Higher education in Iran

Higher education in Iran

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Iran
Iran
Iran , officially the Islamic Republic of Iran , is a country in Southern and Western Asia. The name "Iran" has been in use natively since the Sassanian era and came into use internationally in 1935, before which the country was known to the Western world as Persia...

 has a large network of private
Private university
Private universities are universities not operated by governments, although many receive public subsidies, especially in the form of tax breaks and public student loans and grants. Depending on their location, private universities may be subject to government regulation. Private universities are...

, public
Public university
A public university is a university that is predominantly funded by public means through a national or subnational government, as opposed to private universities. A national university may or may not be considered a public university, depending on regions...

, and state affiliated universities offering degrees in higher education. State-run universities of Iran are under the direct supervision of Iran's Ministry of Science, Research and Technology (for non-medical universities) and Ministry of Health and Medical Education
Ministry of Health and Medical Education
The Ministry of Health and Medical Education has executive responsibility for health and medical education within the Iranian government.Iran's health system is highly centralized, and almost all decisions regarding general...

 (for medical schools).

Pre-Islamic era



The existence of pre-Islamic era universities such as the School of Nisibis
School of Nisibis
The School of Nisibis , for a time absorbed into the School of Edessa, was an educational establishment in Nisibis, modern-day Turkey. It was an important spiritual center of the early Syriac Orthodox Church, and like Gundeshapur, is sometimes referred to as the world's first university. The...

, Sarouyeh
Sarouyeh
Sarouyeh was a large library in ancient pre-Islamic Iran. The 10th century chronicler Ahmad ibn Rustah refers to it as "Sarough" . The Fars Nameh of Ibn Balkhi calls it Haft Halkeh ....

, Reishahr
Reishahr
Reishahr was a city in Fars province in ancient Sassanid Persia.Located in the Arjan region, the city was also called Riu-Ardashir ....

, and The Academy of Gundishapur
Academy of Gundishapur
The Academy of Gondishapur , also Jondishapur , was a renowned academy of learning in the city of Gundeshapur during late antiquity, the intellectual center of the Sassanid empire. It offered training in medicine, philosophy, theology and science. The faculty were versed in the Zoroastrian and...

 provide examples of precedence of academic institutions of science that date back to ancient times.

Islamic era


The traditions and heritage of these centers of higher learning were later carried on to renowned schools such as Iran's Nizamiyya, and Baghdad's House of Wisdom
House of Wisdom
The House of Wisdom was a library and translation institute established in Abbassid-era Baghdad, Iraq. It was a key institution in the Translation Movement and considered to have been a major intellectual centre during the Islamic Golden Age...

, during the Islamic era.

Modern


It was Abbas Mirza
Abbas Mirza
Prince, Field-Marshal Abbas Mirza born Amol city , was a Qajar crown prince of Persia. He developed a reputation as a military commander during wars with Russia and the Ottoman Empire, as an early modernizer of Persia's armed forces and institutions, and for his death before his father, Fath Ali...

 who first dispatched Iranian students to Europe for a western education.

The history of the establishment of western style academic universities in Iran (Persia) dates back to 1851 with the establishment of Darolfonoon – which was founded as a result of the efforts of the royal vizier Mirza Taghi Khan Amir Kabir
Amir Kabir
Amir Kabir , also known as Mirza Taghi Khan Amir-Nezam , also known by the titles of Atabak and Amir-e Nezam; chief minister to Naser al-Din Shah Qajar for the first three years of his reign and one of the most capable and innovative figures to appear in the whole Qajar period...

, aimed at training and teaching Iranian experts in many fields of science and technology.

In 1855 "The Ministry of Science" was first established, and Ali Gholi Mirza I'tizad al-saltaneh (علیقلی میرزا اعتضاد السلطنه) was appointed Iran's first Minister of Science by Nasereddin Shah.

By the 1890s Darolfonoon was competing with other prominent institutions of modern learning. The Military College of Tehran (Madraseh-ye Nezam), established in 1885 with a budget of 10,000-12,000 tomans, was its first rival; and in 1899 the College of political sciences (Madraseh-ye olum-e siyasi)
Tehran School of Political Sciences
The Tehran School of Political Science , was one of the first modern institutions of higher education in Iran at the turn of the twentieth century. Most of the nation's political elite graduated from the school.-History:...

 was organized within the Foreign ministry.

The Ministry of Higher Education, which oversees the operation of all institutes of higher education in Iran, was established in 1967. However, it was back in 1928 that Iran's first university, as we know it today, was proposed by an Iranian physicist, Mahmoud Hessaby
Mahmoud Hessaby
Sayyed Mahmoud Hessaby was a prominent Iranian scientist, researcher and distinguished professor of University of Tehran...

. The University of Tehran (or Tehran University) was designed by French architect Andre Godard
André Godard
André Godard was a French born archeologist, architect and art historian.Godard was born in Chaumont. A graduate of the École des Beaux-Arts of Paris, he designed the National Museum of Iran and was appointed its first director in 1936. He was also instrumental in the design of Tehran University...

, and built in 1934. Today, Tehran University
University of Tehran
The University of Tehran , also known as Tehran University and UT, is Iran's oldest university. Located in Tehran, the university is among the most prestigious in the country, and is consistently selected as the first choice of many applicants in the annual nationwide entrance exam for top Iranian...

 is Iran's largest university with over 32,000 students.

In the medical field, it was Joseph Cochran
Joseph Cochran
Joseph Plumb Cochran, M.D. , was an American Presbyterian missionary. He is credited as the founding father of Iran’s first modern Medical School....

 who first founded a professional school in Iran in 1878, and who is often credited for founding Iran’s "first contemporary medical college", as well as founding one of Iran's first modern hospitals ("Westminster Hospital") in Urmia
Urmia
- Demographics :According to official census of 2006, the population of Urmia is about 871,204.- Language :The population of Urmia is mainly Azerbaijani people, with Kurdish, Assyrian Christian, and Armenian minorities...

. The medical faculty Cochran established at Urmia University
Urmia University
Urmia University , is a major university in the city of Urmia the Capital of West Azarbaijan province of Iran....

 was joined by several other Americans, namely Drs. Wright, Homlz, van Nourdon, and Miller. They were all buried in Urmia
Urmia
- Demographics :According to official census of 2006, the population of Urmia is about 871,204.- Language :The population of Urmia is mainly Azerbaijani people, with Kurdish, Assyrian Christian, and Armenian minorities...

 as their resting place after serving the area for many years.

In Tehran, Samuel M. Jordan
Samuel M. Jordan
Dr. Samuel Martin Jordan was an American presbyterian missionary in Persia .He is sometimes referred to as the "father of modern education in Iran," though Amir Kabir is generally thought to be more deserving of this title, and indeed within Iran, the title refers to Amir Kabir.After graduating...

, whom "Jordan Ave." in Tehran
Tehran
Tehran , sometimes spelled Teheran, is the capital of Iran and Tehran Province. With an estimated population of 8,429,807; it is also Iran's largest urban area and city, one of the largest cities in Western Asia, and is the world's 19th largest city.In the 20th century, Tehran was subject to...

 is named after, also was directly responsible for the expansion of the American College in Tehran
Alborz High School
Alborz High School , is a college preparatory high school located in the heart of Tehran, Iran. It is named after the Alborz mountain range north of Tehran.- History :...

. The school received a permanent charter from the Board of Regents of the State University of New York
State University of New York
The State University of New York, abbreviated SUNY , is a system of public institutions of higher education in New York, United States. It is the largest comprehensive system of universities, colleges, and community colleges in the United States, with a total enrollment of 465,000 students, plus...

 in 1932.

By the end of the first Pahlavi period, University of Tehran was still the only modern university in the country. Hence, the Ministry of Science commenced the establishment of other universities in Isfahan, Tabriz
Tabriz
Tabriz is the fourth largest city and one of the historical capitals of Iran and the capital of East Azerbaijan Province. Situated at an altitude of 1,350 meters at the junction of the Quri River and Aji River, it was the second largest city in Iran until the late 1960s, one of its former...

, Ahvaz
Ahvaz
-History:For a more comprehensive historical treatment of the area, see the history section of Khūzestān Province.-Ancient history:Ahvaz is the anagram of "Avaz" and "Avaja" which appear in Darius's epigraph...

, and Shiraz
Shiraz
Shiraz may refer to:* Shiraz, Iran, a city in Iran* Shiraz County, an administrative subdivision of Iran* Vosketap, Armenia, formerly called ShirazPeople:* Hovhannes Shiraz, Armenian poet* Ara Shiraz, Armenian sculptor...

, with special emphasis given to the medical and veterinary sciences. Dr. Charles Oberling was highly instrumental in this regard.

The Shah
Mohammad Reza Pahlavi
Mohammad Rezā Shāh Pahlavi, Shah of Iran, Shah of Persia , ruled Iran from 16 September 1941 until his overthrow by the Iranian Revolution on 11 February 1979...

 soon initiated projects to build Iranian universities modeled after American schools. Thus Pahlavi University (Shiraz University
Shiraz University
Shiraz University , formerly known as Pahlavi University, is a public university located in Shiraz, Iran. It is one of the major universities of Iran....

 today), Sharif University of Technology
Sharif University of Technology
Sharif University of Technology is a university of higher education in technology, engineering and physical sciences in Tehran. Sharif University of Technology is one of the most prestigious universities in the country, and is considered Iran's MIT...

, and Isfahan University of Technology
Isfahan University of Technology
Isfahan University of Technology is one of the most prestigious engineering universities in Iran. It is located 15 Kilometers north west of Isfahan and is one of the major universities and research poles in Iran in the fields of science, engineering and agriculture...

, three of Iran's top academic universities were all directly modeled on American institutions such as the University of Illinois at Chicago
University of Illinois at Chicago
The University of Illinois at Chicago, or UIC, is a state-funded public research university located in Chicago, Illinois, United States. Its campus is in the Near West Side community area, near the Chicago Loop...

, MIT, and the University of Pennsylvania
University of Pennsylvania
The University of Pennsylvania is a private, Ivy League university located in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, United States. Penn is the fourth-oldest institution of higher education in the United States,Penn is the fourth-oldest using the founding dates claimed by each institution...

. The Shah in return was generous in awarding American universities with financial gifts. For example, the University of Southern California
University of Southern California
The University of Southern California is a private, not-for-profit, nonsectarian, research university located in Los Angeles, California, United States. USC was founded in 1880, making it California's oldest private research university...

 received a gift from the Shah in the form of an endowed chair of petroleum engineering
Petroleum engineering
Petroleum engineering is an engineering discipline concerned with the activities related to the production of hydrocarbons, which can be either crude oil or natural gas. Subsurface activities are deemed to fall within the upstream sector of the oil and gas industry, which are the activities of...

, and a million dollar donation was given to the George Washington University
George Washington University
The George Washington University is a private, coeducational comprehensive university located in Washington, D.C. in the United States...

 to create an Iranian Studies program.

The 1979 revolution
Iranian Revolution
The Iranian Revolution refers to events involving the overthrow of Iran's monarchy under Shah Mohammad Reza Pahlavi and its replacement with an Islamic republic under Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini, the leader of the...

 put an end to the massive US-Iran academic relations. In 1980, a major overhaul in the academia and higher education system of Iran initiated by Ayatollah Khomeini led to what is referred to in Iran as "Iran's Cultural Revolution".

In 1986, the Ministry of Higher Education handed over supervision and overseeing of education in the medical sciences in Iran to the Ministry of Health, Treatment and Medical Education. This was to optimize use of the medical resources in the country, and to promote health, treatment, teaching, and research more efficiently in the field.

After the Iran–Iraq War, some new universities were founded and doctoral programs were developed in the previous universities. The number of university students is now more than six times as many as in 1979 (when Shah was overthrown), so that critics debate whether the national entrance exam is useful anymore or not.
Iran's educational system comprises many schools and universities scattered throughout the country.

Pre-University Education in Iran:

Primary school (Dabestan) starts at the age of 6 for a duration of 5 years. Middle school, also known as orientation cycle (Rahnamayi), goes from the sixth to the eighth grade. High school (Dabirestan), for which the last three years is not mandatory, is divided between theoretical, vocational/technical and manual, each program with its own specialties. Universities, institutes of technology, medical schools and community colleges, provide the higher education. The requirement to enter into higher education is to have a High school diploma, and finally pass the national University entrance's exam. Higher education is sanctioned by different levels of diplomas: Fogh-Diplom or Kardani (equivalent to a Baccalaureate in technical engineering) after 2 years of higher education, Karshenasi (also known under the name “licence”) is delivered after 4 years of higher education (Bachelor's degree). Fogh Licence is delivered after 2 more years of study (Master's degree). After which, another exam allows the candidate to pursue a doctoral program (PhD).

Exclusion of Students


Students of some minority religions have been barred from entering tertiary education institutions in Iran particularly those of the Baha'i Faith
Bahá'í Faith
The Bahá'í Faith is a monotheistic religion founded by Bahá'u'lláh in 19th-century Persia, emphasizing the spiritual unity of all humankind. There are an estimated five to six million Bahá'ís around the world in more than 200 countries and territories....

. Since the Iranian Revolution of 1979 Baha'i students have been excluded from universities regardless of their national university examination results on basis of their religion.

Academic system of Iranian universities




In 2008, Iran had over 3.5 million students enrolled in universities. Some 1.7 million in various programs in Islamic Azad university and the remainder in State universities. In addition the new enrollment numbers for the academic year 2004 were 290 thousand in Azad universities, and 250 thousand in State universities. Iran currently has 54 state operated universities, and 42 state medical schools. These are primarily the top choice for students in national entrance exams, and have the largest and most prestigious programs. There are 289 major private universities operating as well.
In addition there is over 40,000 students engaged in Masters programs and 20,000 students in PhD programs. In all these schools, except for private universities such as the Islamic Azad University
Islamic Azad University
Islamic Azad University is a private chain of universities in Iran.Headquartered in Tehran, Iran, the Islamic Azad University was founded in 1982 and currently has an enrollment of 1.5 million students, making it the world's third largest...

 system, tuition and room and board, is mostly paid for by the government. The universities themselves largely operate on state budgets. There are also institutes like Payame Noor University
Payame Noor University
Payame Noor University is a state distance education university with the headquarters based in Tehran, 30 provincial centers, 485 local study centers and campuses all around the country and one International Study Center located in the headquarters...

 that offer degrees remotely or online.

Some schools offer degrees in conjunction with European Universities. The International University of Chabahar
International University of Chabahar
International University of Chabahar , is located in the Chabahar Free Trade-Industrial Zone, in the city of Chabahar, part of Sistan and Baluchestan Province in Iran.-Affiliates:...

 for example offers programs under the guidance of London School of Economics and Political Science Goldsmiths University of London, and Royal Holloway. Other schools such as the Institute for Advanced Studies in Basic Sciences
Institute for Advanced Studies in Basic Sciences
The Institute for Advanced Studies in Basic Sciences is an advanced research center and graduate level degree granting institution in Zanjan, Iran. It was founded by its current director Prof. Yousef Sobouti in 1991....

 in Zanjan
Zanjan (city)
Zanjan is the capital of Zanjan Province in northwestern Iran. It is an Azeri inhabited city. It lies 298 km north-west of Tehran on the main highway to Tabriz and Turkey and approximately 125 km from the Caspian Sea...

, have close collaboration with The International Centre for Theoretical Physics
International Centre for Theoretical Physics
The Abdus Salam International Centre for Theoretical Physics was founded in 1964 by Pakistani scientist and Nobel Laureate Abdus Salam after consulting with Munir Ahmad Khan. It operates under a tripartite agreement among the Italian Government, UNESCO, and International Atomic Energy Agency...

 in Trieste
Trieste
Trieste is a city and seaport in northeastern Italy. It is situated towards the end of a narrow strip of land lying between the Adriatic Sea and Italy's border with Slovenia, which lies almost immediately south and east of the city...

, Italy
Italy
Italy , officially the Italian Republic languages]] under the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages. In each of these, Italy's official name is as follows:;;;;;;;;), is a unitary parliamentary republic in South-Central Europe. To the north it borders France, Switzerland, Austria and...

 for workshops, seminars, and summer schools. The Iranian government also offers intensely competitive but fully paid scholarships for successful applicants to pursue PhD level studies in Great Britain
Great Britain
Great Britain or Britain is an island situated to the northwest of Continental Europe. It is the ninth largest island in the world, and the largest European island, as well as the largest of the British Isles...

.

As of October 24 or 25th, the President of Iran has indicated that many college courses taught by Iranian Universities are too westernized and do not comply with Muslim law. Those courses may be changed radically to comply with Muslim law - or, they may be completely eliminated

By early 2000, Iran allocated around 0.4% of its GDP to R&D, which ranks it "far behind industrialized societies" and the world average of 1.4%. By 2009 this ratio of research to GDP reached 0.87% and the set target is 2.5%.

Rankings


University of Tehran
University of Tehran
The University of Tehran , also known as Tehran University and UT, is Iran's oldest university. Located in Tehran, the university is among the most prestigious in the country, and is consistently selected as the first choice of many applicants in the annual nationwide entrance exam for top Iranian...

, Sharif University of Technology
Sharif University of Technology
Sharif University of Technology is a university of higher education in technology, engineering and physical sciences in Tehran. Sharif University of Technology is one of the most prestigious universities in the country, and is considered Iran's MIT...

, K. N. Toosi University of Technology, Amirkabir University of Technology
Amirkabir University of Technology
Amirkabir University of Technology , formerly called the Tehran Polytechnic is a public research university located in Tehran, Iran. AUT is one of the most prestigious universities and the first established technical university in Iran...

 (Tehran Polytechnic), Tarbiat Modares University
Tarbiat Modares University
Tarbiat Modares University is located in Tehran, Iran, and was founded in 1982. Tarbiat Modares University is the only exclusively graduate university in Iran, and is a highly reputed university, which was actually funded to train university professors.-Faculties and academics:TMU includes seven...

, Iran University of Science and Technology
Iran University of Science and Technology
The Iran University of Science and Technology is a research institution and university of engineering and science in Iran, offering both undergraduate and postgraduate studies...

, Shahid Beheshti University
Shahid Beheshti University
Shahid Beheshti University was formerly The National University of Iran . The university's name was changed during the cultural revolution in Iranian universities, 1980-82. It is located in Evin District and extends into Velenjak District in northwestern Tehran, Iran, on a main campus of...

, Shiraz University
Shiraz University
Shiraz University , formerly known as Pahlavi University, is a public university located in Shiraz, Iran. It is one of the major universities of Iran....

, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Isfahan University of Technology
Isfahan University of Technology
Isfahan University of Technology is one of the most prestigious engineering universities in Iran. It is located 15 Kilometers north west of Isfahan and is one of the major universities and research poles in Iran in the fields of science, engineering and agriculture...

, University of Isfahan
University of Isfahan
University of Isfahan is a state-operated university in Iran. It is one of the most prominent science and engineering schools in Iran and is the largest university in Isfahan Province in Iran. The university is located in the southern section of the city of Isfahan...

, Sahand University of Technology
Sahand University of Technology
Sahand University of Technology is one of the best and prestigious engineering schools in Iran. Located in the northwest of Iran, 20 km southwest of Tabriz in Sahand satellite city, offering both undergraduate and postgraduate studies...

 and Tabriz University are generally cited as the most prestigious schools of Iran frequently. Among these universities, Tarbiat Modares University
Tarbiat Modares University
Tarbiat Modares University is located in Tehran, Iran, and was founded in 1982. Tarbiat Modares University is the only exclusively graduate university in Iran, and is a highly reputed university, which was actually funded to train university professors.-Faculties and academics:TMU includes seven...

 is the sole only-graduate-level university: it does not offer any undergraduate degree.

Almost none of these universities however are mentioned (or perhaps not evaluated) in the 2007 Academic Ranking of World Universities
Academic Ranking of World Universities
The Academic Ranking of World Universities , commonly known as the Shanghai ranking, is a publication that was founded and compiled by the Shanghai Jiaotong University to rank universities globally. The rankings have been conducted since 2003 and updated annually...

 (link), nor in The Times Higher Education Supplement
The Times Higher Education Supplement
The Times Higher Education , formerly Times Higher Education Supplement , is a weekly British magazine based in London reporting specifically on news and other issues related to higher education...

.http://images.thetimes.co.uk/TGD/picture/0,,157854,00.jpg Sharif University of Technology
Sharif University of Technology
Sharif University of Technology is a university of higher education in technology, engineering and physical sciences in Tehran. Sharif University of Technology is one of the most prestigious universities in the country, and is considered Iran's MIT...

 and University of Tehran
University of Tehran
The University of Tehran , also known as Tehran University and UT, is Iran's oldest university. Located in Tehran, the university is among the most prestigious in the country, and is consistently selected as the first choice of many applicants in the annual nationwide entrance exam for top Iranian...

 are the only Iranian universities that appear in the THES
THES
THES may refer to:*Times Higher Education, a weekly British magazine based in London*Toronto Hydro Electric System, the local distributor of electric power in the City of Toronto...

 world ranking for 2008. The universities ranked above 400 are listed alphabetically in this list, thus the exact ranks of these two universities are unavailable.

Iranian authorities however ignore such rankings, and claim that, according to Chancellor of Tehran University, "Iran is third in Science and Technology in Asia after Japan
Japan
Japan is an island nation in East Asia. Located in the Pacific Ocean, it lies to the east of the Sea of Japan, China, North Korea, South Korea and Russia, stretching from the Sea of Okhotsk in the north to the East China Sea and Taiwan in the south...

 and Turkey
Turkey
Turkey , known officially as the Republic of Turkey , is a Eurasian country located in Western Asia and in East Thrace in Southeastern Europe...

".

Critics further claim that for the case of Iran, rankings such as SJT
Academic Ranking of World Universities
The Academic Ranking of World Universities , commonly known as the Shanghai ranking, is a publication that was founded and compiled by the Shanghai Jiaotong University to rank universities globally. The rankings have been conducted since 2003 and updated annually...

 and THES
The Times Higher Education Supplement
The Times Higher Education , formerly Times Higher Education Supplement , is a weekly British magazine based in London reporting specifically on news and other issues related to higher education...

 fail to provide an accurate image when assessing Iran's institutions of higher education, since graduates from these universities routinely are well prepared and end up matriculating into the competitive elite graduate schools of Europe and the United States in comparatively large numbers.

Ranking by number of publications (ISI)



In terms of the number of papers published via Institute for Scientific Information
Institute for Scientific Information
The Institute for Scientific Information was founded by Eugene Garfield in 1960. It was acquired by Thomson Scientific & Healthcare in 1992, became known as Thomson ISI and now is part of the Healthcare & Science business of the multi-billion dollar Thomson Reuters Corporation.ISI offered...

 (ISI), the 2007 ranking of medical and non-medical universities of Iran is as follows:


Ranking by number of publications
University City Papers published
University of Tehran
University of Tehran
The University of Tehran , also known as Tehran University and UT, is Iran's oldest university. Located in Tehran, the university is among the most prestigious in the country, and is consistently selected as the first choice of many applicants in the annual nationwide entrance exam for top Iranian...

Tehran
Tehran
Tehran , sometimes spelled Teheran, is the capital of Iran and Tehran Province. With an estimated population of 8,429,807; it is also Iran's largest urban area and city, one of the largest cities in Western Asia, and is the world's 19th largest city.In the 20th century, Tehran was subject to...

1156
Tehran University of Medical Sciences
Tehran University of Medical Sciences
- General and History :Tehran University of Medical Sciences is the largest and "most distinguished", and most highly ranked medical school of Iran. In September 2008, the health minister of Iran - General and History :Tehran University of Medical Sciences (TUMS) is the largest and "most...

Tehran
Tehran
Tehran , sometimes spelled Teheran, is the capital of Iran and Tehran Province. With an estimated population of 8,429,807; it is also Iran's largest urban area and city, one of the largest cities in Western Asia, and is the world's 19th largest city.In the 20th century, Tehran was subject to...

719
Tarbiat Modarres University Tehran
Tehran
Tehran , sometimes spelled Teheran, is the capital of Iran and Tehran Province. With an estimated population of 8,429,807; it is also Iran's largest urban area and city, one of the largest cities in Western Asia, and is the world's 19th largest city.In the 20th century, Tehran was subject to...

574
Sharif University of Technology
Sharif University of Technology
Sharif University of Technology is a university of higher education in technology, engineering and physical sciences in Tehran. Sharif University of Technology is one of the most prestigious universities in the country, and is considered Iran's MIT...

Tehran
Tehran
Tehran , sometimes spelled Teheran, is the capital of Iran and Tehran Province. With an estimated population of 8,429,807; it is also Iran's largest urban area and city, one of the largest cities in Western Asia, and is the world's 19th largest city.In the 20th century, Tehran was subject to...

572
Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences
Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences
Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences and Health Services is a large medical school in northern Tehran, Iran.The school was founded in 1961 as part of Shahid Beheshti University, and was re-structured in 1986 when it separated off onto its own...

Tehran
Tehran
Tehran , sometimes spelled Teheran, is the capital of Iran and Tehran Province. With an estimated population of 8,429,807; it is also Iran's largest urban area and city, one of the largest cities in Western Asia, and is the world's 19th largest city.In the 20th century, Tehran was subject to...

478
Shahid Beheshti University
Shahid Beheshti University
Shahid Beheshti University was formerly The National University of Iran . The university's name was changed during the cultural revolution in Iranian universities, 1980-82. It is located in Evin District and extends into Velenjak District in northwestern Tehran, Iran, on a main campus of...

Tehran
Tehran
Tehran , sometimes spelled Teheran, is the capital of Iran and Tehran Province. With an estimated population of 8,429,807; it is also Iran's largest urban area and city, one of the largest cities in Western Asia, and is the world's 19th largest city.In the 20th century, Tehran was subject to...

404
Amirkabir University of Technology
Amirkabir University of Technology
Amirkabir University of Technology , formerly called the Tehran Polytechnic is a public research university located in Tehran, Iran. AUT is one of the most prestigious universities and the first established technical university in Iran...

 (Tehran Polytechnic)
Tehran
Tehran
Tehran , sometimes spelled Teheran, is the capital of Iran and Tehran Province. With an estimated population of 8,429,807; it is also Iran's largest urban area and city, one of the largest cities in Western Asia, and is the world's 19th largest city.In the 20th century, Tehran was subject to...

398
K. N. Toosi University of Technology Tehran
Tehran
Tehran , sometimes spelled Teheran, is the capital of Iran and Tehran Province. With an estimated population of 8,429,807; it is also Iran's largest urban area and city, one of the largest cities in Western Asia, and is the world's 19th largest city.In the 20th century, Tehran was subject to...

329
Iran University of Science and Technology
Iran University of Science and Technology
The Iran University of Science and Technology is a research institution and university of engineering and science in Iran, offering both undergraduate and postgraduate studies...

Tehran
Tehran
Tehran , sometimes spelled Teheran, is the capital of Iran and Tehran Province. With an estimated population of 8,429,807; it is also Iran's largest urban area and city, one of the largest cities in Western Asia, and is the world's 19th largest city.In the 20th century, Tehran was subject to...

326
Shiraz University of Medical Sciences
Shiraz University of Medical Sciences
Shiraz University of Medical Sciences is public medical school located in Shiraz, Iran. It is ranked as one of Iran's top medical schools, with more than 5000 students studying for 83 different degrees, and a staff of nearly 13,000 faculty and personnel...

Shiraz
Shiraz
Shiraz may refer to:* Shiraz, Iran, a city in Iran* Shiraz County, an administrative subdivision of Iran* Vosketap, Armenia, formerly called ShirazPeople:* Hovhannes Shiraz, Armenian poet* Ara Shiraz, Armenian sculptor...

281
Isfahan University of Technology
Isfahan University of Technology
Isfahan University of Technology is one of the most prestigious engineering universities in Iran. It is located 15 Kilometers north west of Isfahan and is one of the major universities and research poles in Iran in the fields of science, engineering and agriculture...

Isfahan 246
Tabriz University Tabriz
Tabriz
Tabriz is the fourth largest city and one of the historical capitals of Iran and the capital of East Azerbaijan Province. Situated at an altitude of 1,350 meters at the junction of the Quri River and Aji River, it was the second largest city in Iran until the late 1960s, one of its former...

234
Ferdowsi University of Mashad
Ferdowsi University of Mashad
Ferdowsi University of Mashhad is the largest research university in eastern Iran named after the great epic poet and historian of Iranian national history Ferdowsi, whose Shahnameh is a chef-d'oeuvre in Persian literature. FUM campus is located in Mashhad, the capital city of the Razavi...

Mashad 218
Bu-Ali Sina University
Bu-Ali Sina University
Bu-Ali Sina University, also written Bu Ali Sina University and Avicenna University , is a university in the city of Hamedan in Hamedan province of Iran.The university was first established with the assistance of France in February 1973....

(Avicenna University)
Hamedan 205
Tabriz University of Medical Sciences
Tabriz University of Medical Sciences
Tabriz University of Medical Sciences is public medical sciences university located in Tabriz, East Azarbaijan Province, Iran. It is ranked as one of Iran's top medical schools, with more than 5000 students....

Tabriz
Tabriz
Tabriz is the fourth largest city and one of the historical capitals of Iran and the capital of East Azerbaijan Province. Situated at an altitude of 1,350 meters at the junction of the Quri River and Aji River, it was the second largest city in Iran until the late 1960s, one of its former...

198
Isfahan University Isfahan 196
Shiraz University
Shiraz University
Shiraz University , formerly known as Pahlavi University, is a public university located in Shiraz, Iran. It is one of the major universities of Iran....

Shiraz
Shiraz
Shiraz may refer to:* Shiraz, Iran, a city in Iran* Shiraz County, an administrative subdivision of Iran* Vosketap, Armenia, formerly called ShirazPeople:* Hovhannes Shiraz, Armenian poet* Ara Shiraz, Armenian sculptor...

188
Institute for Studies in Theoretical Physics and Mathematics
Institute for Studies in Theoretical Physics and Mathematics
The Institute for research in fundamental sciences is a government-sponsored advanced research institute founded in 1989 in Tehran, Iran. The institute was the first Iranian organization to connect to the Internet...

Tehran
Tehran
Tehran , sometimes spelled Teheran, is the capital of Iran and Tehran Province. With an estimated population of 8,429,807; it is also Iran's largest urban area and city, one of the largest cities in Western Asia, and is the world's 19th largest city.In the 20th century, Tehran was subject to...

177
Iran University of Medical Sciences
Iran University of Medical Sciences
Iran University of Medical Sciences was one of the largest medical schools in Iran.Located in Tehran, it was founded in 1974 under the name The Imperial Medical Center, and designed by William Pereira and Associates....

Tehran
Tehran
Tehran , sometimes spelled Teheran, is the capital of Iran and Tehran Province. With an estimated population of 8,429,807; it is also Iran's largest urban area and city, one of the largest cities in Western Asia, and is the world's 19th largest city.In the 20th century, Tehran was subject to...

158
University of Mazandaran
University of Mazandaran
University of Mazandaran is a university located in Mazandaran Province of Iran, headquartered in the city of Babolsar.-History:Mazandaran University, formerly Reza Shah Kabir University, was founded in 1979 by the merging of Babolsar College of Economics and Social Sciences est...

Babolsar
Babolsar
Babolsar , also Romanized as Mashhad-i-Sar and Meshed-i-Sar) is a city in and the capital of Babolsar County, Mazandaran Province, Iran. At the 2006 census, its population was 47,872, in 13,442 families....

158
Isfahan University of Medical Sciences
Isfahan University of Medical Sciences
Isfahan University of Medical Sciences is a university of higher education in basic medical sciences, clinical medical sciences and health services in Iran....

Isfahan 141


The most number of papers published in the following fields by order:
  1. Chemistry
  2. Medicine
  3. Engineering
  4. Physics


Reports for 2003 and 2005 are also available.
Ranking of Medical Schools

In one study in the medical fields published in January 2001, Tehran University of Medical Sciences
Tehran University of Medical Sciences
- General and History :Tehran University of Medical Sciences is the largest and "most distinguished", and most highly ranked medical school of Iran. In September 2008, the health minister of Iran - General and History :Tehran University of Medical Sciences (TUMS) is the largest and "most...

 ranked first in Iran in terms of the number of ISI and Medline
MEDLINE
MEDLINE is a bibliographic database of life sciences and biomedical information. It includes bibliographic information for articles from academic journals covering medicine, nursing, pharmacy, dentistry, veterinary medicine, and health care...

 publications, followed by Shiraz University of Medical Sciences
Shiraz University of Medical Sciences
Shiraz University of Medical Sciences is public medical school located in Shiraz, Iran. It is ranked as one of Iran's top medical schools, with more than 5000 students studying for 83 different degrees, and a staff of nearly 13,000 faculty and personnel...

, with Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences
Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences
Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences and Health Services is a large medical school in northern Tehran, Iran.The school was founded in 1961 as part of Shahid Beheshti University, and was re-structured in 1986 when it separated off onto its own...

 and Isfahan University of Medical Sciences
Isfahan University of Medical Sciences
Isfahan University of Medical Sciences is a university of higher education in basic medical sciences, clinical medical sciences and health services in Iran....

 following next.

The most recent list of the highest top ranked universities in the medical field is:
  1. Tehran University of Medical Sciences
    Tehran University of Medical Sciences
    - General and History :Tehran University of Medical Sciences is the largest and "most distinguished", and most highly ranked medical school of Iran. In September 2008, the health minister of Iran - General and History :Tehran University of Medical Sciences (TUMS) is the largest and "most...

  2. Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences
    Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences
    Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences and Health Services is a large medical school in northern Tehran, Iran.The school was founded in 1961 as part of Shahid Beheshti University, and was re-structured in 1986 when it separated off onto its own...

    (Former National University)
  3. Iran University of Medical Sciences
    Iran University of Medical Sciences
    Iran University of Medical Sciences was one of the largest medical schools in Iran.Located in Tehran, it was founded in 1974 under the name The Imperial Medical Center, and designed by William Pereira and Associates....

  4. Isfahan University of Medical Sciences
    Isfahan University of Medical Sciences
    Isfahan University of Medical Sciences is a university of higher education in basic medical sciences, clinical medical sciences and health services in Iran....

  5. Mashad University of Medical Sciences
    Mashad University of Medical Sciences
    Mashhad University of Medical Sciences is a medical school in Iran.Located in Razavi Khorasan province in the city of Mashhad, it was established in 1949 along with Ferdowsi University of Mashad, and separated in 1986 from its parent institution by national legislation.The University is currently...

  6. Shiraz University of Medical Sciences
    Shiraz University of Medical Sciences
    Shiraz University of Medical Sciences is public medical school located in Shiraz, Iran. It is ranked as one of Iran's top medical schools, with more than 5000 students studying for 83 different degrees, and a staff of nearly 13,000 faculty and personnel...


Ranking of Dental Schools

According to the 2007 rankings the top 5 rated schools in the dental field in Iran are:
  1. Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences
    Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences
    Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences and Health Services is a large medical school in northern Tehran, Iran.The school was founded in 1961 as part of Shahid Beheshti University, and was re-structured in 1986 when it separated off onto its own...

  2. Tehran University of Medical Sciences
    Tehran University of Medical Sciences
    - General and History :Tehran University of Medical Sciences is the largest and "most distinguished", and most highly ranked medical school of Iran. In September 2008, the health minister of Iran - General and History :Tehran University of Medical Sciences (TUMS) is the largest and "most...

     and Mashad University of Medical Sciences
    Mashad University of Medical Sciences
    Mashhad University of Medical Sciences is a medical school in Iran.Located in Razavi Khorasan province in the city of Mashhad, it was established in 1949 along with Ferdowsi University of Mashad, and separated in 1986 from its parent institution by national legislation.The University is currently...

  3. Isfahan University of Medical Sciences
    Isfahan University of Medical Sciences
    Isfahan University of Medical Sciences is a university of higher education in basic medical sciences, clinical medical sciences and health services in Iran....

  4. Kerman University of Medical Sciences and Yazd University of Medical Sciences and Hamedan University of Medical Sciences
  5. Ahvaz University of Medical Sciences and Shiraz University of Medical Sciences
    Shiraz University of Medical Sciences
    Shiraz University of Medical Sciences is public medical school located in Shiraz, Iran. It is ranked as one of Iran's top medical schools, with more than 5000 students studying for 83 different degrees, and a staff of nearly 13,000 faculty and personnel...

     and Babol University of Medical Sciences
    Babol University of Medical Sciences
    Babol University of Medical Sciences , is a medical sciences university in the city of Babol, Mazandaran province, Persia .It was founded originally as a school for laboratory technicians in 1962, and was elevated to university status in 1985....


Ranking of Pharmacy Schools

According to the 2007 rankings the top 3 rated schools in the pharmaceutical field in Iran are:
  1. Tehran University of Medical Sciences
    Tehran University of Medical Sciences
    - General and History :Tehran University of Medical Sciences is the largest and "most distinguished", and most highly ranked medical school of Iran. In September 2008, the health minister of Iran - General and History :Tehran University of Medical Sciences (TUMS) is the largest and "most...

  2. Isfahan University of Medical Sciences
    Isfahan University of Medical Sciences
    Isfahan University of Medical Sciences is a university of higher education in basic medical sciences, clinical medical sciences and health services in Iran....

  3. Tabriz University of Medical Sciences
    Tabriz University of Medical Sciences
    Tabriz University of Medical Sciences is public medical sciences university located in Tabriz, East Azarbaijan Province, Iran. It is ranked as one of Iran's top medical schools, with more than 5000 students....


Ranking by Islamic World Science Citation Center (ISC)


The Islamic World Science Citation Center (ISC) has published a 2010-list detailing the ranking of top universities at the Ministry of Health and Medical Education and the Ministry of Science, Research and Technology
Ministry of Science, Research and Technology (Iran)
The Ministry of Science, Research and Technology is the government ministry of science, research and technology in the Islamic Republic of Iran...

.

The ranking analyzes research performance, international cooperation and scientific impact of a university or an institute.

The top twenty universities of the ministry of science in this ranking are listed below:
  1. University of Tehran
  2. Sharif University of Technology
  3. Amirkabir University of Technology
  4. Iran University of Science and Technology
  5. Shahid Beheshti University
  6. Isfahan University of Technology
  7. Ferdowsi University of Mashhad: Third University
  8. University of Tabriz
  9. K. N. Toosi University of Technology
  10. Shiraz University
  11. University of Isfahan
  12. University of Mazandaran
  13. Bu-Ali Sina University
  14. IPM - Institute for Research in Fundamental Sciences
  15. Shahid Bahonar University of Kerman
  16. The University of Guilan
  17. Razi University
  18. Tarbiat Moallem University
  19. University of Kashan
  20. Alzahra University

Iran's Brain Drain problem


Iran tops the world countries in the brain drain phenomenon. The CIA estimates that 77% of Iran's population aged 15 and over can read and write. A significant majority of this population is at or approaching collegiate levels. Of this population, nearly 150,000 are estimated to exit Iran every year.

Fraud, Ideology and Politics in higher education


Under the rule of the Islamic Theocracy
Theocracy
Theocracy is a form of organization in which the official policy is to be governed by immediate divine guidance or by officials who are regarded as divinely guided, or simply pursuant to the doctrine of a particular religious sect or religion....

 in Iran
Iran
Iran , officially the Islamic Republic of Iran , is a country in Southern and Western Asia. The name "Iran" has been in use natively since the Sassanian era and came into use internationally in 1935, before which the country was known to the Western world as Persia...

 since 1978 revolution, the status of science and education has been dramatically affected in the country. In particular, following the so-called Iranian Cultural Revolution and Islamization of Universities after a shutdown period, the quality of science and technology required for development has dropped significantly.

Prominent libraries in Iran


Large libraries existed in Iran both before and after the advent of Islam and throughout many periods in Iran's history. One can mention the libraries at Gondeshapur, School of Nisibis
School of Nisibis
The School of Nisibis , for a time absorbed into the School of Edessa, was an educational establishment in Nisibis, modern-day Turkey. It was an important spiritual center of the early Syriac Orthodox Church, and like Gundeshapur, is sometimes referred to as the world's first university. The...

, and Sarouyeh
Sarouyeh
Sarouyeh was a large library in ancient pre-Islamic Iran. The 10th century chronicler Ahmad ibn Rustah refers to it as "Sarough" . The Fars Nameh of Ibn Balkhi calls it Haft Halkeh ....

 during the pre-Islamic era of Iran.

During the Middle Ages, many schools of Nizamiyya harbored large collections of manuscripts and treatises. In Maragheh
Maragheh
Maragheh also Romanized as Marāgheh and Marāghen) is a city in and the capital of Maragheh County, East Azerbaijan Province, Iran. At the 2006 census, its population was 146,405, in 38,891 families....

, Nasīr al-Dīn al-Tūsī
Nasir al-Din al-Tusi
Khawaja Muḥammad ibn Muḥammad ibn Ḥasan Ṭūsī , better known as Naṣīr al-Dīn al-Ṭūsī , was a Persian polymath and prolific writer: an astronomer, biologist, chemist, mathematician, philosopher, physician, physicist, scientist, theologian and Marja Taqleed...

 built a library that reportedly contained some 40,000 volumes which was well financed. And the royal library of the Samanid
Samanid
The Samani dynasty , also known as the Samanid Empire, or simply Samanids was a Persian state and empire in Central Asia and Greater Iran, named after its founder Saman Khuda, who converted to Sunni Islam despite being from Zoroastrian theocratic nobility...

 court in which Avicenna
Avicenna
Abū ʿAlī al-Ḥusayn ibn ʿAbd Allāh ibn Sīnā , commonly known as Ibn Sīnā or by his Latinized name Avicenna, was a Persian polymath, who wrote almost 450 treatises on a wide range of subjects, of which around 240 have survived...

 was granted special access to, is yet another fine example.

The first prototype of a modern national library in Iran was the Library of Dar al-Funun College
Dar ol-Fonoon
Dar al-Funun , established in 1851, was the first modern institution of higher learning in Persia.-Introduction:Founded by Amir Kabir, then the royal vizier to Nasereddin Shah, the Shah of Iran, Dar al-Funun originally was conceived as a polytechnic to train upper-class Persian youth in Medicine,...

 established in 1851. In 1899 another library called the Nation's Library was inaugurated in Tehran
Tehran
Tehran , sometimes spelled Teheran, is the capital of Iran and Tehran Province. With an estimated population of 8,429,807; it is also Iran's largest urban area and city, one of the largest cities in Western Asia, and is the world's 19th largest city.In the 20th century, Tehran was subject to...

. Finally, the National Library of Iran
National Library of Iran
The National Library of Iran is located in Tehran, Iran, with several branches are scattered throughout the city.Prior to the library's official inauguration in 1937, other libraries existed that performed the same function informally. The first prototype of a national library in Iran was the...

 was inaugurated in 1937.

Iran's major national libraries today are:
  • National Library of Iran
    National Library of Iran
    The National Library of Iran is located in Tehran, Iran, with several branches are scattered throughout the city.Prior to the library's official inauguration in 1937, other libraries existed that performed the same function informally. The first prototype of a national library in Iran was the...

    , Tehran
    Tehran
    Tehran , sometimes spelled Teheran, is the capital of Iran and Tehran Province. With an estimated population of 8,429,807; it is also Iran's largest urban area and city, one of the largest cities in Western Asia, and is the world's 19th largest city.In the 20th century, Tehran was subject to...

  • Central Library of Astan Quds Razavi
    Central Library of Astan Quds Razavi
    The Central Library of Astan Quds Razavi is a large library in Mashad, Iran. Established before 1457, it holds over 1.1 million volumes. It is an international center for Islamic research, containing numerous manuscripts and rare works of antiquity of Islamic history.The library has 35 branches:*...

    , Mashad
  • Tabriz National Library
    Tabriz National Library
    The Tabriz Central Library , formerly Tabriz National Library, was founded in 1956 by Nakhjavani with help from the people of Tabriz, Iran. It contains several handwritten books. The library is called National because of its non-benefit and non-governmental structure...

    , Tabriz
    Tabriz
    Tabriz is the fourth largest city and one of the historical capitals of Iran and the capital of East Azerbaijan Province. Situated at an altitude of 1,350 meters at the junction of the Quri River and Aji River, it was the second largest city in Iran until the late 1960s, one of its former...

  • Malek National Library, Tehran
    Tehran
    Tehran , sometimes spelled Teheran, is the capital of Iran and Tehran Province. With an estimated population of 8,429,807; it is also Iran's largest urban area and city, one of the largest cities in Western Asia, and is the world's 19th largest city.In the 20th century, Tehran was subject to...

  • Ayatollah Marashi Najafi Library, Qom
    Qom
    Qom is a city in Iran. It lies by road southwest of Tehran and is the capital of Qom Province. At the 2006 census, its population was 957,496, in 241,827 families. It is situated on the banks of the Qom River....

     http://www.marashilibrary.com/
  • Iran's Library of The Parliament http://www.majlislib.com/
  • Shiraz Regional Library of Science and Technology, Shiraz
    Shiraz
    Shiraz may refer to:* Shiraz, Iran, a city in Iran* Shiraz County, an administrative subdivision of Iran* Vosketap, Armenia, formerly called ShirazPeople:* Hovhannes Shiraz, Armenian poet* Ara Shiraz, Armenian sculptor...

  • Library of Institute for Studies in Theoretical Physics and Mathematics
    Institute for Studies in Theoretical Physics and Mathematics
    The Institute for research in fundamental sciences is a government-sponsored advanced research institute founded in 1989 in Tehran, Iran. The institute was the first Iranian organization to connect to the Internet...


See also

  • International Rankings of Iran in Education
  • Academy of Gundishapur
    Academy of Gundishapur
    The Academy of Gondishapur , also Jondishapur , was a renowned academy of learning in the city of Gundeshapur during late antiquity, the intellectual center of the Sassanid empire. It offered training in medicine, philosophy, theology and science. The faculty were versed in the Zoroastrian and...

  • School of Nisibis
    School of Nisibis
    The School of Nisibis , for a time absorbed into the School of Edessa, was an educational establishment in Nisibis, modern-day Turkey. It was an important spiritual center of the early Syriac Orthodox Church, and like Gundeshapur, is sometimes referred to as the world's first university. The...

  • Nizamiyyah
    Nizamiyyah
    The Nezamiyehs , are a group of the medieval institutions of higher education established by Khwaja Nizam al-Mulk in the eleventh century in Iran. The name nizamiyyah derives from his name...

  • Imperial Iranian Academy of Philosophy
    Imperial Iranian Academy of Philosophy
    Imperial Iranian Academy of Philosophy was founded in Iran during the Pahlavi era by Seyyed Hossein Nasr, a Professor of History of Science and Philosophy at the University of Tehran who also served for several years as President of Aryamehr University of Technology in Iran...

  • List of universities in Iran
  • Darolfonoon
  • List of Iranian scientists
  • Modern Iranian scientists and engineers
  • List of Iranian Research Centers
  • Persian culture
  • Science and technology in Iran
    Science and technology in Iran
    Persia was a cradle of science in earlier times. Persian scientists contributed to the current understanding of nature, medicine, mathematics, and philosophy. Persians made important contributions to algebra and chemistry, invented the wind-power machine, and the first distillation of alcohol...

  • Intellectual Movements in Iran
    Intellectual movements in Iran
    Intellectual movements in Iran involve the Iranian experience of modernity and its associated art, science, literature, poetry, and political structures that have been changing since the 19th century.- History of Iranian modernity :...

  • Iranian Studies
    Iranian Studies
    Iranian studies , is an interdisciplinary field dealing with the study of history, literature, art and culture of the Iranian people. It is a part of the wider field of Oriental studies....

  • Student cores
    Student cores
    Student cores are student groups established in Iranian universities for gathering reformist students by Islamic Iran Participation Front ....

  • Education in Iran
    Education in Iran
    Education in Iran is highly centralized and is divided to K-12 education and higher education. K-12 education is supervised by the Ministry of Education and higher education is under supervision of Ministry of Science and Technology....

  • Sanctions against Iranian scientists
    Sanctions against Iranian scientists
    Scientific sanctions against Iranians include all actions taken to directly or indirectly suppress Iranian scientific community. United States and several other western countries, their scientific communities and companies have been actively involved in suppression of Iranian scientific community...

  • The Physical Society of Iran
  • Iran's Brain Drain problem
  • Persecution of Bahá'ís
    Persecution of Bahá'ís
    The persecution of Bahá'ís is the religious persecution of Bahá'ís in various countries, especially in Iran, where the Bahá'í Faith originated and the location of one of the largest Bahá'í populations in the world...


Official


Other