened in June 2007, the second airport terminal, called T2, (check-in facility only) is linked with the MTR Airport Express
Airport Express (MTR)
The Airport Express is one of the lines of the Mass Transit Railway serving Hong Kong. It links the principal urban areas of Hong Kong to Hong Kong International Airport and the associated AsiaWorld-Expo exhibition and convention centre....

 on a new platform. The terminal also features a new shopping mall, SkyPlaza
Hong Kong SkyCity
Hong Kong SkyCity is a large business and entertainment complex adjacent to the Hong Kong International Airport, and is built on land owned by the Airport Authority Hong Kong...

, providing a large variety of shops and restaurants, together with a few entertainment facilities. T2 also houses a 36-bay coach station for buses to and from mainland China and 56 airline check-in counters, as well as customs and immigration facilities.

Besides T2, the SkyCity Nine Eagles Golf Course has been opened in 2007 whereas the second airport hotel, the Hong Kong SkyCity Marriott Hotel; and a permanent cross-boundary ferry terminal, the SkyPier, began operations in 2008 and 2009 respectively. Development around T2 also includes the AsiaWorld-Expo which has started operation in late 2005. A second passenger concourse, the North Satellite Concourse (NSC), opened in 2010.

Future Development


In June 2010, the Airport Authority unveiled plans to develop in stages the vast midfield site of the airport island. Stage 1 will involve the construction of a new 20 gate passenger concourse to be built in 2 phases (completion 2015 and 2020) with 11 gates in phase 1 growing to 20 gates in phase 2. Configuration of the new concourse is similar to those at Hartsfield-Jackson Atlanta International Airport, London Heathrow Terminal 5 and Seoul Incheon airport. After stage 1 of midfield development is completed in 2020, there will be sufficient lands remaining for further new concourses to be built as and when demand for them materialises.

Master Plan 2030


One year after, on 2 June 2011, the Airport Authority announced and released their latest version of a 20-year blueprint for the airport's development, the Hong Kong International Airport Master Plan 2030 to the public. The study took three years and according to the authority, nine consulting organizations have been hired for the research, observation, planning and advice. The main focus is to improve the overall capacity and aircraft handling ability of the airport. Based on this, two plans have been made into options for public consultation:
Option 1: Two-runway system

To maintain the current two-runway system, while there will be enhancements to the terminal and apron facilities to increase the airport's capacity. This option will enable the airport to handle a maximum of 420,000 flight movements per year, with annual passenger and cargo throughput increased to 74 million and six million tonnes respectively. The approximate cost of this plan is $23.4 billion Hong Kong Dollars
Hong Kong dollar
The Hong Kong dollar is the currency of the jurisdiction. It is the eighth most traded currency in the world. In English, it is normally abbreviated with the dollar sign $, or alternatively HK$ to distinguish it from other dollar-denominated currencies...

 in price of 2010, or HK$42.5 billion considering at money-of-the-day prices. It will increase number of direct jobs associated with HKIA to 101,000 by 2030 (from 62,000 in 2008) and generate a total of HK$432 billion (in 2009 dollars) in economic net present value (ENPV) over a 50-year lifespan up to 2061. However, the Airport Authority estimates that the airport will reach its maximum runway capacity sometime around 2020 if no extra runway is being added.
Option 2: Three-runway system

This plan will focus on developing a third runway to the north of the Chek Lap Kok, the existing island the airport is built on, by land reclamation of about 650 hectares. The associated facilities - additional terminals, airfield and apron facilities will be built accordingly, and combined with the new runway, it is estimated that the airport would be able to handle a maximum of 620,000 flights per year (102 per hour), and meet forecast annual passenger and cargo throughput of about 97 million and 8.9 million tonnes by 2030 respectively.

There are possible drawbacks. Development costs are a concern: although the proposal would increase the number of direct jobs associated with HKIA to 141,000 by 2030 and generate an ENPV of HK$912 billion (in 2009 dollars) over a 50-year lifespan up to 2061, the estimated cost is approximately $86.2 billion (2010) Hong Kong Dollars, or HK$136.2 billion (at money-of-the-day prices). There are also environmental and local noise pollution concerns.

Composition




The airport has a total of 70 boarding gates, with 63 jet bridge gates and seven virtual gates which are used as assembly points for passengers, who are then ferried to the aircraft by apron buses. Of the 63 jet bridges, five are capable of handling the Airbus A380
Airbus A380
The Airbus A380 is a double-deck, wide-body, four-engine jet airliner manufactured by the European corporation Airbus, a subsidiary of EADS. It is the largest passenger airliner in the world. Due to its size, many airports had to modify and improve facilities to accommodate it...

. Singapore Airlines
Singapore Airlines
Singapore Airlines Limited is the flag carrier airline of Singapore. Singapore Airlines operates a hub at Changi Airport and has a strong presence in the Southeast Asia, East Asia, South Asia, and "Kangaroo Route" markets...

, Emirates and Korean Air
Korean Air
Korean Air Lines Co., Ltd. , operating as Korean Air, is both the flag carrier and the largest airline of South Korea, with global headquarters located in Seoul, South Korea. Korean Air's international passenger division and related subsidiary cargo division together serve 130 cities in 45...

 currently deploy A380s to Hong Kong and use those gates.

Terminal 1


Terminal 1 of the HKIA is currently the third largest airport passenger terminal building in the world (570,000 m²), after Dubai International Airport
Dubai International Airport
Dubai International Airport is an international airport serving Dubai, the largest city of the United Arab Emirates. It is a major aviation hub in the Middle East, and is the main airport of Dubai. It is situated in the Al Garhoud district, southeast of Dubai...

's Terminal 3 (1,500,000 m²) and Beijing Capital International Airport
Beijing Capital International Airport
Beijing Capital International Airport, is the main international airport serving Beijing, China. It is located northeast of Beijing's city center in an enclave of Chaoyang District that is surrounded by rural Shunyi District. The airport is owned and operated by the Beijing Capital...

's Terminal 3 (986,000 m²).

At its opening, Terminal 1 was the largest airport passenger terminal building, with a total gross floor area of 550,000 m². It briefly conceded the status to Bangkok
Bangkok
Bangkok is the capital and largest urban area city in Thailand. It is known in Thai as Krung Thep Maha Nakhon or simply Krung Thep , meaning "city of angels." The full name of Bangkok is Krung Thep Mahanakhon Amon Rattanakosin Mahintharayutthaya Mahadilok Phop Noppharat Ratchathani Burirom...

's Suvarnabhumi Airport
Suvarnabhumi Airport
Suvarnabhumi Airport , also known as Bangkok International Airport, is an international airport serving Bangkok, Thailand. It was officially opened for limited domestic flight service on 15 September 2006, and opened for most domestic and all international commercial flights on 28 September...

 (563,000 m²) when the latter opened on 15 September 2006, but reclaimed the title when the East Hall was expanded, bringing the total area to its current size (the East Hall expansion included a 39,000 m² expansion to SkyMart, a shopping mall). Terminal 1's title as the world's largest was surrendered to Beijing Capital International Airport
Beijing Capital International Airport
Beijing Capital International Airport, is the main international airport serving Beijing, China. It is located northeast of Beijing's city center in an enclave of Chaoyang District that is surrounded by rural Shunyi District. The airport is owned and operated by the Beijing Capital...

 Terminal 3 on 29 February 2008.

Terminal 2


Terminal 2 (140,000 m²), together with the Skyplaza, opened on 28 February 2007 along with the opening of the Airport Station's
Airport (MTR)
Airport is a railway station on the Airport Express of Hong Kong's MTR. It serves the Hong Kong International Airport, and is integrated with the passenger terminal. The station was opened in July 1998 at the same time as the airport, and served as the western terminus station of the line until the...

 Platform 3. It is only a check-in and processing facility for departing passengers with no gates or arrival facilities (passengers are transported underground to gates at Terminal 1). So far a majority of low-cost carriers and some full-service carriers have relocated their check-in operations to T2. The SkyPlaza
Hong Kong SkyCity
Hong Kong SkyCity is a large business and entertainment complex adjacent to the Hong Kong International Airport, and is built on land owned by the Airport Authority Hong Kong...

 is situated within Terminal 2. Architecture firm Skidmore, Owings and Merrill
Skidmore, Owings and Merrill
Skidmore, Owings and Merrill LLP is an American architectural and engineering firm that was formed in Chicago in 1936 by Louis Skidmore and Nathaniel Owings; in 1939 they were joined by John O. Merrill. They opened their first branch in New York City, New York in 1937. SOM is one of the largest...

 designed Terminal 2 and the SkyPlaza.

North Satellite Concourse


In 2007, HKIA began the construction of a two-storey North Satellite Concourse (NSC) which opened in December 2009. This concourse was designed for narrow-body aircraft
Narrow-body aircraft
A narrow-body aircraft is an airliner with a fuselage aircraft cabin width typically of 3 to 4 metres , and airline seat arranged 2 to 6 abreast along a single aisle...

 and is equipped with 10 jet bridges. The concourse has a floor area of 200,000 m² and will be able to serve more than five million passengers annually. There is a shuttle bus service between the NSC and Terminal 1 every four minutes. The concourse was commissioned at the end of 2009.

Midfield Concourse


Due to commence construction in the third quarter of 2011 and finished by the end of 2015, a new 'midfield concourse' will be built between the two runways. This will include 20 aircraft parking stands, three of these will be wide enough to serve the Airbus A380
Airbus A380
The Airbus A380 is a double-deck, wide-body, four-engine jet airliner manufactured by the European corporation Airbus, a subsidiary of EADS. It is the largest passenger airliner in the world. Due to its size, many airports had to modify and improve facilities to accommodate it...

, and cater for an additional 10 million passengers annually. Passengers will reach the concourse through an extension of the underground ‘automated people mover’ – a driverless train system which serves Terminal 1, Terminal 2 and the SkyPier ferry terminal which provides a ferry service to mainland China.

Other buildings


Cathay Pacific City (Traditional: 國泰城, Simplified: 国泰城, Cantonese: gwok3 taai3 sing4, Mandarin: Guótài Chéng), the head office of Cathay Pacific
Cathay Pacific
Cathay Pacific is the flag carrier of Hong Kong, with its head office and main hub located at Hong Kong International Airport, although the airline's registered office is on the 33rd floor of One Pacific Place...

, is located on the airport property. Dragonair House, the head office of Dragonair
Dragonair
Hong Kong Dragon Airlines Limited , operating as Dragonair, is an international airline and flag carrier headquartered in Hong Kong; with its corporate headquarters, Dragonair House Hong Kong Dragon Airlines Limited (T: 港龍航空有限公司, S: 港龙航空有限公司, Cantonese: gong2 lung4 hong4 hung1 jau5 haan6 gung1 si1,...

, is also on the airport property. The head office of Hong Kong Airlines is on Level 2 of the CNAC House (中航大廈, Cantonese: jung1 hong4 daai6 ha6, Mandarin: Zhōngháng Dàshà) at HKIA.

Airlines and destinations


Cargo



Operations


Operations and Statistics
year Passenger
movements
Airfreight
movements
(tonnes)
Aircraft
movement
1998 28,631,000 1,628,700 163,200
1999 30,394,000 1,974,300 167,400
2000 33,374,000 2,240,600 181,900
2001 33,065,000 2,074,300 196,800
2002 34,313,000 1,637,797 206,700
2003 27,433,000 2,642,100 187,500
2004 37,142,000 3,093,900 237,300
2005 40,740,000 3,402,000 263,500
2006 44,443,000 3,580,000 280,000
2007 47,783,000 3,742,000 295,580
2008 48,582,000 3,627,000 301,000
2009 45,499,604 3,440,581 273,505
2010 50,410,819 4,112,416 306,535
Capacity
Passenger (current) 50,000,000
Passenger (ultimate) 87,000,000
Cargo (current) 3m tonnes
Cargo (ultimate) 9m tonnes
Apron (current) 96
Number of destinations
International (air) 154
International (water) 6

The airport is operated by the Airport Authority Hong Kong
Airport Authority Hong Kong
The Airport Authority Hong Kong is the statutory body of the government of Hong Kong that is responsible for the operations of the Hong Kong International Airport.-History:...

, a statutory body wholly owned by the Government of Hong Kong Special Administrative Region. The Civil Aviation Department
Civil Aviation Department (Hong Kong)
The Civil Aviation Department is the Civil aviation authority of Hong Kong, headquartered in the Queensway Government Offices . The department is responsible for providing air traffic control services to all aircraft operating within the Hong Kong Flight Information Region. It reports to the...

 (CAD) is responsible for the provision of air traffic control services, certification of Hong Kong registered aircraft, monitoring of airlines on their compliance with bilateral Air Services Agreements and the regulation of general civil aviation
Civil aviation
Civil aviation is one of two major categories of flying, representing all non-military aviation, both private and commercial. Most of the countries in the world are members of the International Civil Aviation Organization and work together to establish common standards and recommended practices...

 activities.

The airport has two parallel runways, both of which are 3800 metres in length and 60 metres wide, enabling them to cater to the next generation of aircraft. The south runway has been given a Category II Precision Approach
Instrument Landing System
An instrument landing system is a ground-based instrument approach system that provides precision guidance to an aircraft approaching and landing on a runway, using a combination of radio signals and, in many cases, high-intensity lighting arrays to enable a safe landing during instrument...

, while the north runway has the higher Category IIIA rating, which allows pilots to land in only 200 metre visibility. The two runways have an ultimate capacity of over 60 aircraft movements an hour. The Airport is upgrading ATC and runways so that they can handle 68 movements per hour. Normally, the north runway (07L/25R) is for landing passenger planes. The south runway (07R/25L) is for passenger planes taking off and cargo flights due to its proximity to the cargo terminal.

There are 49 frontal stands at the main passenger concourse, 28 remote stands and 25 cargo stands. Five parking bays at the Northwest Concourse are already capable of accommodating the arrivals of the next generation of aircraft. A satellite concourse with 10 frontal stands for narrow body aircraft has been commissioned to the north of the main concourse at the end of 2009, bringing the total number of frontal stands at the airport to 59.

The airport was the third busiest for passenger traffic
World's busiest airports by passenger traffic
The world's busiest airports by passenger traffic are measured by number of total passengers . One passenger is described as someone who arrives in, departs from, or transfers through the airport on a given day...

 in Asia in 2010, and the world's busiest airport for cargo traffic
World's busiest airports by cargo traffic
The world's thirty busiest airports by cargo traffic for various periods . Numbers listed refer to loaded and unloaded freight in metric tonnes.-2010 final statistics:...

 in 2010. In terms of international traffic, the airport is the third busiest for passenger traffic and the busiest for cargo since its operation in 1998. There are over 95 international airlines providing about 900 scheduled passenger and all-cargo flights each day between Hong Kong and some 160 destinations worldwide. About 76 percent of these flights are operated with wide-bodied jets. There are also an average of approximately 31 non-scheduled passenger and cargo flights each week.

The operation of scheduled air services to and from Hong Kong is facilitated by air services agreements between Hong Kong and other countries. Since the opening of HKIA, the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region Government has implemented a policy of progressive liberalisation of air services with the intention of promoting consumer choice and competition. Many low-cost airlines have started various regional routes to compete head-on with full-service carriers on trunk routes.

The airport's long term expansion opportunities are subject to variables. An HKD 80 billion proposal to build a third runway has been under feasibility study and consultation but would be very expensive as it would involve additional reclamation from deep waters, and the building cost of the third runway may be as high as the building cost of the entire airport. On the other hand, there exists only one airway between Hong Kong and mainland China, and this single route is often and easily backed up causing delays on both sides. In addition, China requires that aircraft flying the single air route between Hong Kong and the mainland must be at an altitude of at least 15,000 feet. Talks are underway to persuade the Chinese military to relax its airspace restriction in view of worsening air traffic congestion at the airport. Other than that, Hong Kong Airport Authority is cooperating with other airports in the area to relieve air traffic and in the future, Shenzhen may act as a regional airport while Hong Kong receives all the international flights.

Air traffic


The Government Flying Service
Government Flying Service (Hong Kong)
The Government Flying Service is a disciplined unit of the Government of Hong Kong. It was established on 1 April 1993, when Hong Kong was under British rule. It then took over all the non-military operations of the Royal Hong Kong Auxiliary Air Force , which was an auxiliary unit of the United...

 provides short and long range search and rescue services, police support, medical evacuation and general purpose flights for the Government.

Passenger facilities


The airport is one of the most accessible in operation today. Despite its size, the passenger terminal is designed for maximum convenience. A simple layout and effective signage, moving walkways and the automated people mover allow quick and easy movement throughout the building. The airport also features the HKIA Automated People Mover
Hong Kong International Airport Automated People Mover
Hong Kong International Airport Automated People Mover is a driverless people mover located within Hong Kong International Airport. It operates in two "segments" and depends on the direction of travel....

, a driverless people mover
People mover
A people mover or automated people mover is a fully automated, grade-separated mass transit system.The term is generally used only to describe systems serving relatively small areas such as airports, downtown districts or theme parks, but is sometimes applied to considerably more complex automated...

 system consisting of 3 stations to provide fast transportation between the check-in area and the gates. These trains travel at 62 km/h and there is no charge for their use.

Hong Kong Business Aviation Centre


The Hong Kong Business Aviation Centre (BAC) is located within the confines of the airport and has its own terminal and facilities separate from the public terminal. It provides a full range of services for executive aircraft and passengers, including passenger lounge, private rooms and showers, business centre facilities, ground handling, baggage handling, fuelling, security, customs and flight planning. Designated spaces and hangarage are also provided at the BAC for private aircraft.

Intermodal transportation hub


In order to sustain the growth of passengers, the Airport Authority formulated a “push and pull through” strategy to expand its connections to new sources of passengers and cargo. This means adapting the network to the rapidly growing markets in China and in particular to the Pearl River Delta
Pearl River Delta
The Pearl River Delta , Zhujiang Delta or Zhusanjiao in Guangdong province, People's Republic of China is the low-lying area surrounding the Pearl River estuary where the Pearl River flows into the South China Sea...

 region (PRD). In 2003, two major events improved connections to the PRD. One was the opening of a new Airport-Mainland Coach Station. The coach station features a 230 m² waiting lounge and sheltered bays for ten coaches. The dedicated coach terminal provides a comfortable environment for passengers travelling between HKIA and different cities in the PRD. A huge number of buses are operating per day to transport passengers between HKIA and major cities in the Mainland.

The Coach Station was relocated to Terminal 2 in 2007. The 36 bays at the new Coach Station allow cross-border coaches to make 320 trips a day carrying passengers between the airport and 90 cities and towns in the PRD. Local tour and hotel coaches also operate from T2.

HKIA’s network to China is also expanded by the opening of SkyPier in late September 2003, offering millions in the PRD direct access to the airport. Passengers coming to SkyPier by high-speed ferries can board buses for onward flights while arriving air passengers can board ferries at the pier for their journeys back to the PRD. Passengers travelling both directions can bypass custom and immigration formalities, which reduces transit time. Four ports – Shekou
Shekou
Shekou is an area at the tip of Nantou Peninsula in Shenzhen, Guangdong, southern China, south of Nantou and facing Lau Fau Shan of Hong Kong across Deep Bay.It was formerly a customs station in Bao'an County and now belongs to Nanshan District of Shenzhen...

, Shenzhen
Shenzhen
Shenzhen is a major city in the south of Southern China's Guangdong Province, situated immediately north of Hong Kong. The area became China's first—and one of the most successful—Special Economic Zones...

, Macau and Humen
Humen Town
Humen Town , also known as Taiping, is a town within the borders of Dongguan city, on the eastern side of the Bocca Tigris on the east bank of the Pearl River Delta, in Guangdong province, southern China...

 (Dongguan
Dongguan
Dongguan is a prefecture-level city in central Guangdong province, People's Republic of China.An important industrial city located in the Pearl River Delta, Dongguan borders the provincial capital of Guangzhou to the north, Huizhou to the northeast, Shenzhen to the south, and the Pearl River to...

) – were initially served. As of August 2007, SkyPier serves Shenzhen's Shekou and Fuyong
Fuyong
Fuyong subdistrict is subdistrict on the eastern bank of the Pearl River in Bao'an District, Shenzhen, Guangdong, the People's Republic of China....

, Dongguan's Humen, Macau, Zhongshan
Zhongshan
Zhongshan , also spelled Chungshan and historically known as Xiangshan or Siangshan, is a prefecture-level city in the south of the Pearl River Delta in Guangdong province in southern China. Zhongshan, one of the few cities in China with an eponymous name, is named after Dr. Sun Yat-sen who was...

 and Zhuhai
Zhuhai
Zhuhai is a prefecture-level city on the southern coast of Guangdong province in the People's Republic of China. Located in the Pearl River Delta, Zhuhai borders Jiangmen to the northwest, Zhongshan to the north, and Macau to the south. Zhuhai was one of the original Special Economic Zones...

. Moreover, passengers travelling from Shekou and Macau piers can even complete airline check-in procedures with participating airlines before boarding the ferries and go straight to the boarding gate for the connecting flight at HKIA. The provision of cross boundary coach and ferry services has transformed HKIA into an inter-modal transportation hub combining air, sea and land transport.


Baggage and cargo facilities


Ramp handling services are provided by Hong Kong Airport Services Limited (HAS), Jardine Air Terminal Services Limited and SATS HK Limited. Their services include the handling of mail and passenger baggage, transportation of cargo, aerobridge operations and the operation of passenger stairways. The airport has an advanced baggage handling system (BHS), the main section of which is located in the basement level of the passenger terminal, and a separate remote transfer facility at the western end of the main concourse for handling of tight connection transfer bags.

HKIA currently handles well over three million tonnes of cargo annually. Hong Kong Air Cargo Terminals Limited
Hong Kong Air Cargo Terminals Limited
Hong Kong Air Cargo Terminals Limited is one of the leading air cargo terminal operator in the world. Located at the Hong Kong International Airport, it handles a total throughput of 2,899,603 tonnes of cargo per year which was about 80% air cargo processing capacity of the Hong Kong International...

 operates one of the two air cargo terminals at the airport. Its headquarters, the 328,000 m² SuperTerminal 1, is the world’s second largest stand-alone air cargo handling facility, after the opening of the West Cargo Handling Area of the Shanghai Pudong International Airport
Shanghai Pudong International Airport
Shanghai Pudong International Airport is the primary international airport serving Shanghai, China, and a major aviation hub in Asia. The other major airport in Shanghai, Hongqiao, mainly serves domestic flights...

 in 26 Mar 2008. The designed capacity is 2.6 million tonnes of freight a year. The second air cargo terminal is operated by Asia Airfreight Terminal Company Limited
Asia Airfreight Terminal
Asia Airfreight Terminal is an air cargo terminal based at the Hong Kong International Airport in Chek Lap Kok, New Territories, Hong Kong....

, and currently has a capacity of 1.5 million tonnes a year. DHL operates the DHL Central Asia Hub cargo facility handles 35,000 parcels and 40,000 packages per hour. Hongkong Post
Hongkong Post
Hongkong Post is a department under the Government of Hong Kong responsible for postal services, though operated as a Trading Fund. Founded in 1841, it was known as Postal Department or Post Office before the handover of Hong Kong in 1997...

 operates the Air Mail Centre (AMC) and processes 700,000 packages per day. It is envisaged that HKIA’s total air cargo capacity per annum will reach nine million tonnes ultimately.

Aircraft maintenance services


Both line and base maintenance services are undertaken by Hong Kong Aircraft Engineering Company
HAECO
The Hong Kong Aircraft Engineering Company Limited , better known as HAECO , is a major provider of aircraft maintenance, repair and overhaul services in Asia-Pacific. It has provided comprehensive aeronautical engineering services to airlines and operators since 1950...

 (HAECO), while China Aircraft Services Limited (CASL) and Pan Asia Pacific Aviation Services Limited carry out line maintenance. Line maintenance services include routine servicing of aircraft performed during normal turnaround periods and regularly scheduled layover periods. Base maintenance covers all airframe maintenance services and, for this, HAECO has a three-bay hangar, which can accommodate up to three Boeing B747-400 aircraft and two Airbus A320 aircraft, and an adjoining support workshop. HAECO also has the world's largest mobile hangar, weighing over 400 tons. It can be used to enclose half of a wide-body airplane, so that the whole facility can fully enclose four 747s when the mobile hangar is used. A new two-bay hangar that locates next to the current one will be in operation by the end of 2006.

On 29 May 2009, CASL opened its first aircraft maintenance hangar in the maintenance area of the airport. The new hangar occupies an area of about 10,000 square metres to accommodate one wide-body and one narrow-body aircraft at the same time, the hangar also has about 10,000 square metre area in its annexe building.

Airport based ground services



The Air Traffic Control Complex (ATCX), located at the centre of the airfield, is the nerve centre of the entire air traffic control system. Some 370 air traffic controllers and supporting staff work around the clock to provide air traffic control services for the safe and efficient flow of aircraft movements within the Hong Kong Flight Information Region (FIR). At the Air Traffic Control Tower, controllers provide 24-hour aerodrome control services to aircraft operating at the airport. A Backup Air Traffic Control Centre/Tower constructed to the north of the ATCX is available for operational use in the event normal services provided in the ATCX are disrupted by unforeseen circumstances. Apart from serving as an operational backup, the facilities are also used for air traffic control training.

The Airport Meteorological Office (AMO) of the Hong Kong Observatory
Hong Kong Observatory
Hong Kong Observatory is a department of the Hong Kong government. The Observatory forecasts weather and issues warnings on weather-related hazards...

 (HKO) provides weather services for the aviation community The AMO makes routine and special weather observations and provides fixed-time aerodrome forecasts and landing forecasts for the HKIA. It issues aerodrome warnings on adverse weather for protection of aerodrome facilities and aircraft on the ground. It also issues significant weather information on thunderstorms, tropical cyclone
Tropical cyclone
A tropical cyclone is a storm system characterized by a large low-pressure center and numerous thunderstorms that produce strong winds and heavy rain. Tropical cyclones strengthen when water evaporated from the ocean is released as the saturated air rises, resulting in condensation of water vapor...

s, turbulence
Turbulence
In fluid dynamics, turbulence or turbulent flow is a flow regime characterized by chaotic and stochastic property changes. This includes low momentum diffusion, high momentum convection, and rapid variation of pressure and velocity in space and time...

, icing and other hazardous weather which may affect aviation safety in the area within which Hong Kong is responsible for the provision of air traffic services. To enhance the safety of aircraft landing and taking off from HKIA, the AMO issues alerts of low-level windshear
WindShear
The Windshear Full Scale Rolling Road Wind Tunnel is an automotive wind tunnel in Concord, North Carolina.In January 2008 Wind Shear, a division of US machine tool builder Haas Automat-80.7ion, completed construction on one of the most advanced automotive wind tunnels in the world. The full-scale...

 and turbulence. Windshear detection is made using traditional doppler weather radars as well as the more effective doppler LIDAR, of which Hong Kong International Airport was the first to introduce. Doppler LIDAR systems use lasers to detect windshear and wind direction even when atmospheric conditions are too dry for Doppler radar to work.

Rescue and fire fighting services within the airport are covered by the Airport Fire Contingent of the Hong Kong Fire Services Department. The contingent has a strength of 282 uniformed members, operating two fire stations and two rescue berths for 24-hour emergency calls. It is equipped with 14 fire appliances which can respond to incidents within two minutes in optimum conditions of visibility and surface conditions, satisfying the relevant recommendation of the International Civil Aviation Organisation. Two high capacity rescue boats, supported by eight speed boats, form the core of sea rescue operations.

Ground transport


The Airport was built with ground-transportation considerations in mind connected by the North Lantau Highway
North Lantau Highway
North Lantau Highway is part of Route 8 of Hong Kong, linking Hong Kong International Airport and Lantau Island with the rest of the territory. It is an expressway with three lanes in each direction for its entire length with full width hard shoulders for emergencies and breakdowns...

 on Lantau Island
Lantau Island
Lantau Island , based on the old local name of Lantau Peak , is the largest island in Hong Kong, located at the mouth of the Pearl River. Administratively, most of Lantau Island is part of the Islands District of Hong Kong...

, providing a fast and scenic link to inner Hong Kong. Getting to and from Hong Kong International Airport is therefore easy, convenient and relatively inexpensive.

Terminal-to-terminal travel is also quick and simple. Operated by the Airport Authority and maintained by MTR Corporation
MTR Corporation
MTR Corporation Limited is a company listed on the Hong Kong Exchange and included in the Hang Seng Index. MTR owns and runs the Hong Kong MTR metro system, and is also a major property developer and landlord in Hong Kong...

, there is an automated people mover
Hong Kong International Airport Automated People Mover
Hong Kong International Airport Automated People Mover is a driverless people mover located within Hong Kong International Airport. It operates in two "segments" and depends on the direction of travel....

 connecting the East Hall to the West Hall and Terminal 2. Extension to SkyPier was also completed and opened to public in late 2009.

Bus


Citybus
Citybus (Hong Kong)
Citybus Limited is one of the three major bus operators in Hong Kong. It provides both franchised and non-franchised bus service. The franchised route network serves mainly Hong Kong Island, cross-harbour routes , Ocean Park, North Lantau and Hong Kong International Airport...

, New Lantao Bus
New Lantao Bus
The New Lantao Bus Company Limited – known as New Lantao Bus, or NLB – is a franchised bus company operating in Hong Kong.-History:...

, Long Win Bus
Long Win Bus
Long Win Bus Company Limited provides bus service to northern Lantau Island and the Hong Kong International Airport...

 and Discovery Bay Transit Services all together operate 25 bus routes to the airport from various parts of Hong Kong, available at the Airport Ground Transportation Centre and Cheong Tat Road. The bus companies also offer 10 overnight "N" services since the airport is open 24-hours a day.

Passengers can also take the S1 Citybus to the Tung Chung MTR Station. From there they can board the MTR Tung Chung line
Tung Chung Line (MTR)
The Tung Chung Line is one of the 10 lines of the MTR system in Hong Kong. It links Tung Chung with Hong Kong Island. A part of the Tung Chung Line was built along with the Kap Shui Mun Bridge and the Tsing Ma Bridge...

 which follows the same route as the MTR Airport Express
Airport Express (MTR)
The Airport Express is one of the lines of the Mass Transit Railway serving Hong Kong. It links the principal urban areas of Hong Kong to Hong Kong International Airport and the associated AsiaWorld-Expo exhibition and convention centre....

 to Central.

Coach services are available to major cities and towns in Guangdong Province
Guangdong
Guangdong is a province on the South China Sea coast of the People's Republic of China. The province was previously often written with the alternative English name Kwangtung Province...

, such as Dongguan
Dongguan
Dongguan is a prefecture-level city in central Guangdong province, People's Republic of China.An important industrial city located in the Pearl River Delta, Dongguan borders the provincial capital of Guangzhou to the north, Huizhou to the northeast, Shenzhen to the south, and the Pearl River to...

, Guangzhou
Guangzhou
Guangzhou , known historically as Canton or Kwangchow, is the capital and largest city of the Guangdong province in the People's Republic of China. Located in southern China on the Pearl River, about north-northwest of Hong Kong, Guangzhou is a key national transportation hub and trading port...

 and Shenzhen
Shenzhen
Shenzhen is a major city in the south of Southern China's Guangdong Province, situated immediately north of Hong Kong. The area became China's first—and one of the most successful—Special Economic Zones...

.

Ferry


Direct ferry services are available from the airport to various destinations throughout the Pearl River Delta
Pearl River Delta
The Pearl River Delta , Zhujiang Delta or Zhusanjiao in Guangdong province, People's Republic of China is the low-lying area surrounding the Pearl River estuary where the Pearl River flows into the South China Sea...

 via SkyPier
Skypier
Skypier is a cross-boundary ferry pier in Hong Kong International Airport, Chek Lap Kok, New Territories, Hong Kong. It is operated by Hong Kong International Airport Ferry Terminal Services Limited, a joint-venture company of Chu Kong Passenger Transport Co., Ltd and Shun Tak-China Travel Ship...

. Passengers using these services are treated as transit passengers and are not considered to have entered Hong Kong for immigration purposes. For this reason, access to the ferry terminal is before immigration in the airport for arriving passengers. Check-in services are available at these piers. Four ports – Shekou
Shekou
Shekou is an area at the tip of Nantou Peninsula in Shenzhen, Guangdong, southern China, south of Nantou and facing Lau Fau Shan of Hong Kong across Deep Bay.It was formerly a customs station in Bao'an County and now belongs to Nanshan District of Shenzhen...

, Shenzhen
Shenzhen
Shenzhen is a major city in the south of Southern China's Guangdong Province, situated immediately north of Hong Kong. The area became China's first—and one of the most successful—Special Economic Zones...

, Macau and Humen (Dongguan)
Humen Town
Humen Town , also known as Taiping, is a town within the borders of Dongguan city, on the eastern side of the Bocca Tigris on the east bank of the Pearl River Delta, in Guangdong province, southern China...

 – were initially served, extending to Guangzhou
Guangzhou
Guangzhou , known historically as Canton or Kwangchow, is the capital and largest city of the Guangdong province in the People's Republic of China. Located in southern China on the Pearl River, about north-northwest of Hong Kong, Guangzhou is a key national transportation hub and trading port...

 and Zhongshan
Zhongshan
Zhongshan , also spelled Chungshan and historically known as Xiangshan or Siangshan, is a prefecture-level city in the south of the Pearl River Delta in Guangdong province in southern China. Zhongshan, one of the few cities in China with an eponymous name, is named after Dr. Sun Yat-sen who was...

 at the end of 2003. The Zhuhai
Zhuhai
Zhuhai is a prefecture-level city on the southern coast of Guangdong province in the People's Republic of China. Located in the Pearl River Delta, Zhuhai borders Jiangmen to the northwest, Zhongshan to the north, and Macau to the south. Zhuhai was one of the original Special Economic Zones...

 service began on 10 July 2007 while a Nansha service started on 14 July 2009.

Rail




The airport can be reached by the Airport Express
Airport Express (MTR)
The Airport Express is one of the lines of the Mass Transit Railway serving Hong Kong. It links the principal urban areas of Hong Kong to Hong Kong International Airport and the associated AsiaWorld-Expo exhibition and convention centre....

, a dedicated rail link provided by the Mass Transit Railway
MTR
Mass Transit Railway is the rapid transit railway system in Hong Kong. Originally opened in 1979, the system now includes 211.6 km of rail with 155 stations, including 86 railway stations and 69 light rail stops...

. Serving Tsing Yi
Tsing Yi (MTR)
Tsing Yi is an interchange station on the Tung Chung Line of MTR and Airport Express on Tsing Yi Island in Hong Kong. On the Tung Chung Line, it is located between Sunny Bay Station and Lai King Station. On the Airport Express, it is between Airport Station and Kowloon Station. The livery of...

, Kowloon
Kowloon (MTR)
Kowloon is a station on the Tung Chung Line and the Airport Express of Hong Kong's MTR. Only about 10,000 passengers use this station daily due to its inconvenient location west of the heart of Kowloon, making it one of the least used stations in the MTR system.This station provides an in-town...

, and Hong Kong
Hong Kong (MTR)
Hong Kong Station is the eastern terminus of the Tung Chung Line and Airport Express of the Hong Kong MTR metro system, situated between Man Cheung Street and Harbour View Street, Central, Hong Kong Island, and sits underneath the International Finance Centre...

, it is the fastest mode of transport to the airport from the city, taking only 24 minutes to reach the airport from Hong Kong station. It offers free shuttle bus services to and from hotels and complimentary transfers to and from the MTR. In addition, both Hong Kong and Kowloon stations provide complimentary and exclusive in-town check-in services for major airlines.

The Airport Express line terminates at AsiaWorld-Expo
AsiaWorld-Expo
The AsiaWorld-Expo is one of the two major convention and exhibition facilities in Hong Kong along with Hong Kong Convention and Exhibition Centre. It was opened on 21 December 2005 by Donald Tsang, Chief Executive of Hong Kong, and it is operated by AsiaWorld-Expo Management Limited...

, located near the airport. This segment of the Airport Express
Airport Express (MTR)
The Airport Express is one of the lines of the Mass Transit Railway serving Hong Kong. It links the principal urban areas of Hong Kong to Hong Kong International Airport and the associated AsiaWorld-Expo exhibition and convention centre....

 started operations on 20 December 2005 to facilitate the opening of the expo.

Taxi


The airport is served by all three different types of taxi, distinguished by their colour: connect the Airport with Hong Kong Island
Hong Kong Island
Hong Kong Island is an island in the southern part of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region. It has a population of 1,289,500 and its population density is 16,390/km², as of 2008...

, Kowloon
Kowloon
Kowloon is an urban area in Hong Kong comprising the Kowloon Peninsula and New Kowloon. It is bordered by the Lei Yue Mun strait in the east, Mei Foo Sun Chuen and Stonecutter's Island in the west, Tate's Cairn and Lion Rock in the north, and Victoria Harbour in the south. It had a population of...

 and parts of the new towns of Tsuen Wan
Tsuen Wan
Tsuen Wan is a bay in the Kowloon area of Hong Kong, opposite to Tsing Yi Island across Rambler Channel. The market town of Tsuen Wan emerged for the surrounding villages and fleets of fishing boats in the area. The town is around the present-day Tsuen Wan Station of the MTR...

, Sha Tin
Sha Tin
Sha Tin, also spelled Shatin, is an area around the Shing Mun River in the New Territories of Hong Kong. Administratively, it is part of the Sha Tin District.-Geography:...

 and Tseung Kwan O
Tseung Kwan O
Tseung Kwan O is a bay in Sai Kung District, New Territories, Hong Kong. In the northern tip of the bay lies the Tseung Kwan O Village....

 (urban taxis can go anywhere in Hong Kong except southern Lantau Island
Lantau Island
Lantau Island , based on the old local name of Lantau Peak , is the largest island in Hong Kong, located at the mouth of the Pearl River. Administratively, most of Lantau Island is part of the Islands District of Hong Kong...

). connect the airport with the New Territories
New Territories
New Territories is one of the three main regions of Hong Kong, alongside Hong Kong Island and the Kowloon Peninsula. It makes up 86.2% of Hong Kong's territory. Historically, it is the region described in The Convention for the Extension of Hong Kong Territory...

, except those parts of the Tsuen Wan, Sha Tin and Tseung Kwan O served by urban taxis. connect the airport with the rest of Lantau Island.

Airport hotels


There are 3 hotels located in the nearby area, which are: Hong Kong Skycity Marriott Hotel (connect to AsiaWorld Expo), Novotel Hong Kong Citygate (Tung Chung) and Regal Airport Hotel.

Sister airports

Beijing
Beijing
Beijing , also known as Peking , is the capital of the People's Republic of China and one of the most populous cities in the world, with a population of 19,612,368 as of 2010. The city is the country's political, cultural, and educational center, and home to the headquarters for most of China's...

-Beijing Capital International Airport
Beijing Capital International Airport
Beijing Capital International Airport, is the main international airport serving Beijing, China. It is located northeast of Beijing's city center in an enclave of Chaoyang District that is surrounded by rural Shunyi District. The airport is owned and operated by the Beijing Capital...

 (2010) Chicago
Chicago
Chicago is the largest city in the US state of Illinois. With nearly 2.7 million residents, it is the most populous city in the Midwestern United States and the third most populous in the US, after New York City and Los Angeles...

-O'Hare International Airport
O'Hare International Airport
Chicago O'Hare International Airport , also known as O'Hare Airport, O'Hare Field, Chicago Airport, Chicago International Airport, or simply O'Hare, is a major airport located in the northwestern-most corner of Chicago, Illinois, United States, northwest of the Chicago Loop...

 (2011)

Accidents and incidents

  • On 22 August 1999, China Airlines Flight 642
    Mandarin Airlines Flight 642
    China Airlines Flight 642 was a flight that crashed at Hong Kong International Airport on 22 August 1999. It was operating from Bangkok to Taipei with a stopover in Hong Kong....

     (an MD-11
    McDonnell Douglas MD-11
    The McDonnell Douglas MD-11 is a three-engine medium- to long-range widebody jet airliner, manufactured by McDonnell Douglas and, later, by Boeing Commercial Airplanes. Based on the DC-10, it features a stretched fuselage, increased wingspan with winglets, refined airfoils on the wing and smaller...

     operated by subsidiary Mandarin Airlines
    Mandarin Airlines
    Mandarin Airlines, Limited is an airline based in Songshan District, Taipei, Taiwan. The Republic of China-based airline is China Airlines' regional and domestic subsidiary. It also operates charter services...

    ), which was landing in Typhoon Sam at Hong Kong International Airport en route from Bangkok International Airport (now Bangkok
    Bangkok
    Bangkok is the capital and largest urban area city in Thailand. It is known in Thai as Krung Thep Maha Nakhon or simply Krung Thep , meaning "city of angels." The full name of Bangkok is Krung Thep Mahanakhon Amon Rattanakosin Mahintharayutthaya Mahadilok Phop Noppharat Ratchathani Burirom...

     Don Mueang International Airport) to Hong Kong, rolled over and caught fire, coming to rest upside down beside the runway. Three people on board were killed.
  • On 31 July 2000, Todd Salimuchai
    Todd Salimuchai
    Todd Salimuchai is a self-described Thai or Burmese former opium poppy farmer, best known as the only man to ever attempt an aircraft hijacking at the Hong Kong International Airport.-Early life:...

    , a regularised illegal immigrant in Hong Kong with no provable nationality
    Statelessness
    Statelessness is a legal concept describing the lack of any nationality. It is the absence of a recognized link between an individual and any state....

    , forced his way through a security checkpoint using a fake pistol, took a woman hostage, and boarded a Cathay Pacific aircraft. He demanded to be flown to Burma, which he claimed was his native country but had refused to admit him due to his lack of documents. He surrendered to police two and a half hours later..

In media

  • Hong Kong International Airport was featured in the episode "Building Hong Kong's Airport" from Extreme Engineering
    Extreme Engineering
    Extreme Engineering is a documentary television series that airs on the Discovery Channel and the Science Channel. The program features futuristic and ongoing engineering projects. As of April 2011, the show is airing its ninth season. Danny Forster first hosted the series in season 4 and has been...

    .
  • Hong Kong International Airport was featured in the episode "Hong Kong Airport" from Richard Hammond's Engineering Connections
    Richard Hammond's Engineering Connections
    Richard Hammond's Engineering Connections is a documentary series originally broadcast on the National Geographic Channel, and later on BBC2. It is presented by Richard Hammond, and looks at how engineers and designers use historic inventions and clues from the natural world in ingenious ways to...

    . In the episode, Hammond
    Richard Hammond
    Richard Mark Hammond is an English broadcaster, writer, and journalist most noted for co-hosting car programme Top Gear with Jeremy Clarkson and James May, as well as presenting Brainiac: Science Abuse on Sky 1.-Early life:...

     mostly talks about how the airport is able to withstand typhoons, and how it was built.
  • Hong Kong was filmed along with Macau for Samantha Brown's Hong Kong & Macau for TLC and DVD.

Awards

  • AETRA Best Airport Worldwide (2005)
  • Air Cargo News Cargo Airport of the Year (2002–2003)
  • Air Cargo World Air Cargo Excellence (2007)
  • Air Transport Research Society Asia Pacific Airport Efficiency Excellence Award (2007)
  • Airports Council International
    Airports Council International
    Airports Council International is the association of the world’s airports. It is a non profit organization, whose prime purpose is to advance the interests of airports and to promote professional excellence in airport management and operations...

     World's Best Airport (2007–2008)
  • Asiaweek
    Asiaweek
    Asiaweek, the English edition, was a news magazine focusing on Asia, published weekly by Asiaweek Limited, a subsidiary of Time Inc. Based in Hong Kong, it was established in 1975, and ceased publication with its December 7, 2001 issue due to a "downturn in the advertising market," according to...

     Asia's Best Airport (2000)
  • British Constructional Steelwork Association
    British Constructional Steelwork Association
    The British Constructional Steelwork Association is a trade association for the constructional steelwork industry in the UK.-History:Britain built the world's first iron bridge in around 1780...

    , the Steel Construction Institute and British Steel
    British Steel
    British Steel was a major British steel producer. It originated as a nationalised industry, the British Steel Corporation , formed in 1967. This was converted to a public limited company, British Steel PLC, and privatised in 1988. It was once a constituent of the FTSE 100 Index...

     Structural Steel Design Award (1999)
  • Business Traveller
    Business Traveller
    Business Traveller is a CNN International monthly television program hosted by Richard Quest.-External links:*...

     Best Airport in China (2006–2007)
  • Centre for Asia Pacific Aviation CAPA International Airport of the Year (2007)
  • Conde Nast Traveller
    Condé Nast Traveller
    Condé Nast Traveller is published by Condé Nast Publications Ltd, from Vogue House in Hanover Square, Mayfair, London. It is a luxury travel magazine aimed at the upmarket, independent traveller....

     World's Best Airport (2007)
  • Construction Industry Manufacturers Association CONEXPO-CON/AGG '99 Top 10 Construction Achievements of the 20th Century – Airport Core Programme (1999)
  • Federation of Asia Pacific Aircargo Associations Most Friendly Airport for Cargo (2005)
  • Hong Kong Institute of Architects
    Hong Kong Institute of Architects
    Hong Kong Institute of Architects is a professional body for architects in Hong Kong with approximately 1500 full members ,300 associates members and graduate members...

     Silver Medal for Architecture (1999)
  • Hong Kong Institute of Certified Public Accountants
    Hong Kong Institute of Certified Public Accountants
    The Hong Kong Institute of Certified Public Accountants is the professional accounting body of Hong Kong.Its main responsibilities are:*Registration and regulation of profession accountants in Hong Kong....

     Diamond – Best Corporate Governance Disclosure Awards (2004)
  • International Air Transport Association
    International Air Transport Association
    The International Air Transport Association is an international industry trade group of airlines headquartered in Montreal, Quebec, Canada, where the International Civil Aviation Organization is also headquartered. The executive offices are at the Geneva Airport in SwitzerlandIATA's mission is to...

     (IATA) Eagle Award (2002)
  • Raven Fox Award for Travel-Retail Excellence in Asia / Pacific (1999–2000)
  • Skytrax
    Skytrax
    Skytrax is a United Kingdom-based consultancy, the public face of Inflight Research Services, which has the largest airline and airport review and ranking site. It conducts research for commercial airlines...

     World's Best Airport (2001–2005, 2007–2008, 2011)
  • SmartTravelAsia.com Best Airport Worldwide (2006–2007)
  • TravelWeekly Best International Airport (2007)
  • TravelWeeklyChina Best Airport Facilities (2006)
  • TTG Best Airport (2002, 2004–2008; Survey was not held in 2003 owing to SARS)
  • WTA World Travel Awards Asia/ Pacific's Leading Airport (2000)

See also


  • Airport Authority Hong Kong
    Airport Authority Hong Kong
    The Airport Authority Hong Kong is the statutory body of the government of Hong Kong that is responsible for the operations of the Hong Kong International Airport.-History:...

  • Airport Security Unit
    Airport Security Unit (Hong Kong)
    The Airport Security Unit formed in 1977, is a special force of the Hong Kong Police Force tasked with the security of the Hong Kong International Airport....

  • Government Flying Service (Hong Kong)
    Government Flying Service (Hong Kong)
    The Government Flying Service is a disciplined unit of the Government of Hong Kong. It was established on 1 April 1993, when Hong Kong was under British rule. It then took over all the non-military operations of the Royal Hong Kong Auxiliary Air Force , which was an auxiliary unit of the United...

     – a search and rescue service that operates from HKIA
  • Kai Tak Airport – former Hong Kong International Airport (closed in 1998)
  • List of buildings, sites, and areas in Hong Kong
  • Megaproject
    Megaproject
    A megaproject is an extremely large-scale investment project. Megaprojects are typically defined as costing more than US$1 billion and attracting a lot of public attention because of substantial impacts on communities, environment, and budgets. Megaprojects can also be defined as "initiatives that...

  • Shek Kong Airfield
    Shek Kong Airfield
    The Shek Kong Airfield , ICAO:VHSK), formerly RAF Sek Kong/Sek Kong Airfield, is an airbase located in Shek Kong of Hong Kong Special Administrative Region of the People's Republic of China ....

     – a military airport in Hong Kong
  • Transport in Hong Kong
    Transport in Hong Kong
    Hong Kong has a highly developed and sophisticated transport network, encompassing both public and private transport. Over 90% of the daily journeys are on public transport, making it the highest rate in the world....

  • World's busiest airports by cargo traffic
    World's busiest airports by cargo traffic
    The world's thirty busiest airports by cargo traffic for various periods . Numbers listed refer to loaded and unloaded freight in metric tonnes.-2010 final statistics:...

  • World's busiest airports by passenger traffic
    World's busiest airports by passenger traffic
    The world's busiest airports by passenger traffic are measured by number of total passengers . One passenger is described as someone who arrives in, departs from, or transfers through the airport on a given day...


External links