High-speed railway to Jerusalem

High-speed railway to Jerusalem

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The high-speed railway to Jerusalem (also Plan A1 and Railway 29) is a railway line from Tel Aviv
Tel Aviv
Tel Aviv , officially Tel Aviv-Yafo , is the second most populous city in Israel, with a population of 404,400 on a land area of . The city is located on the Israeli Mediterranean coastline in west-central Israel. It is the largest and most populous city in the metropolitan area of Gush Dan, with...

 to Jerusalem, Israel
Israel
The State of Israel is a parliamentary republic located in the Middle East, along the eastern shore of the Mediterranean Sea...

, under construction since 2001. It is set to be completed in 2017. It will be the first high-speed rail
High-speed rail
High-speed rail is a type of passenger rail transport that operates significantly faster than the normal speed of rail traffic. Specific definitions by the European Union include for upgraded track and or faster for new track, whilst in the United States, the U.S...

 in Israel by definition (although it will employ regular locomotives) and will serve as the main rail link between Tel Aviv and Jerusalem, complementing the old Jaffa–Jerusalem railway
Jaffa–Jerusalem railway
The Jaffa–Jerusalem railway is a railroad that connected Jaffa and Jerusalem. The line was built in Ottoman Palestine by the French company Société du Chemin de Fer Ottoman de Jaffa à Jérusalem et Prolongements and inaugurated in 1892, after previous attempts by the Jewish philanthropist Moses...

. The railway will span about 56 km of electrified double track
Double track
A double track railway usually involves running one track in each direction, compared to a single track railway where trains in both directions share the same track.- Overview :...

 and cost approximately NIS 7 billion (about US$2 billion).

Planning



After the suspension of service from Tel Aviv to Jerusalem on the old Jaffa–Jerusalem line in 1998 due to the poor track state, an urgent need arose to create a rail link from Tel Aviv to Jerusalem. Between 2000 and 2001, several alternatives were proposed:
  • Plans S and S1 – minor repairs of the old route (S), or one that also includes a few short tunnel
    Tunnel
    A tunnel is an underground passageway, completely enclosed except for openings for egress, commonly at each end.A tunnel may be for foot or vehicular road traffic, for rail traffic, or for a canal. Some tunnels are aqueducts to supply water for consumption or for hydroelectric stations or are sewers...

    s and curve straightening (S1).
  • Plans G and G1 – a massive repair of the old route, straightening all the curves by excavating numerous long tunnels along the route: 4–6 km of tunnels in G and 16 km in G1. G1 was meant to continue into central Jerusalem and terminate in an underground station at Independence Park.
  • Plans B, B1, B2, M and M1 – construction of a new line from Tel Aviv to Jerusalem via Modi'in-Maccabim-Re'ut
    Modi'in-Maccabim-Re'ut
    Modi'in-Maccabim-Re'ut is a city in the Center District of Israel located approximately halfway between Jerusalem and Tel Aviv. It was formed in 2003 by the merger of Modi'in and Maccabim-Re'ut...

     within or near Road 443.
  • Plans A and A1 – construction of a new line between the cities nearby Highway 1
    Highway 1 (Israel)
    Highway 1 , is the main highway connecting Tel Aviv with Jerusalem.-History:The section between Latrun and Jerusalem roughly follows an ancient path connecting Jaffa and Jerusalem...

    , with a branch to Modi'in. These plans were recommended by the bodies that originally published them (A in 1994 and A1 in 1997 and 2000).


Plans to build a line adjacent to Road 443 were discarded immediately, due to its being inside the West Bank
West Bank
The West Bank ) of the Jordan River is the landlocked geographical eastern part of the Palestinian territories located in Western Asia. To the west, north, and south, the West Bank shares borders with the state of Israel. To the east, across the Jordan River, lies the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan...

. The Municipality of Jerusalem supported Plan G1, while Israel Railways
Israel Railways
Israel Railways is the principal passenger railway operating company in Israel, and is responsible for all inter-city and suburban rail way passenger and freight traffic in the country. All its lines are standard gauge. The network is centered in Israel's densely populated coastal plain, from...

 supported Plan S as a quick deployment plan, followed by A1. On June 13, 2001, Transportation Minister Ephraim Sneh and Prime Minister
Prime Minister of Israel
The Prime Minister of Israel is the head of the Israeli government and the most powerful political figure in Israel . The prime minister is the country's chief executive. The official residence of the prime minister, Beit Rosh Hamemshala is in Jerusalem...

 Ariel Sharon chose to proceed with Israel Railways' plan. One of the reasons was environmentalists' opposition to G1, due to the route passing through the middle of a nature reserve
Nature reserve
A nature reserve is a protected area of importance for wildlife, flora, fauna or features of geological or other special interest, which is reserved and managed for conservation and to provide special opportunities for study or research...

. Plan B2 was used for the branch to Modi'in which was completed in 2008. This section of railway is part of a longer future line which will eventually extend from Modi'in to Rishon LeZion along right-of-way reserved for it during the construction of Highway 431
Route 431 (Israel)
Route 431 , is a suburban freeway in the south of the Tel Aviv Metropolitan Area in Israel. The freeway connects the Ayalon Highway in the west with Highway 1 in the east. It then continues east into Modi'in as a local road....

.

It is not clear whether the new A1 railway to Jerusalem will be electrified, as Parsons Brinckerhoff
Parsons Brinckerhoff
Parsons Brinckerhoff is a professional services firm with 14,000 employees in 150 offices providing construction and operation management, planning, design, engineering, program management, strategic consulting, environmental and sustainability services for clients and communities in the Americas,...

 (PB), the company then advising Israel Railways, thought it unnecessary after checking the option. A Dutch company has been appointed to re-evaluate this option.

Construction


Construction began in 2001 and was divided into multiple sections:
  • Tel Aviv – Ben Gurion Airport
    Ben Gurion Airport Railway Station
    Ben Gurion Airport Railway Station is a station on the Israel Railways lines between Tel Aviv and Modi'in. The station is located in the lower level of Ben Gurion International Airport's Terminal 3, and was opened in 2004.-Services:...

     (western part of Railway 27) – the line branches off from the Tel Aviv – Lod section between the Ganot and Shafirim interchanges on Highway 1
    Highway 1 (Israel)
    Highway 1 , is the main highway connecting Tel Aviv with Jerusalem.-History:The section between Latrun and Jerusalem roughly follows an ancient path connecting Jaffa and Jerusalem...

    , and connects to Ben Gurion's Terminal 3. Construction was completed in 2004 and regular service started in October of that year.
  • Ben Gurion Airport – Kfar Daniel
    Kfar Daniel
    Kfar Daniel is a moshav shitufi in central Israel. Located around four kilometres south-east of Lod and covering 2,900 dunams, it falls under the jurisdiction of Hevel Modi'in Regional Council. In 2006 it had a population of 297....

     (eastern part of Railway 27) – from terminal 3 the line continues to the southeast, passing over a new 550 m bridge over Highway 1 towards the Anava Interchange where it branches off into Modi'in. The line also connects with the Eastern Railway
    Eastern Railway (Israel)
    The Eastern Railway refers to a railroad in central Israel stretching from Lod to Hadera. As of 2011, the section between Kfar Saba and Lod, as well as a short section just north of Hadera are in use, while the rest of the railway has not been operative since 1969, though there are plans to...

     near the Lod interchange providing a connection between the airport and the Lod Railway Station
    Lod Railway Station
    Lod Railway Station is an Israel Railways station in Lod, Israel, served by most railway lines of Israel Railways. The station is located in the HaRakevet district of south Lod. In December 2006, Lod Station served a daily average of 7,786 passengers....

     to the south. Construction started in 2004 and ended in 2007.
  • Kfar Daniel – Latrun
    Latrun
    Latrun is a strategic hilltop in the Ayalon Valley in Israel overlooking the road to Jerusalem. It is located 25 kilometers west of Jerusalem and 14 kilometers southeast of Ramla.-Etymology:...

     (Section A) – includes a 1.2 km railway bridge, the longest in Israel (completed in 2008). This section was built by Danya Cebus and completed in 2011, at a cost of NIS 250 million.
  • Latrun – Sha'ar HaGai (Section B) – includes a 3.5 km tunnel under Canada Park
    Canada Park
    Canada Park is a national park stretching over 7,000 dunams, mostly in the West Bank, with a portion in the region that was a no man's land before 1967 and incorporated into Israel in 1967. It is maintained by the Jewish National Fund of Canada...

    , the tender for which was awarded in July 2010. Excavation of the tunnel by TBM
    Tunnel boring machine
    A tunnel boring machine also known as a "mole", is a machine used to excavate tunnels with a circular cross section through a variety of soil and rock strata. They can bore through anything from hard rock to sand. Tunnel diameters can range from a metre to almost 16 metres to date...

     is scheduled to begin in the first half of 2012. The section is slated to be completed in 2015. It is being constructed by the Israeli construction firm Minrav in association with the Russian company Moscow Metrostroy at a cost of NIS 560 million.
  • Sha'ar HaGai and Mevaseret Zion
    Mevaseret Zion
    Mevaseret Zion is a suburb of Jerusalem, Israel. Mevaseret Zion is composed of two distinct townships, Maoz Zion and Mevaseret Yerushalayim—under the jurisdiction of one local council. The newer neighborhoods of Mevaseret Zion were not part of either settlement.Mevaseret Zion is located on a...

     (Section C) – the tender was awarded in September 2009 and preliminary site work began November 2009 with expected overall completion in 2014–2016. By far the most complicated part of the project, it involves excavating several tunnels, one of which will also be the longest in Israel. This tunnel will be composed of a pair of parallel tunnels, each 9.2 m wide and 11.5 km in length, most of which will be bored using TBMs. The companies performing this work are the Israeli firm Shapir Civil & Marine Engineering Ltd. in partnership with the Italian engineering firm Impresa Pizzarotti & C. S.p.A. TBM excavation is scheduled to begin in the second half of 2012.
  • Mevaseret Zion – Jerusalem Binyanei HaUma Railway Station
    Jerusalem Binyanei HaUma Railway Station
    Jerusalem Binyanei HaUma Railway Station is a future railway station on the future high-speed railway to Jerusalem near Binyanei HaUma in Jerusalem, Israel. The station is currently under construction and will be mostly underground, 60–80 m deep...

    , Jerusalem (Section D) – includes two bridges, two parallel single-track tunnels 800–900 meters in length, and a 2.9 kilometre tunnel. Completion is estimated to take four years. The tender for construction was awarded in the fall of 2009 to Hofrey Hasharon Ltd. and the German holding company Max Bögl. The estimated cost is NIS 640 million. This section is supervised by Dana Engineering.

Bridges and tunnels


Below is a breakdown of the tunnels, bridges and underpasses found along the route.
NameLocationIntersectionTypeLengthStatus
Shafirim Interchange Under Road 412
Route 412 (Israel)
Route 412 , is a regional road in the south-east of the Tel Aviv Metropolitan Area in Israel. The road connects Bilu Jucntion south of Rehovot, with Yehud Ma'arav Junction, running through Rehovot, Ness Ziona, Rishon LeZion and Beit Dagan and spanning a distance of approximately 22 km.-Route...

Underpass Completed
Between Hemed
Hemed
Hemed is a religious moshav in central Israel. Located near Or Yehuda, it falls under the jurisdiction of Lod Valley Regional Council. In 2006 it had a population of 563....

 and Tzafria
Tzafria
Tzafria is a religious moshav in central Israel. Located near Ben Gurion International Airport, it falls under the jurisdiction of Lod Valley Regional Council. In 2006 it had a population of 600....

Under Road 4404 Underpass Completed
Bridge 1 Ben Gurion Interchange Above Highway 1
Highway 1 (Israel)
Highway 1 , is the main highway connecting Tel Aviv with Jerusalem.-History:The section between Latrun and Jerusalem roughly follows an ancient path connecting Jaffa and Jerusalem...

Bridge 550–600 m Completed
Between Lod Interchange and Lod Bridge Junction Over Eastern Coastal Railway
Eastern Railway (Israel)
The Eastern Railway refers to a railroad in central Israel stretching from Lod to Hadera. As of 2011, the section between Kfar Saba and Lod, as well as a short section just north of Hadera are in use, while the rest of the railway has not been operative since 1969, though there are plans to...

 and Highway 40
Highway 40 (Israel)
Highway 40 is a north-south intercity road in Israel. At 302 km long, it is the second longest highway in Israel, after Highway 90. The highway runs from Kfar Sava in the center of Israel to the Arabah in the south, serving as a main connection between central Israel and Be'er Sheva.-Route...

Bridge Completed
East of Ginaton Junction Over Road 443 Bridge Completed
Daniel Interchange Over Highway 6
Highway 6 (Israel)
Highway 6 , widely known as the Trans-Israel Highway or Cross-Israel Highway , is a major electronic toll highway in Israel. The highway was officially dedicated as the Yitzhak Rabin Highway , though this name is not commonly used. It started operating in the early 2000s and is being lengthened as...

Bridge Completed
Bridge 4 Near Sha'alvim
Sha'alvim
Sha'alvim is a religious kibbutz in central Israel. Located near the city of Modi'in-Maccabim-Re'ut, it falls under the jurisdiction of Gezer Regional Council.-History:...

Over entrance road to Sha'alvim Bridge 120 m Completed
Bridge 5 Near Sha'alvim Bridge 180 m Completed
Bridge 6 Valley of Ajalon Over Highway 3
Highway 3 (Israel)
Highway 3 is a highway in Israel. It begins at Beit Horon junction with Highway 443 near Modi'in, it passes through Kiryat Malakhi, and it ends a junction with Highway 4 on the outskirts of Ashkelon.- Plan for the future :...

 and the valley
Bridge 1,200–1,250 m
(40 m tall)
Completed
Tunnel 1 Canada Park
Canada Park
Canada Park is a national park stretching over 7,000 dunams, mostly in the West Bank, with a portion in the region that was a no man's land before 1967 and incorporated into Israel in 1967. It is maintained by the Jewish National Fund of Canada...

Under the park Tunnel (TBM) 2 x 3.5 km
Bridge 7 South of Mevo Horon
Mevo Horon
Mevo Horon is an Israeli settlement and religious moshav shitufi and Israeli settlement in the West Bank. Located near Latrun and Modi'in, it falls under the jurisdiction of Mateh Binyamin Regional Council. In 2007 it had a population of 1,200...

Bridge 80 m
Tunnel 2 Near Nataf Tunnel
(25% C&C, 75% NATM
New Austrian Tunnelling method
The New Austrian Tunnelling method was developed between 1957 and 1965 in Austria. It was given its name in Salzburg in 1962 to distinguish it from old Austrian tunnelling approach. The main contributors to the development of NATM were Ladislaus von Rabcewicz, Leopold Müller and Franz Pacher...

)
2 x 1,250 m Excavation completed
Bridge 8 West of Nataf Over Yitla Stream Bridge 150 m Under construction
Tunnel 3 Bab al-Wad, Abu Ghosh
Abu Ghosh
Abu Ghosh is an Israeli Arab town in Israel, located west of Jerusalem on the Tel Aviv-Jerusalem highway. It is situated 610–720 meters above sea level. In 2010, it set the Guinness World Record for largest dish of hummus...

Under Mount HaRu'ah, Mount HaHagana, Abu Ghosh Tunnel
(75% TBM, 25% D&B
Drilling and blasting
Before the advent of tunnel boring machines, drilling and blasting was the only economical way of excavating long tunnels through hard rock, where digging is not possible. Even today, the method is still used in the construction of tunnels, such as in the construction of the Lötschberg Base Tunnel...

)
2 x 11.5 km
Bridge 9 Mevaseret Zion
Mevaseret Zion
Mevaseret Zion is a suburb of Jerusalem, Israel. Mevaseret Zion is composed of two distinct townships, Maoz Zion and Mevaseret Yerushalayim—under the jurisdiction of one local council. The newer neighborhoods of Mevaseret Zion were not part of either settlement.Mevaseret Zion is located on a...

Bridge 255 m
Tunnel 3a Mevaseret Zion Tunnel (NATM) 2 x 850 m
Bridge 10 Mevaseret Zion Bridge 975 m
(80 m tall)
Tunnel 4 Jerusalem—from near Ginot Saharov
Sakharov Gardens
The Sakharov Gardens is a traffic junction on the highway from Tel Aviv to Jerusalem. Ginot Sakharov was named for Andrei Sakharov....

 to Binyanei HaUma
Under Lifta
Lifta
Lifta was an Arab village on the outskirts of Jerusalem. Its population fled during the Arab-Jewish hostilities of 1947/48 and the efforts to relieve the Siege of Jerusalem . The village and spring for which it is named are now a park on the hillside between the western entrance to Jerusalem and...

Tunnel (NATM) 2.9 km

Financial difficulties


Due to the extremely high cost of the project, it faced financial difficulties from the start, despite being Israel Railways' flagship project. The initial cost was estimated at NIS 2.8 bln., although after a re-evaluation in 2008, it rose to about NIS 6 bln, and required NIS 2 bln. more to be invested by the Israeli government. This has caused a significant delay in starting the tunneling stage of the project pending the evaluation by the Ministry of Transport which eventually showed that, while the costs rose sharply, forecast demand rose sharply as well. The ministry further decided to indefinitely postpone implementing the plans for a future link from the railway to Modi'in (B2) east to Jerusalem. On December 2, 2008 the Israeli cabinet instructed Israel Railways to continue with the project despite the higher estimate and the Ministry of Finance to allocate the additional NIS 3 bln coverage necessary to proceed with construction. By 2010, the cost had risen to NIS 6.9 bln.

Shapir Engineering, which won the tender to build Section C between Sha'ar HaGai and Mevasseret Zion, was forced to delay the project by two years because Israel Railways issued the tender before the necessary permits were procured from the relevant government authorities. The issue was only resolved in summer 2009. Shapir suffered financial losses because of this, and sued Israel Railways for NIS 500 million, a sum that will be added to the project's overall cost if the courts side with Shapir.

Administrative disputes and tender controversies


Israel Railways published a tender for supervising the constructions of sections B and C, which stipulated that only companies with experience overseeing projects of NIS 1 bln or more could participate. This caused controversy because only the company Dana Engineering actually had such experience in Israel. The companies Eldad Spivak and A. Epstein joined into a holding company
Holding company
A holding company is a company or firm that owns other companies' outstanding stock. It usually refers to a company which does not produce goods or services itself; rather, its purpose is to own shares of other companies. Holding companies allow the reduction of risk for the owners and can allow...

 in order to compete in the tender, which they won.

However, Israel Railways appointed Dan Ari, a former executive in Dana Engineering, as responsible for the entire project, and disputes between Spivak and Epstein and Ari led to the holding company's resignation from the project. They were replaced by Dana Engineering. In late 2010, the railways decided to create a new administration for the project, leaving Dan Ari out of the picture.

Dirt dumpage and engineering problems


A notable stumbling block, still unresolved as of January 2008, is the issue of where to put the excess dirt dug up in the tunnels. Temporary mounds have been created, but this method, aside from hurting the environment, will be insufficient for the main tunnel (Tunnel 3). Israel Railways has also come to odds with the engineering company, Ami Mtom, responsible for the project involving additional payments to be made due to changes made to the original design of the railway, which is likely to further delay progress. Additional dirt will be dumped in a new landfill on a site next to the Sha'ar HaGai interchange between Tel Aviv and Jerusalem.

The project has come under fire for two consecutive tunnel collapses in Tunnel 3a in January and March 2011. Both incidents ended without casualties.

Yitla Stream


One of the main environmental issues with the project, and a source of opposition from green organization
Green politics
Green politics is a political ideology that aims for the creation of an ecologically sustainable society rooted in environmentalism, social liberalism, and grassroots democracy...

s, is the railway's passage through the Yitla Stream, a national park and Biblical location mentioned in the Book of Joshua
Book of Joshua
The Book of Joshua is the sixth book in the Hebrew Bible and of the Old Testament. Its 24 chapters tell of the entry of the Israelites into Canaan, their conquest and division of the land under the leadership of Joshua, and of serving God in the land....

. The greens' campaign is led by Ze'ev HaCohen from the Parks Authority and Avraham Shaked from the Society for the Protection of Nature
Society for the Protection of Nature in Israel
The Society for the Protection of Nature in Israel , or SPNI, is an Israeli non-profit environmental organization working to preserve plants, animals, and natural environments that represent bio-diversity, by protecting the lands and waters needed for their survival, and is Israel's oldest and...

 (SPNI), who are proposing an alternate design that would replace the currently proposed tunnels 2 and 3 with a single, combined longer and deeper tunnel that will pass under the stream, based on the opinion of the German tunneling expert Alfred Haack. According to them, their proposal, opposed by Israel Railways, will save money in the long run.

The main points of contention with the current design are a 150 m rail bridge (Bridge 8) over the stream, and a 200 m paved access road that will be created to aid the construction work. While Israel Railways and the Ministry of Finance claim to oppose the longer combined tunnel proposal on financial and construction-time related reasons, Globes
Globes
Globes is a Hebrew language daily evening financial newspaper, published in Israel. According to TGI 2009 media survey Globes' market share rose 15% over the year to 4.4%. Its main competitors in printed media are TheMarker of Haaretz group and Calcalist published by Yedioth Ahronoth Group...

 columnist Moshe Lichtman argues that the opposition is based on a combination of ego and the unwillingness, in principle, to change construction plans at the last minute. Nevertheless, in March 2009 the Jerusalem area regional infrastructure planning commission recommended against the environmentalists' plan and choose to proceed with Israel Railways' original two-tunnel plan. The plan was then forwarded to the National infrastructure planning commission for a final decision on the matter. On April 5, 2009, the SPNI submitted a petition with thousands of signatures against the line, including that of Prof. Robert Aumann
Robert Aumann
Robert John Aumann is an Israeli-American mathematician and a member of the United States National Academy of Sciences. He is a professor at the Center for the Study of Rationality in the Hebrew University of Jerusalem in Israel...

.

On June 23, 2009, the environmentalists' petitions were rejected, and the planning committee decided that there would be a bridge over the Yitla Stream, in line with the previous recommendations of the Sadan Committee. Israel Railways and the Jerusalem Municipality supported the decision. The decision in favor of a bridge over the stream was ratified by the National Planning Committee in August 2009, subject to design changes to be made to the bridge site to make it more environmentally-friendly.

West Bank passages and Mevasseret Zion


The railway has also been criticized by the political left and the Palestinians for having two separate sections that pass through the West Bank
West Bank
The West Bank ) of the Jordan River is the landlocked geographical eastern part of the Palestinian territories located in Western Asia. To the west, north, and south, the West Bank shares borders with the state of Israel. To the east, across the Jordan River, lies the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan...

, totaling 6 km. Most of this distance passes through tunnels, one in the Latrun
Latrun
Latrun is a strategic hilltop in the Ayalon Valley in Israel overlooking the road to Jerusalem. It is located 25 kilometers west of Jerusalem and 14 kilometers southeast of Ramla.-Etymology:...

 area, and the other just north of Mevasseret Zion, after the town's residents protested the route going underneath the town. For this reason, the German company Deutsche Bahn
Deutsche Bahn
Deutsche Bahn AG is the German national railway company, a private joint stock company . Headquartered in Berlin, it came into existence in 1994 as the successor to the former state railways of Germany, the Deutsche Bundesbahn of West Germany and the Deutsche Reichsbahn of East Germany...

, which advised Israel Railways on the project, withdrew from it under pressure of pro-Palestinian organizations. The residents of Mevasseret are also waging a campaign in favor of using a tunnel boring machine
Tunnel boring machine
A tunnel boring machine also known as a "mole", is a machine used to excavate tunnels with a circular cross section through a variety of soil and rock strata. They can bore through anything from hard rock to sand. Tunnel diameters can range from a metre to almost 16 metres to date...

 (TBM) to dig the tunnel in their section.

Stations



The following stations will be found on the line:
  • Ben Gurion Airport Railway Station
    Ben Gurion Airport Railway Station
    Ben Gurion Airport Railway Station is a station on the Israel Railways lines between Tel Aviv and Modi'in. The station is located in the lower level of Ben Gurion International Airport's Terminal 3, and was opened in 2004.-Services:...

     – located within Terminal 3 of the Ben Gurion International Airport
    Ben Gurion International Airport
    Ben Gurion International Airport , also referred to by its Hebrew acronym Natbag , is the largest and busiest international airport in Israel, handling 12,160,339 passengers in 2010...

    .
  • Jerusalem Binyanei HaUma Railway Station
    Jerusalem Binyanei HaUma Railway Station
    Jerusalem Binyanei HaUma Railway Station is a future railway station on the future high-speed railway to Jerusalem near Binyanei HaUma in Jerusalem, Israel. The station is currently under construction and will be mostly underground, 60–80 m deep...

     – when built, will be located next to the Jerusalem Central Bus Station
    Jerusalem Central Bus Station
    The Jerusalem Central Bus Station is the main bus depot in Jerusalem, Israel and one of the busiest bus stations in the country. Located on Jaffa Road near the entrance to the city, it serves Egged, Superbus and Dan intercity bus routes...

    , 80 meters underground. The station will also double as a bomb shelter.


After the completion of the project, there are plans to connect the second station with the Jerusalem Malha station through a continuation of the tunnel from Mevaseret Zion
Mevaseret Zion
Mevaseret Zion is a suburb of Jerusalem, Israel. Mevaseret Zion is composed of two distinct townships, Maoz Zion and Mevaseret Yerushalayim—under the jurisdiction of one local council. The newer neighborhoods of Mevaseret Zion were not part of either settlement.Mevaseret Zion is located on a...

.

Modi'in branch


The Modi'in branch was completely opened on April 1, 2008 and includes two stations: Pa'atei Modi'in and Modi'in Center. The latter is underground, like the future Jerusalem Binyanei HaUma station, therefore making it possible to continue the line further into the city and beyond. In the past, various government panels have expressed the desire to continue this line, but until a permanent agreement with the Palestinian Authority is reached, this would not be possible, as a continuation of the railway from the Modi'in branch northwards or eastwards will have to pass through the West Bank
West Bank
The West Bank ) of the Jordan River is the landlocked geographical eastern part of the Palestinian territories located in Western Asia. To the west, north, and south, the West Bank shares borders with the state of Israel. To the east, across the Jordan River, lies the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan...

.

External links