Hohe Straße

Hohe Straße

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Hohe Straße is a shopping street in the old town of Cologne
Cologne
Cologne is Germany's fourth-largest city , and is the largest city both in the Germany Federal State of North Rhine-Westphalia and within the Rhine-Ruhr Metropolitan Area, one of the major European metropolitan areas with more than ten million inhabitants.Cologne is located on both sides of the...

, Germany
Germany
Germany , officially the Federal Republic of Germany , is a federal parliamentary republic in Europe. The country consists of 16 states while the capital and largest city is Berlin. Germany covers an area of 357,021 km2 and has a largely temperate seasonal climate...

, and one of the city's both oldest and busiest streets. Together with many of its adjacent side streets, Hohe Straße is part of a designated pedestrian zone and spans about 680 meters from Cologne Cathedral
Cologne Cathedral
Cologne Cathedral is a Roman Catholic church in Cologne, Germany. It is the seat of the Archbishop of Cologne and the administration of the Archdiocese of Cologne. It is renowned monument of German Catholicism and Gothic architecture and is a World Heritage Site...

 on its Northern end to Schildergasse
Schildergasse
The Schildergasse is a shopping street in central Cologne, Germany, and with 13,000 people passing through every hour, it is the busiest shopping street in Europe...

 on its Southern end.

History



The street dates back to Roman times, when it was the city's Cardo Maximus, running parallel to the River Rhine. It was lined with stores, smithies, offices and various shops and vendors. At its centre lay the former forum
Forum (Roman)
A forum was a public square in a Roman municipium, or any civitas, reserved primarily for the vending of goods; i.e., a marketplace, along with the buildings used for shops and the stoas used for open stalls...

 and important buildings, like temples and the Praetorium
Praetorium
- Etemology :The praetorium, also spelled prœtorium or pretorium, was originally used to identify the general’s tent within a Roman Castra, Castellum, or encampment. The word originates from the name of the chief Roman magistrate, known as Praetor...

. Two Roman legions had barracks, hospitals, canteens and thermae along its course. At this time, it spanned the entire city of Colonia Claudia Ara Agrippinensium
Colonia Claudia Ara Agrippinensium
Colonia Claudia Ara Agrippinensium was the name of the Roman colony in the Rhineland out of which the German city of Cologne developed.It was the capital of the Roman province of Germania Inferior and the headquarters of the military in the region. With the administrative reforms under Diocletian,...

, from the Northern Gate, located near today's cathedral, to the Southern Gate, located near today's St. Maria im Kapitol
St. Maria im Kapitol
St. Maria im Kapitol is an 11th century Romanesque church located in the Kapitol-Viertel in the old town of Cologne, Germany. The Roman Catholic church is based on the Church of the Nativity in Bethlehem, was dedicated to St. Mary and built between 1040 and 1065...

 - then site of a Roman temple in honor of the Capitoline Triad
Capitoline Triad
In ancient Roman religion, the Capitoline Triad was a group of three supreme deities who were worshipped in an elaborate temple on Rome's Capitoline Hill, the Capitolium. Two distinct Capitoline Triads were worshipped at various times in Rome's history, both originating in ancient traditions...

.

Over the centuries, the street kept its central functions, but changed names numerous times and developed several distinct stretches. During the Early Middle Ages it was first called "strata lapidea" or "Steinweg", (meaning Stone Street), given that for a long time it remained an example of a Roman road
Roman road
The Roman roads were a vital part of the development of the Roman state, from about 500 BC through the expansion during the Roman Republic and the Roman Empire. Roman roads enabled the Romans to move armies and trade goods and to communicate. The Roman road system spanned more than 400,000 km...

. Later it had different names for various of its sections.

Already during late Antiquity, the quarter next to the Preatorium developed into Cologne's Jewish quarter
Jewish quarter (diaspora)
In the Jewish Diaspora, a Jewish quarter is the area of a city traditionally inhabited by Jews. Jewish quarters, like the Jewish ghettos in Europe, were often the outgrowths of segregated ghettos instituted by the surrounding Christian authorities. A Yiddish term for a Jewish quarter or...

. A document from the year 341 testified imperial privileges for an early synagoge. Building and site of the old Praetorium itself were later used by both Frankish
Franks
The Franks were a confederation of Germanic tribes first attested in the third century AD as living north and east of the Lower Rhine River. From the third to fifth centuries some Franks raided Roman territory while other Franks joined the Roman troops in Gaul. Only the Salian Franks formed a...

 Kings and - latest since the 1130s - the city's council. Still on this site today, the oldest parts of Cologne City Hall
Cologne City Hall
The City Hall is a historical building in Cologne, western Germany, located off Hohe Straße in the district of Innenstadt, set between the two squares of Rathausplatz and Alter Markt. It houses part of the city government, including the city council and offices of the Lord Mayor. It is...

 date back to the 1330s. Hohe Straße's section North of the city hall became center of the newly established University of Cologne
University of Cologne
The University of Cologne is one of the oldest universities in Europe and, with over 44,000 students, one of the largest universities in Germany. The university is part of the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft, an association of Germany's leading research universities...

 in the year 1388.

During Cologne's incorporation into the First French Empire
First French Empire
The First French Empire , also known as the Greater French Empire or Napoleonic Empire, was the empire of Napoleon I of France...

 (1795–1814), Ferdinand Franz Wallraf created a survey of all streets in Cologne and their respective given names. The "Hohe Straße" (meaning High Street), as it was called at this time, derived its name from the "Hohe Pforte" (meaning High Porte) on the very Southern end of the street.

During the 19th century, Hohe Straße grew to become the busy shopping street it still is today. Shops and customers on Hohe Straße range all types and ages. Among today's landmarks on Hohe Straße are shopping passage of Cologne chocolatier Stollwerck
Stollwerck
Stollwerck GmbH is a German food company known for the production of chocolate. In 1998 it acquired Sarotti.In 2002 it was bought by the Barry Callebaut AG, who sold it in 2011 to the Baronie Groep in Veurne, Belgium.- History :...

 and flagship store Leonhard Tietz of Galeria Kaufhof.

Places of interest nearby

  • Cologne Cathedral
    Cologne Cathedral
    Cologne Cathedral is a Roman Catholic church in Cologne, Germany. It is the seat of the Archbishop of Cologne and the administration of the Archdiocese of Cologne. It is renowned monument of German Catholicism and Gothic architecture and is a World Heritage Site...

  • Cologne City Hall
    Cologne City Hall
    The City Hall is a historical building in Cologne, western Germany, located off Hohe Straße in the district of Innenstadt, set between the two squares of Rathausplatz and Alter Markt. It houses part of the city government, including the city council and offices of the Lord Mayor. It is...

  • Cologne Archaeological Zone
  • Museum für Angewandte Kunst
    Museum für Angewandte Kunst (Cologne)
    The Museum für Angewandte Kunst Köln is a decorative arts museum in Cologne, Germany. The collections include jewellery, porcelain, furniture, weaponry and architectural exhibits...

  • Fragrance Museum
    Fragrance museum
    The Farina Fragrance Museum is situated across from Cologne City Hall, and near the famous Wallraf-Richartz-Museum in the Obenmarspforten in Innenstadt, Cologne...

  • Kolumba Museum
  • Wallraf-Richartz Museum
    Wallraf-Richartz Museum
    The Wallraf-Richartz-Museum is one of the three major museums in Cologne, Germany. It houses an art gallery with a collection of fine art from the medieval period to the early twentieth century...

  • St. Maria im Kapitol
    St. Maria im Kapitol
    St. Maria im Kapitol is an 11th century Romanesque church located in the Kapitol-Viertel in the old town of Cologne, Germany. The Roman Catholic church is based on the Church of the Nativity in Bethlehem, was dedicated to St. Mary and built between 1040 and 1065...


See also

  • List of streets in Cologne
  • History of Cologne
    History of Cologne
    The History of Cologne, Germany's oldest major city, can be broken into several periods.- Roman period :In 39 BC, the tribe of the Ubii entered into an agreement with the Roman forces and settled on the left bank of the Rhine. Their headquarters was Oppidum Ubiorum — the settlement of the Ubii, and...

  • History of the Jews in Cologne
    History of the Jews in Cologne
    The history of the Jews in Cologne is documented from the year 321 AD, almost as long as the history of Cologne. Because of this historical continuity, today’s Jewish synagogue community calls itself the "oldest Jewish congregation North of the Alps"....


External links