Historic states represented in Turkish presidential seal

Historic states represented in Turkish presidential seal

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16 Great Turkish Empires is a historical discourse that was created in 1969 to explain the meaning of 16 stars of the presidential seal of Turkey
Presidential Seal of Turkey
The Presidential Seal of Turkey is the official seal of the President of Turkey.It has a large 16-pointed star in the center, which is surrounded by 16 five-pointed stars, symbolizing "16 "historic Turkish states" claimed by the Republic of Turkey.The roots of the Presidential Seal and...

. And it was inaugurated in 1985 with the presidential seal today. Each star symbolizes a "historic Turkish state" claimed by the Republic of Turkey.

The list

The names of 16 "Great Turkish Empires" are listed below.
Turkish name English translation Founder In ancient states the name of the founder is not always evident. The name of the earliest monarch cited in Wikipedia is shown. Article DatesDates are as shown in the original document
Büyük Hun İmparatorluğu Great Hunnic Empire Touman Xiongnu 204 BC-216
Batı Hun İmparatorluğu Western Hunnic Empire Panu (first shanyu of Northern Xiongnu) 48-216 (Southern Xiongnu)
Avrupa Hun İmparatorluğu European Hunnic Empire Balamber
Balamber is only mentioned by Jordanes, who simply called him "king of the Huns" and who tells us the story of Balamber crushing the kingdom of Ostrogoths in around 375. Balamber may have been a member of a royal house, but more probably he was - if he ever existed - just a warrior chieftain,...

Hunnic Empire
Hunnic Empire
The Hunnic Empire was an empire established by the Huns. The Huns were a confederation of Eurasian tribes from the steppes of Central Asia. Appearing from beyond the Volga River some years after the middle of the 4th century, they first overran the Alani, who occupied the plains between the Volga...

Akhun İmparatorluğu White Hunnic Empire Hephthalite
The Hephthalites or Hephthalite is a pre-Islamic Greek term for local Abdali Afghans, who's famous ruler was Nazak Abdali . Hephthalites were a Central Asian nomadic confederation of the AD 5th-6th centuries whose precise origins and composition remain obscure...

Göktürk İmparatorluğu Göktürk Empire Bumin Khan
Bumin Khan
Bumin Qaghan or Illig Qaghan was the founder of the Turkic Khaganate...

Turkic Khaganate 552-745
Avar İmparatorluğu Avar Empire Bayan I Avar Khaganate 565-835
Hazar İmparatorluğu Khazar Empire Ziebel (probably Tong Khagan of Göktürks) Khazar Khaganate 651-983
Uygur Devleti Uighur State Kutluk Bilge Köl Uyghur Khaganate 745-1369 Actually the khaganate 745-840, but Turpan Uyghurs survived till 1369
Karahanlılar Karahanids Kara-Khanid Khanate
Kara-Khanid Khanate
The Kara-Khanid Khanate was a confederation of Turkic tribes ruled by a dynasty known in literature as the Karakhanids or Ilek Khanids, . Both dynastic names represent titles with Kara Kağan being the most important Turkish title up till the end of the dynasty.The Khanate ruled Transoxania in...

Gazneliler Gaznavids Alp Tekin Ghaznavids 962-1183
Büyük Selçuklu İmparatorluğu Great Seljukid Empire Selçuk Bey
Seljuk was the eponymous hero of the Seljuq Turks. He was the son of a certain Duqaq surnamed Timuryaligh and either the chief or an eminent member from the Kınık tribe of the Oghuz Turks...

Great Seljuq Empire
Great Seljuq Empire
The Great Seljuq Empire was a medieval Persianate, Turko-Persian Sunni Muslim empire, originating from the Qynyq branch of Oghuz Turks. The Seljuq Empire controlled a vast area stretching from the Hindu Kush to eastern Anatolia and from Central Asia to the Persian Gulf...

Harzemşahlar Harzemshahs Muhammad I of Khwarazm
Muhammad I of Khwarazm
Qutb al-Din Muhammad was Khwarazm Shah from 1097 until his death. He was the son of Anush Tigin.In around 1097 Qutb al-Din Muhammad was appointed governor of Khwarazm by the Seljuk sultan Barkiyaruq's military commander, Habashi ibn Altun-Taq...

Khwārazm-Shāh dynasty 1097–1231
Altınordu Devleti Golden Horde State Batu Khan
Batu Khan
Batu Khan was a Mongol ruler and founder of the Ulus of Jochi , the sub-khanate of the Mongol Empire. Batu was a son of Jochi and grandson of Genghis Khan. His ulus was the chief state of the Golden Horde , which ruled Rus and the Caucasus for around 250 years, after also destroying the armies...

Golden Horde
Golden Horde
The Golden Horde was a Mongol and later Turkicized khanate that formed the north-western sector of the Mongol Empire...

Büyük Timur İmparatorluğu Great Timur Empire Timur
Timur , historically known as Tamerlane in English , was a 14th-century conqueror of West, South and Central Asia, and the founder of the Timurid dynasty in Central Asia, and great-great-grandfather of Babur, the founder of the Mughal Dynasty, which survived as the Mughal Empire in India until...

Timurid Empire 1368–1501
Babür İmparatorluğu Babür Empire Babur
Babur was a Muslim conqueror from Central Asia who, following a series of setbacks, finally succeeded in laying the basis for the Mughal dynasty of South Asia. He was a direct descendant of Timur through his father, and a descendant also of Genghis Khan through his mother...

Mughal Empire
Mughal Empire
The Mughal Empire ,‎ or Mogul Empire in traditional English usage, was an imperial power from the Indian Subcontinent. The Mughal emperors were descendants of the Timurids...

Osmanlı İmparatorluğu Ottoman Empire Osman I
Osman I
Osman I or Othman I or El-Gazi Sultan Osman Ghazi, or Osman Bey or I. Osman, Osman Gazi Han), nicknamed "Kara" for his courage, was the leader of the Ottoman Turks, and the founder of the dynasty that established and ruled the Ottoman Empire...

Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
The Ottoman EmpireIt was usually referred to as the "Ottoman Empire", the "Turkish Empire", the "Ottoman Caliphate" or more commonly "Turkey" by its contemporaries...



It needs further linguistic evidence to list the first four and the sixth (Avar) as Turkic states. It is also questionable to list Ghaznavids and the Mughal Empire as Turkic states. Because, although founded by Turks, they were quickly assimilated in the local population.

See also

  • List of Turkic dynasties and countries
  • History of the Turkic peoples
    History of the Turkic peoples
    The Turkic people are an ethnic group, in the sense of sharing a common Turkish culture, descent, and speaking the languages of the Turkish language family as a mother tongue. Within suzerain Turkish states, Turkish people are defined by citizenship , distinguished from people of Turkish ancestry...

  • Timeline of the Turks (500–1300)

External links