Heliostat

Heliostat

Overview

A heliostat is a device that includes a mirror, usually a plane mirror
Plane mirror
A plane mirror is a mirror with a plane reflective surface.For light rays striking a plane mirror, the angle of reflection equals the angle of incidence...

, which turns so as to keep reflecting sunlight toward a predetermined target, compensating for the sun's apparent motions in the sky. The target may be a physical object, distant from the heliostat, or a direction in space. To do this, the reflective surface of the mirror is kept perpendicular
Perpendicular
In geometry, two lines or planes are considered perpendicular to each other if they form congruent adjacent angles . The term may be used as a noun or adjective...

 to the bisector
Bisection
In geometry, bisection is the division of something into two equal or congruent parts, usually by a line, which is then called a bisector. The most often considered types of bisectors are the segment bisector and the angle bisector In geometry, bisection is the division of something into two equal...

 of the angle
Angle
In geometry, an angle is the figure formed by two rays sharing a common endpoint, called the vertex of the angle.Angles are usually presumed to be in a Euclidean plane with the circle taken for standard with regard to direction. In fact, an angle is frequently viewed as a measure of an circular arc...

 between the directions of the sun and the target as seen from the mirror.
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Encyclopedia

A heliostat is a device that includes a mirror, usually a plane mirror
Plane mirror
A plane mirror is a mirror with a plane reflective surface.For light rays striking a plane mirror, the angle of reflection equals the angle of incidence...

, which turns so as to keep reflecting sunlight toward a predetermined target, compensating for the sun's apparent motions in the sky. The target may be a physical object, distant from the heliostat, or a direction in space. To do this, the reflective surface of the mirror is kept perpendicular
Perpendicular
In geometry, two lines or planes are considered perpendicular to each other if they form congruent adjacent angles . The term may be used as a noun or adjective...

 to the bisector
Bisection
In geometry, bisection is the division of something into two equal or congruent parts, usually by a line, which is then called a bisector. The most often considered types of bisectors are the segment bisector and the angle bisector In geometry, bisection is the division of something into two equal...

 of the angle
Angle
In geometry, an angle is the figure formed by two rays sharing a common endpoint, called the vertex of the angle.Angles are usually presumed to be in a Euclidean plane with the circle taken for standard with regard to direction. In fact, an angle is frequently viewed as a measure of an circular arc...

 between the directions of the sun and the target as seen from the mirror. In almost every case, the target is stationary relative to the heliostat, so the light is reflected in a fixed direction.

Nowadays, most heliostats are used for daylighting
Daylighting
Daylighting is the practice of placing windows or other openings and reflective surfaces so that during the day natural light provides effective internal lighting. Particular attention is given to daylighting while designing a building when the aim is to maximize visual comfort or to reduce energy...

 or for the production of concentrated solar power, usually to generate electricity. They are also sometimes used in solar cooking. A few are used experimentally, or to reflect motionless beams of sunlight into solar telescope
Solar telescope
A solar telescope is a special purpose telescope used to observe the Sun. Solar telescopes usually detect light with wavelengths in, or not far outside, the visible spectrum.-Professional solar telescopes:...

s. Before the availability of laser
Laser
A laser is a device that emits light through a process of optical amplification based on the stimulated emission of photons. The term "laser" originated as an acronym for Light Amplification by Stimulated Emission of Radiation...

s and other electric lights, heliostats were widely used to produce intense, stationary beams of light for scientific and other purposes.

Most modern heliostats are controlled by computers. The computer is given the latitude
Latitude
In geography, the latitude of a location on the Earth is the angular distance of that location south or north of the Equator. The latitude is an angle, and is usually measured in degrees . The equator has a latitude of 0°, the North pole has a latitude of 90° north , and the South pole has a...

 and longitude
Longitude
Longitude is a geographic coordinate that specifies the east-west position of a point on the Earth's surface. It is an angular measurement, usually expressed in degrees, minutes and seconds, and denoted by the Greek letter lambda ....

 of the heliostat's position on the earth and the time and date. From these, using astronomical theory, it calculates the direction of the sun as seen from the mirror, e.g. its compass bearing and angle of elevation. Then, given the direction of the target, the computer calculates the direction of the required angle-bisector, and sends control signals to motor
Motor
Motor is a device that creates motion. It usually refers to an engine of some kind. It may also specifically refer to:*Electric motor, a machine that converts electricity into a mechanical motion...

s, often stepper motor
Stepper motor
A stepper motor is a brushless, electric motor that can divide a full rotation into a large number of steps. The motor's position can be controlled precisely without any feedback mechanism , as long as the motor is carefully sized to the application...

s, so they turn the mirror to the correct alignment. This sequence of operations is repeated frequently to keep the mirror properly oriented.

Large installations such as solar-thermal power stations include fields of heliostats comprising many mirrors. Usually, all the mirrors in such a field are controlled by a single computer.

There are older types of heliostat which do not use computers, including ones that are partly or wholly operated by hand or by clockwork
Clockwork
A clockwork is the inner workings of either a mechanical clock or a device that operates in a similar fashion. Specifically, the term refers to a mechanical device utilizing a complex series of gears....

, or are controlled by light-sensors. These are now quite rare.

Heliostats should be distinguished from solar tracker
Solar tracker
A solar tracker is a generic term used to describe devices that orient various payloads toward the sun. Payloads can be photovoltaic panels, reflectors, lenses or other optical devices....

s or sun-trackers that point directly at the sun in the sky. However, some older types of heliostat incorporate solar trackers, together with additional components to bisect the sun-mirror-target angle.

A siderostat is a similar device which is designed to follow a fainter star
Star
A star is a massive, luminous sphere of plasma held together by gravity. At the end of its lifetime, a star can also contain a proportion of degenerate matter. The nearest star to Earth is the Sun, which is the source of most of the energy on Earth...

, rather than the sun.



Large-scale projects


In a solar-thermal power plant, like those of The Solar Project or the PS10 plant in Spain, a wide field of heliostats focuses the sun's power onto a single collector to heat a medium such as water or molten salt. The medium travels through a heat exchanger to heat water, produce steam, and then generate electricity through a steam turbine.

A somewhat different arrangement of heliostats in a field is used at experimental solar furnaces, such as the one at Odeillo
Font-Romeu-Odeillo-Via
Font-Romeu-Odeillo-Via , or Odeillo, is a commune in the Pyrénées-Orientales and Cerdagne near the Spanish border in the south of France.It also is one of the oldest ski resorts in France and the oldest in the Pyrenees.- Solar Power :...

, in France. All the heliostat mirrors send accurately parallel beams of light into a large paraboloidal reflector which brings them to a precise focus. The mirrors have to be located close enough to the axis of the paraboloid to reflect sunlight into it along lines parallel to the axis, so the field of heliostats has to be narrow. A closed loop control system is used. Sensors determine if any of the heliostats is slightly misaligned. If so, they send signals to correct it.

It has been proposed that the high temperatures generated could be used to split water producing hydrogen sustainably.

Small-scale projects


Smaller heliostats are used for daylighting
Daylighting
Daylighting is the practice of placing windows or other openings and reflective surfaces so that during the day natural light provides effective internal lighting. Particular attention is given to daylighting while designing a building when the aim is to maximize visual comfort or to reduce energy...

, also called natural lighting. Instead of many large heliostats focusing on a single target to concentrate solar power (as in a solar power tower plant), a single heliostat usually about 1 or 2 square meters in size reflects non-concentrated sunlight through a window or skylight. The small heliostat, installed outside on the ground or on a building structure like a roof, moves on two axes (up/down and left/right) in order to compensate for the constant movement of the sun. In this way, the reflected sunlight stays fixed on the target (e.g. window).

Companies that manufacture small heliostats for natural lighting include EGIS GmbH and BOMIN SOLAR (member of the Colt Group companies), both in Germany. Genzyme Center, the global corporate headquarters of Genzyme Corp. in Cambridge, Massachusetts (NASDAQ
NASDAQ
The NASDAQ Stock Market, also known as the NASDAQ, is an American stock exchange. "NASDAQ" originally stood for "National Association of Securities Dealers Automated Quotations". It is the second-largest stock exchange by market capitalization in the world, after the New York Stock Exchange. As of...

: GENZ), uses BOMIN heliostats on the roof to direct sunlight into the 12-story atrium. After opening in November 2003, the building received the highest rating issued by the U.S. Green Building Council, a Platinum certification under the Council’s LEED (Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design
Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design
Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design consists of a suite of rating systems for the design, construction and operation of high performance green buildings, homes and neighborhoods....

) Green Building Rating System.

In 2009, a Boston Massachusetts-based manufacturing company called Practical Solar, Inc. began selling a small heliostat system for natural lighting. The company claims theirs is the first computer-controlled heliostat system in the world that can be installed by hand. The company’s web site states that customers also use their heliostats for direct space heating, drying mould, melting ice dams on roofs, and melting snow.

In the Spring 2009 edition of Northeast Sun (the flagship publication of the New England Sustainable Energy Association, NESEA), Practical Solar’s founder Bruce Rohr suggested that small heliostats can also be used like a solar power tower system. Instead of occupying hundreds of acres, the system would fit in a much smaller area, like the flat rooftop of a commercial building, he said. The system would use the power in sunlight to heat and cool a building, or to provide input for thermal industrial processes like processing food. The cooling would be performed with an absorption chiller, which runs off of heat. Mr. Rohr proposed that the system would be “more reliable and more cost-effective per square meter of reflective area” than large solar power tower plants, in part because it would not be sacrificing 80 percent of the power collected in the process of converting it to electricity. This conversion loss is a function of Carnot's theorem, a thermodynamic principle.

Design


Heliostat costs represent 30-50% of the initial capital investment for solar power tower power plants depending on the energy policy and economic framework in the location country. It is of interest to design less expensive heliostats for large scale manufacturing, so that solar power tower power plants may produce electricity at costs more competitive to conventional coal or nuclear power
Nuclear power
Nuclear power is the use of sustained nuclear fission to generate heat and electricity. Nuclear power plants provide about 6% of the world's energy and 13–14% of the world's electricity, with the U.S., France, and Japan together accounting for about 50% of nuclear generated electricity...

 plants costs.

Besides cost, percent solar reflectivity (i.e. albedo
Albedo
Albedo , or reflection coefficient, is the diffuse reflectivity or reflecting power of a surface. It is defined as the ratio of reflected radiation from the surface to incident radiation upon it...

) and environmental durability are factors that should be considered when comparing heliostat designs.

One way that engineers and researchers are attempting to lower the costs of heliostats is by replacing the conventional heliostat design with one that uses fewer, lighter materials. A conventional design for the heliostat's reflective components utilizes a second surface mirror. The sandwich-like mirror structure generally consists of a steel structural support, an adhesive layer, a protective copper layer, a layer of reflective silver, and a top protective layer of thick glass. This conventional heliostat is often referred to as a glass/metal heliostat. Alternative designs incorporate recent adhesive, composite, and thin film research to bring about materials costs and weight reduction. Some examples of alternative reflector designs are silvered polymer reflectors, glass fiber reinforced polyester sandwiches (GFRPS), and aluminized reflectors. Problems with these more recent designs include delamination of the protective coatings, reduction in percent solar reflectivity over long periods of sun exposure, and high manufacturing costs.

Tracking alternatives



The movement of most modern heliostats employs a two-axis motorized system, controlled by computer as outlined at the start of this article. Almost always, the primary rotation axis is vertical and the secondary horizontal, so the mirror is on an alt-azimuth mount
Altazimuth mount
An altazimuth or alt-azimuth mount is a simple two-axis mount for supporting and rotating an instrument about two mutually perpendicular axes; one vertical and the other horizontal. Rotation about the vertical axis varies the azimuth of the pointing direction of the instrument...

.

One simple alternative is for the mirror to rotate around a polar aligned
Polar Alignment
Polar alignment is the act of aligning the rotational axis of a telescope's equatorial mount in parallel with that of the Earth. There are various ways to achieve this.- Alignment Methods :...

 primary axis, driven by a mechanical, often clockwork, mechanism at 15 degrees per hour, compensating for the earth's rotation relative to the sun. The mirror is aligned to reflect sunlight along the same polar axis in the direction of one of the celestial pole
Celestial pole
The north and south celestial poles are the two imaginary points in the sky where the Earth's axis of rotation, indefinitely extended, intersects the imaginary rotating sphere of stars called the celestial sphere...

s. There is a perpendicular secondary axis allowing occasional manual adjustment of the mirror (daily or less often as necessary) to compensate for the shift in the sun's declination
Declination
In astronomy, declination is one of the two coordinates of the equatorial coordinate system, the other being either right ascension or hour angle. Declination in astronomy is comparable to geographic latitude, but projected onto the celestial sphere. Declination is measured in degrees north and...

 with the seasons. The setting of the drive clock can also be occasionally adjusted to compensate for changes in the Equation of Time
Equation of time
The equation of time is the difference between apparent solar time and mean solar time. At any given instant, this difference will be the same for every observer...

. The target can be located on the same polar axis that is the mirror's primary rotation axis, or a second, stationary mirror can be used to reflect light from the polar axis toward the target, wherever that might be. This kind of mirror mount and drive is often used with solar cooker
Solar cooker
A solar cooker, or solar oven, is a device which uses the energy of sunlight to heat food or drink to cook it or sterilize it. High-tech versions, for example electric ovens powered by solar cells, are possible, and have some advantages such as being able to work in diffuse light. However at...

s, such as Scheffler reflectors. For this application, the mirror can be concave, so as to concentrate sunlight onto the cooking vessel.

The alt-azimuth and polar-axis alignments are two of the three orientations for two-axis mounts that are, or have been, commonly used for heliostat mirrors. The third is the target-axis arrangement in which the primary axis points toward the target at which sunlight is to be reflected. The secondary axis is perpendicular to the primary one. Heliostats controlled by light-sensors have used this orientation. A small arm carries sensors that control motors that turn the arm around the two axes, so it points toward the sun. (Thus this design incorporates a solar tracker.) A simple mechanical arrangement bisects the angle between the primary axis, pointing to the target, and the arm, pointing to the sun. The mirror is mounted so its reflective surface is perpendicular to this bisector. This type of heliostat was used for daylighting
Daylighting
Daylighting is the practice of placing windows or other openings and reflective surfaces so that during the day natural light provides effective internal lighting. Particular attention is given to daylighting while designing a building when the aim is to maximize visual comfort or to reduce energy...

 prior to the availability of cheap computers, but after the initial availability of sensor control hardware.

There are heliostat designs which do not require the rotation axes to have any exact orientation. For example, there may be light-sensors close to the target which send signals to motors so that they correct the alignment of the mirror whenever the beam of reflected light drifts away from the target. The directions of the axes need be only approximately known, since the system is intrinsically self-correcting. However, there are disadvantages, such as that the mirror has to be manually realigned every morning and after any prolonged cloudy spell, since the reflected beam, when it reappears, misses the sensors, so the system cannot correct the orientation of the mirror. There are also geometrical problems which limit the functioning of the heliostat when the directions of the sun and the target, as seen from the mirror, are very different. Because of the disadvantages, this design has never been commonly used, but some people do experiment with it.

Many other types of heliostat have also occasionally been used. In the very earliest heliostats, for example, which were used for daylighting in ancient Egypt, servants or slaves kept the mirrors aligned manually, without using any kind of mechanism. (There are places in Egypt where this is done today, for the benefit of tourists.) Elaborate clockwork heliostats were made during the 19th Century which could reflect sunlight to a target in any direction using only a single mirror, minimizing light losses, and which automatically compensated for the sun's seasonal movements. Some of these devices are still to be seen in museums, but they are not used for practical purposes today. Amateurs sometimes come up with ad hoc designs which work approximately, in some particular location, without any theoretical justification. An essentially limitless number of such designs are possible.

See also



  • Renewable energy
    Renewable energy
    Renewable energy is energy which comes from natural resources such as sunlight, wind, rain, tides, and geothermal heat, which are renewable . About 16% of global final energy consumption comes from renewables, with 10% coming from traditional biomass, which is mainly used for heating, and 3.4% from...

  • Solar cell
    Solar cell
    A solar cell is a solid state electrical device that converts the energy of light directly into electricity by the photovoltaic effect....

  • Solar cooker
    Solar cooker
    A solar cooker, or solar oven, is a device which uses the energy of sunlight to heat food or drink to cook it or sterilize it. High-tech versions, for example electric ovens powered by solar cells, are possible, and have some advantages such as being able to work in diffuse light. However at...

  • Solar energy
  • Solar thermal energy
    Solar thermal energy
    Solar thermal energy is a technology for harnessing solar energy for thermal energy . Solar thermal collectors are classified by the United States Energy Information Administration as low-, medium-, or high-temperature collectors. Low-temperature collectors are flat plates generally used to heat...

  • Solar tracker
    Solar tracker
    A solar tracker is a generic term used to describe devices that orient various payloads toward the sun. Payloads can be photovoltaic panels, reflectors, lenses or other optical devices....


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