Helmet

Helmet

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A helmet is a form of protective gear worn on the head
Human head
In human anatomy, the head is the upper portion of the human body. It supports the face and is maintained by the skull, which itself encloses the brain.-Cultural importance:...

 to protect it from injuries.

Ceremonial or symbolic helmets (e.g., English policeman's helmet
Custodian helmet
Custodian helmet or centurion helmet, technically known as a 'Home Office pattern helmet', is a helmet worn by many policemen in England and Wales.-History:...

) without protective function are sometimes used. The oldest known use of helmets was by Assyrian soldiers in 900BC, who wore thick leather or bronze helmets to protect the head from blunt object and sword
Sword
A sword is a bladed weapon used primarily for cutting or thrusting. The precise definition of the term varies with the historical epoch or the geographical region under consideration...

 blows and arrow
Arrow
An arrow is a shafted projectile that is shot with a bow. It predates recorded history and is common to most cultures.An arrow usually consists of a shaft with an arrowhead attached to the front end, with fletchings and a nock at the other.- History:...

 strikes in combat. Soldiers still wear helmets, now often made from lightweight plastic materials
Kevlar
Kevlar is the registered trademark for a para-aramid synthetic fiber, related to other aramids such as Nomex and Technora. Developed at DuPont in 1965, this high strength material was first commercially used in the early 1970s as a replacement for steel in racing tires...

.

In civilian life, helmets are used for recreational activities and sports (e.g., jockey
Jockey
A jockey is an athlete who rides horses in horse racing or steeplechase racing, primarily as a profession. The word also applies to camel riders in camel racing.-Etymology:...

s in horse racing
Horse racing
Horse racing is an equestrian sport that has a long history. Archaeological records indicate that horse racing occurred in ancient Babylon, Syria, and Egypt. Both chariot and mounted horse racing were events in the ancient Greek Olympics by 648 BC...

, American football
American football
American football is a sport played between two teams of eleven with the objective of scoring points by advancing the ball into the opposing team's end zone. Known in the United States simply as football, it may also be referred to informally as gridiron football. The ball can be advanced by...

, ice hockey
Ice hockey
Ice hockey, often referred to as hockey, is a team sport played on ice, in which skaters use wooden or composite sticks to shoot a hard rubber puck into their opponent's net. The game is played between two teams of six players each. Five members of each team skate up and down the ice trying to take...

, cricket
Cricket
Cricket is a bat-and-ball game played between two teams of 11 players on an oval-shaped field, at the centre of which is a rectangular 22-yard long pitch. One team bats, trying to score as many runs as possible while the other team bowls and fields, trying to dismiss the batsmen and thus limit the...

, baseball
Baseball
Baseball is a bat-and-ball sport played between two teams of nine players each. The aim is to score runs by hitting a thrown ball with a bat and touching a series of four bases arranged at the corners of a ninety-foot diamond...

, and rock climbing
Rock climbing
Rock climbing also lightly called 'The Gravity Game', is a sport in which participants climb up, down or across natural rock formations or artificial rock walls. The goal is to reach the summit of a formation or the endpoint of a pre-defined route without falling...

); dangerous work activities (e.g., construction
Construction
In the fields of architecture and civil engineering, construction is a process that consists of the building or assembling of infrastructure. Far from being a single activity, large scale construction is a feat of human multitasking...

, mining
Mining
Mining is the extraction of valuable minerals or other geological materials from the earth, from an ore body, vein or seam. The term also includes the removal of soil. Materials recovered by mining include base metals, precious metals, iron, uranium, coal, diamonds, limestone, oil shale, rock...

, riot police); and transportation (e.g., Motorcycle helmet
Motorcycle helmet
A motorcycle helmet is a type of protective headgear used by motorcycle riders. The primary goal of a motorcycle helmet is motorcycle safety - to protect the rider's head during impact, thus preventing or reducing head injury or saving the rider's life...

s and bicycle helmet
Bicycle helmet
A bicycle helmet is a helmet intended to be worn while riding a bicycle. They are designed to attenuate impacts to the skull of a cyclist in falls while minimizing side effects such as interference with peripheral vision...

s). Since the 1990s, most helmets are made from resin
Resin
Resin in the most specific use of the term is a hydrocarbon secretion of many plants, particularly coniferous trees. Resins are valued for their chemical properties and associated uses, such as the production of varnishes, adhesives, and food glazing agents; as an important source of raw materials...

 or plastic
Plastic
A plastic material is any of a wide range of synthetic or semi-synthetic organic solids used in the manufacture of industrial products. Plastics are typically polymers of high molecular mass, and may contain other substances to improve performance and/or reduce production costs...

, which may be reinforced with fibers such as aramid
Aramid
Aramid fibers are a class of heat-resistant and strong synthetic fibers. They are used in aerospace and military applications, for ballistic rated body armor fabric and ballistic composites, in bicycle tires, and as an asbestos substitute. The name is a portmanteau of "aromatic polyamide"...

s.

Design


All helmets attempt to protect the user's head by absorbing mechanical energy and protecting against penetration. Their structure and protective capacity are altered in high-energy impacts. Beside their energy-absorption capability, their volume and weight are also important issues, since higher volume and weight increase the injury risk for the user's head and neck. Anatomical helmets adapted to the inner head structure were invented by neurosurgeons
Neurosurgery
Neurosurgery is the medical specialty concerned with the prevention, diagnosis, treatment, and rehabilitation of disorders which affect any portion of the nervous system including the brain, spine, spinal cord, peripheral nerves, and extra-cranial cerebrovascular system.-In the United States:In...

 at the end of the 20th century.

Helmets used for different purposes have different designs. For example, a bicycle helmet
Bicycle helmet
A bicycle helmet is a helmet intended to be worn while riding a bicycle. They are designed to attenuate impacts to the skull of a cyclist in falls while minimizing side effects such as interference with peripheral vision...

 must protect against blunt impact forces from the wearer's head striking the road. A helmet designed for rock climbing must protect against heavy impact, and against objects such as small rocks and climbing equipment
Climbing equipment
A wide range of equipment is used during rock climbing. The most popular types of climbing equipment are briefly described in this article. The article on protecting a climb describes equipment commonly used to protect a climber against the consequences of a fall....

 falling from above. Practical concerns also dictate helmet design: a bicycling helmet should be aerodynamic in shape and well ventilated, while a rock climbing helmet must be lightweight and small so that it does not interfere with climbing.

Some helmets have other protective elements attached to them, such as a face visor
Visor
A visor is a surface that protects the eyes, such as shading them from the sun or other bright light or protecting them from objects....

s or goggles
Goggles
Goggles or safety glasses are forms of protective eyewear that usually enclose or protect the area surrounding the eye in order to prevent particulates, water or chemicals from striking the eyes. They are used in chemistry laboratories and in woodworking. They are often used in snow sports as well,...

 or a face cage
Face cage
A face cage is a type of protective visor for attaching to a helmet. It is a cagework of thick wire or thin metal bars attached over the face.Links to images:* For karate* For hockey* For baseball* For martial arts...

, and ear plugs and other forms of protective headgear, and a communications system. Sports helmets may have an integrated metal face protector (face cage
Face cage
A face cage is a type of protective visor for attaching to a helmet. It is a cagework of thick wire or thin metal bars attached over the face.Links to images:* For karate* For hockey* For baseball* For martial arts...

).
  • Baseball batting helmets have an expanded protection over the ear, which protects the jaw from injury.
  • Motorcycle helmets often have flip-down face screens for rain and wind protection, and they may also have projecting visors to protect the eyes from glare.
  • Hard hat
    Hard hat
    A hard hat is a type of helmet predominantly used in workplace environments, such as construction sites, to protect the head from injury by falling objects, impact with other objects, debris, bad weather and electric shock. Inside the helmet is a suspension that spreads the helmet's weight over the...

    s for construction workers are worn mainly to protect the wearer from falling objects such as tools.
  • Helmets for riot police often have flip-down clear visors and thick padding to protect the back of the neck.
  • Modern firefighter's helmets protect the face and back of the head against impact, fires and electricity, and can include masks, communication systems, and other accessories.
  • Welding helmets protect the eyes and face and neck from flash burn, ultraviolet light, sparks and heat. They have a small window, called a lens shade, through which the welder looks at the weld; for arc welding
    Arc welding
    Arc welding is a type of welding that uses a welding power supply to create an electric arc between an electrode and the base material to melt the metals at the welding point. They can use either direct or alternating current, and consumable or non-consumable electrodes...

     this window must be much darker than in blowtorch goggles and sunglasses
    Sunglasses
    Sunglasses or sun glasses are a form of protective eyewear designed primarily to prevent bright sunlight and high-energy visible light from damaging or discomforting the eyes. They can sometimes also function as a visual aid, as variously termed spectacles or glasses exist, featuring lenses that...

    .
  • People with some medical conditions must wear a helmet to protect the brain, due to a gap in the braincase, e.g. because of cleidocranial dysostosis
    Cleidocranial dysostosis
    Cleidocranial dysostosis, also called Cleidocranial dysplasia, is a hereditary congenital disorder due to haploinsufficiency caused by mutations in the CBFA1 gene also called Runx2, located on the short arm of chromosome 6....

     or in separated craniopagus twins
    Craniopagus twins
    Craniopagus twins are conjoined twins who are conjoined at the cranium. This condition occurs in conjoined twin in about 1 in every 2,500,000 births...

    .
  • Mixed martial arts
    Mixed martial arts
    Mixed Martial Arts is a full contact combat sport that allows the use of both striking and grappling techniques, both standing and on the ground, including boxing, wrestling, Brazilian jiu-jitsu, muay Thai, kickboxing, karate, judo and other styles. The roots of modern mixed martial arts can be...

     helmets have ear pads to prevent serious injuries to the athletes, who do not usually endure such force to the ears.

Materials


Types of synthetic fiber used to make some helmets:
  • Aramid
    Aramid
    Aramid fibers are a class of heat-resistant and strong synthetic fibers. They are used in aerospace and military applications, for ballistic rated body armor fabric and ballistic composites, in bicycle tires, and as an asbestos substitute. The name is a portmanteau of "aromatic polyamide"...

  • Twaron
    Twaron
    Twaron is the brandname of Teijin Aramid for a para-aramid. It is a heat-resistant and strong synthetic fibre developed in the early 1970s by the Dutch company AKZO, division Enka, later Akzo Industrial Fibers. The research name of the para-aramid fibre was originally Fiber X, but it was soon...



In former times lightweight non-metallic protective materials and strong transparent materials for visor
Visor
A visor is a surface that protects the eyes, such as shading them from the sun or other bright light or protecting them from objects....

s were not available. In Greece in ancient times helmets were sometimes strengthened by covering the surface with boar
Boar
Wild boar, also wild pig, is a species of the pig genus Sus, part of the biological family Suidae. The species includes many subspecies. It is the wild ancestor of the domestic pig, an animal with which it freely hybridises...

s' tusk
Tusk
Tusks are elongated, continuously growing front teeth, usually but not always in pairs, that protrude well beyond the mouth of certain mammal species. They are most commonly canines, as with warthogs, wild boar, and walruses, or, in the case of elephants and narwhals, elongated incisors...

s (= their canine teeth) laid flat.

In Britain in the 18th and 19th centuries gamekeeper
Gamekeeper
A gamekeeper is a person who manages an area of countryside to make sure there is enough game for shooting, or fish for angling, and who actively manages areas of woodland, moorland, waterway or farmland for the benefit of game birds, deer, fish and wildlife in general.Typically, a gamekeeper is...

s, for head protection in fights against poacher
Poacher
Poacher may refer to:*One who engages in poaching, the theft or illegal killing of animals or plants*A device used for poaching *Poacher , a family of fish...

s, sometimes wore helmets (perhaps more describable as thick bump caps) made of straw
Straw
Straw is an agricultural by-product, the dry stalks of cereal plants, after the grain and chaff have been removed. Straw makes up about half of the yield of cereal crops such as barley, oats, rice, rye and wheat. It has many uses, including fuel, livestock bedding and fodder, thatching and...

 bound together with cut bramble
Bramble
Brambles are thorny plants of the genus Rubus, in the rose family . Bramble fruit is the fruit of any such plant, including the blackberry and raspberry. The word comes from Germanic *bram-bezi, whence also German Brombeere , Dutch Braam and French framboise...

.

Military


See Combat helmet
Combat helmet
A combat helmet or battle helmet is a type of personal armor designed specifically to protect the head during combat. Helmets are among the oldest forms of personal protective equipment and are known to have been worn by the Akkadians/Sumerians in the 23rd century BC, Mycenaean Greeks since 17th...

for a list of helmets worn in (ancient and modern) battle combat
  • Fighter pilot helmet
    Fighter pilot helmet
    A flight helmet, sometimes nicknamed a "bone dome", is a special type of helmet primarily worn by military aircrew.A flight helmet can provide:...

  • PH helmet
    PH helmet
    The P helmet, PH helmet and PHG helmet were early types of gas mask issued by the British Army in the First World War, to protect troops against chlorine, phosgene and tear gases...

    —actually a flexible hood: early types of British gas masks
  • Leather helmet
    Leather helmet
    A leather helmet is a form of protective headgear fashioned primarily out of leather .People have manufactured leather clothing, including headgear, for millennia....

    —aviator and tank operator headgear

Motorcycle and bicycle helmets


  • Motorcycle helmet
    Motorcycle helmet
    A motorcycle helmet is a type of protective headgear used by motorcycle riders. The primary goal of a motorcycle helmet is motorcycle safety - to protect the rider's head during impact, thus preventing or reducing head injury or saving the rider's life...

    —protective helmet for motorcycle riders
  • Bicycle helmet
    Bicycle helmet
    A bicycle helmet is a helmet intended to be worn while riding a bicycle. They are designed to attenuate impacts to the skull of a cyclist in falls while minimizing side effects such as interference with peripheral vision...

    —protective helmet for bicycle riders

Sports


  • Cricket helmet
    Helmet (cricket)
    In the sport of cricket, batsmen often wear a helmet to protect themselves from injury by the cricket ball, which is very hard and can be bowled to them at speeds over ....

    —protective headgear worn by batsmen in a game of cricket
    • A helmet is also worn by a wicket keeper and some fielders close to the batsman.
  • Equestrian helmet—protective headgear worn by horse riders
  • Batting helmet
    Batting helmet
    A batting helmet is the protective headgear worn by batters in the game of baseball or softball. It is meant to protect the batter's head from errant pitches thrown by the pitcher...

    —protective headgear worn by batters in a game of baseball or softball
    • catcher's full face helmet
  • Bull riding
    Bull riding
    Bull riding refers to rodeo sports that involve a rider getting on a large bull and attempting to stay mounted while the animal attempts to buck off the rider....

     helmet
  • Football helmet
    Football helmet
    A football helmet is a protective device used primarily in American football and Canadian football. It consists of a hard plastic top with thick padding on the inside, a face mask made of one or more plastic bars, and a chinstrap. Some players add polycarbonate visors to their helmets, which are...

    —for American football and Canadian football
    • Eyeshield
      Eyeshield
      An eyeshield is a piece of football equipment. It is a visor that attaches to the helmet of a player to protect the eyes. It leaves the mouth exposed and covers the eyes and nose. Only clear eyeshields are allowed in high school football. On the college level, a clear eyeshield may be used if the...

      —a type of visor for a football helmet
  • Hockey helmet
    Hockey helmet
    A hockey helmet is worn by players of ice hockey and inline hockey to help protect the head from potential injury when hit by the puck, sticks, skates, boards, other players, or the ice.-Construction:...

    • Goalie mask
  • Lacrosse helmet
    Lacrosse helmet
    A lacrosse helmet is a protective headpiece worn primarily in men's lacrosse, but also worn optionally by women's lacrosse players in Australia. Modern helmets consist of a hard plastic, non-adjustable shell with thick padding on the inside, a face mask made of metal bars, and a chinstrap used to...

  • Pith helmet
    Pith helmet
    The pith helmet is a lightweight cloth-covered helmet made of cork or pith...

     (a.k.a. sun helmet)
  • Ski helmet
    Ski helmet
    A ski helmet or snowboard helmet is a protective head covering specifically designed and constructed for wintersports, often insulated against cold weather. Design includes the ability to withstand multiple impacts. This protective gear comes in different styles and types - full shell, short...

    —protective helmet for skiers
  • Association football headgear
    Association football headgear
    Association football headgear is worn by association football players to protect the head from injury. The headgear is designed to absorb the impact of blows to the head by external physical forces in order to reduce the chance of a concussion, a noteworthy example in international football being...

    —protective headgear worn by some association football (soccer) players
  • A helmet is worn in bobsledding
  • A helmet is worn in the Gaelic sport of hurling
    Hurling
    Hurling is an outdoor team game of ancient Gaelic origin, administered by the Gaelic Athletic Association, and played with sticks called hurleys and a ball called a sliotar. Hurling is the national game of Ireland. The game has prehistoric origins, has been played for at least 3,000 years, and...

  • A helmet may be worn whilst wakeboarding
    Wakeboarding
    Wakeboarding is a surface water sport which involves riding a wakeboard over the surface of a body of water. It was developed from a combination of water skiing, snow boarding and surfing techniques....

    . These helmets must be waterproof and may come with ear protectors to reduce the chance of a burst ear drum after a bad fall
  • Safety helmet for scuba diving
    Scuba diving
    Scuba diving is a form of underwater diving in which a diver uses a scuba set to breathe underwater....

    . Not air-holding. May have a built-in forehead light. Images at http://www.flashbackscuba.com/museum/rediscovery/rediscovery.html.
  • Helmets are routinely worn in most forms of auto racing
    Auto racing
    Auto racing is a motorsport involving the racing of cars for competition. It is one of the world's most watched televised sports.-The beginning of racing:...

     in both driver and pit crew forms.

Work

  • Diving helmet
    Diving helmet
    Diving helmets are worn mainly by professional divers engaged in surface supplied diving, though many models can be adapted for use with scuba equipment....

    —worn by professional divers engaged in surface supplied diving
  • Hard hat
    Hard hat
    A hard hat is a type of helmet predominantly used in workplace environments, such as construction sites, to protect the head from injury by falling objects, impact with other objects, debris, bad weather and electric shock. Inside the helmet is a suspension that spreads the helmet's weight over the...

    —often seen on building sites; may have a visor
  • Miner's helmet
    Miner's helmet
    A Mining helmet is a type of helmet worn for safety purposes by miners while in the process of underground mining, similar to a hard hat. They sometimes have an electric light affixed.-Examples:* Comfo-Cap, manufactured by Mine Safety Appliances...

  • Space helmet
  • Welding helmet
    Welding helmet
    Welding helmets are headgear used when performing certain types of welding to protect the eyes, face and neck from flash burn, ultraviolet light, sparks, infrared light, and heat. Most commonly used with arc welding processes such as shielded metal arc welding, gas tungsten arc welding, and gas...

    —worn by welders

Protective and emergency services

  • Custodian helmet
    Custodian helmet
    Custodian helmet or centurion helmet, technically known as a 'Home Office pattern helmet', is a helmet worn by many policemen in England and Wales.-History:...

    —symbolic British police headgear
  • Firefighter's helmet
    • F1 helmet—French type firefighter helmet
    • Merryweather helmets—Victorian-era
      Victorian era
      The Victorian era of British history was the period of Queen Victoria's reign from 20 June 1837 until her death on 22 January 1901. It was a long period of peace, prosperity, refined sensibilities and national self-confidence...

       fire helmet in Britain and Hong Kong
  • Lifeboatman's helmet
    Lifeboatman's helmet
    A lifeboatman's helmet is designed to protect the heads of lifeboatmen at their work in rough sea.The sort described here is currently in use at Southport lifeboat station in England....

    . The lifeboatman's helmet depicted below (seen at Southport
    Southport
    Southport is a seaside town in the Metropolitan Borough of Sefton in Merseyside, England. During the 2001 census Southport was recorded as having a population of 90,336, making it the eleventh most populous settlement in North West England...

     lifeboat station in England on 7 September 2008) covers the same area as a motorcycle helmet
    Motorcycle helmet
    A motorcycle helmet is a type of protective headgear used by motorcycle riders. The primary goal of a motorcycle helmet is motorcycle safety - to protect the rider's head during impact, thus preventing or reducing head injury or saving the rider's life...

     including all of the ears, Its casing is thinner, and nearer to the size of the head, and has lengthwise ridges. It has a transparent visor to keep sea spray
    Sea spray
    Sea spray is a spray of water that forms when ocean waves crash.-Make up:As a result, salt spray contains a high concentration of mineral salts, particularly chloride anions.-Effects:...

     out of the eyes. It has a chinstrap
    Chinstrap
    The chinstrap beard is a type of facial hair that extends from the hair line of one side of the face to the other, following the jawline, much like the chin curtain; unlike the chin curtain though, it does not cover the entire chin, but only the very edges of the jaw and chin...

    . Its lining is not padded but inflatable; it has an inflation tube ending at the red nipple (at the bottom of the image), to inflate the lining by mouth to fit it firmly on the head. It has a microphone
    Microphone
    A microphone is an acoustic-to-electric transducer or sensor that converts sound into an electrical signal. In 1877, Emile Berliner invented the first microphone used as a telephone voice transmitter...

     and an intercom
    Intercom
    An intercom , talkback or doorphone is a stand-alone voice communications system for use within a building or small collection of buildings, functioning independently of the public telephone network. Intercoms are generally mounted permanently in buildings and vehicles...

     lead.
  • Riotsquad helmet
    Riotsquad helmet
    A riot protection helmet is a type of helmet designed for law enforcement and military use to protect its wearer's head, face and eyes from handheld melee weapons, and thrown projectiles such as bricks, as may be met in riot control...

  • SWAT
    SWAT
    A SWAT team is an elite tactical unit in various national law enforcement departments. They are trained to perform high-risk operations that fall outside of the abilities of regular officers...

     team helmet—mostly PASGT
    Personnel Armor System for Ground Troops
    Personnel Armor System for Ground Troops, sometimes abbreviated to PASGT, was a combat helmet and ballistic vest used by the American military from the mid 1980s until 2005, when the system was succeeded by the Lightweight Helmet, Modular Integrated Communications Helmet, and Interceptor body...

     type

Other helmets

  • Pith helmet
    Pith helmet
    The pith helmet is a lightweight cloth-covered helmet made of cork or pith...

    —sun protection helmet
  • Mahiole
    Mahiole
    Hawaiian feather helmets, known as mahiole in the Hawaiian language, were worn with [[ʻahuʻula | feather cloaks (ʻahu ʻula)]]. These were symbols of the highest rank reserved for the men of the alii, the chiefly class of Hawaii. There are examples of this traditional headgear in museums around the...

    —Hawaiian feathered helmet
  • Winged helmet
    Winged helmet
    A winged helmet is a helmet decorated with wings, usually on both sides. Ancient depictions of the god Mercury and of Roma depict them wearing winged helmets, however in the 19th century the winged helmet became widely used to depict ancient Celtic, Germanic and Viking warriors. It was also used...

    —fictional Scandinavian helmet
  • Balaclava helmet—not really a helmet, a woollen face covering against cold, sometimes used for concealment
  • Tarnhelm
    Tarnhelm
    Tarnhelm is the name of a magic helmet in Richard Wagner's Der Ring des Nibelungen. It is used as a cloak of invisibility by Alberich in Das Rheingold...

    , mythical helmet that makes its wearer invisible
  • Protective helmets for mentally disabled persons.

Heraldry


As the coat of arms
Coat of arms
A coat of arms is a unique heraldic design on a shield or escutcheon or on a surcoat or tabard used to cover and protect armour and to identify the wearer. Thus the term is often stated as "coat-armour", because it was anciently displayed on the front of a coat of cloth...

 was originally designed to distinguish combatants on the battlefield or in a tournament, even while covered in armour, it is not surprising that heraldic
Heraldry
Heraldry is the profession, study, or art of creating, granting, and blazoning arms and ruling on questions of rank or protocol, as exercised by an officer of arms. Heraldry comes from Anglo-Norman herald, from the Germanic compound harja-waldaz, "army commander"...

 elements were often also used for the decoration of knight
Knight
A knight was a member of a class of lower nobility in the High Middle Ages.By the Late Middle Ages, the rank had become associated with the ideals of chivalry, a code of conduct for the perfect courtly Christian warrior....

ly helmets, while it was also possible to use different elements than on the shield, but equally standardized.

Furthermore, it became common to use a helmet (or some other headgear, e.g. a crown or coronet) as part of the coat of arms, above the shield, a practice maintained long after helmets themselves ceased to be used. In some systems, the rank of the bearer was reflected in the model of the emblematic helmet, e.g. the metal and the number of bars in the visor
Visor
A visor is a surface that protects the eyes, such as shading them from the sun or other bright light or protecting them from objects....

, as in France. The rank can be denoted by a coronet
Coronet
A coronet is a small crown consisting of ornaments fixed on a metal ring. Unlike a crown, a coronet never has arches.The word stems from the Old French coronete, a diminutive of coronne , itself from the Latin corona .Traditionally, such headgear is – as indicated by the German equivalent...

 or wreath
Wreath
A wreath is an assortment of flowers, leaves, fruits, twigs and/or various materials that is constructed to resemble a ring. They are used typically as Christmas decorations to symbolize the coming of Christ, also known as the Advent season in Christianity. They are also used as festive headdresses...

 placed on the helmet (often instead of directly above the shield).

The heraldic convention in the United Kingdom is as follows:
  • Sovereign: a barred helm of gold, placed affronté
  • Peers generally: barred helms of silver decorated with gold, placed sideways and showing five bars
  • Baronet's or Knight's helmet:
  • Esquire's and Gentleman's helmet: closed helm or visored helm with visor down, Steel, placed sideways


External links


  • "Helmets...A Medieval Note In Modern Warfare", August 1942, Popular Science
    Popular Science
    Popular Science is an American monthly magazine founded in 1872 carrying articles for the general reader on science and technology subjects. Popular Science has won over 58 awards, including the ASME awards for its journalistic excellence in both 2003 and 2004...

    evolution of military helmets