Hindgut

Hindgut

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The hindgut is the posterior (caudal) part of the alimentary canal. In mammals, it includes the distal third of the transverse colon
Transverse colon
The transverse colon, the longest and most movable part of the colon, passes with a downward convexity from the right hypochondrium region across the abdomen, opposite the confines of the epigastric and umbilical zones, into the left hypochondrium region, where it curves sharply on itself beneath...

 and the splenic flexure
Splenic flexure
The splenic flexure is a sharp bend between the transverse and the descending colon in the left upper quadrant of humans. The left colic flexure is near the spleen, and hence called the splenic flexure. There are two colic flexures in the transverse colon — the other being the hepatic...

, the descending colon
Descending colon
The descending colon of humans passes downward through the left hypochondrium and lumbar regions, along the lateral border of the left kidney....

, sigmoid colon
Sigmoid colon
The sigmoid colon is the part of the large intestine that is closest to the rectum and anus. It forms a loop that averages about 40 cm...

 and rectum
Rectum
The rectum is the final straight portion of the large intestine in some mammals, and the gut in others, terminating in the anus. The human rectum is about 12 cm long...

.

Blood flow


Arterial supply is by the Inferior mesenteric artery
Inferior mesenteric artery
In human anatomy, the inferior mesenteric artery, often abbreviated as IMA, supplies the large intestine from the left colic flexure to the upper part of the rectum, which includes the descending colon, the sigmoid colon, and part of the rectum...

, and venous drainage is to the portal venous system
Portal venous system
In human anatomy, the hepatic portal system is the system of veins comprising the hepatic portal vein and its tributaries. It is also called the portal venous system, although it is not the only example of a portal venous system, and splanchnic veins, which is not synonymous with hepatic portal...

. Lymphatic drainage is to the chyle cistern.

Autonomic innervation


The hindgut is innervated via the inferior mesenteric plexus
Inferior mesenteric plexus
The inferior mesenteric plexus is derived chiefly from the aortic plexus.It surrounds the inferior mesenteric artery, and divides into a number of secondary plexuses, which are distributed to all the parts supplied by the artery, viz., the left colic and sigmoid plexuses, which supply the...

. Sympathetic innervation is from the Lumbar splanchnic nerves
Lumbar splanchnic nerves
The lumbar splanchnic nerves are splanchnic nerves that arise from the lumbar part of the sympathetic trunk and travel to an adjacent plexus near the aorta...

(L1-L2), parasympathetic innervation is from S2-S4.