Harbin Institute of Technology

Harbin Institute of Technology

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The Harbin Institute of Technology , or HIT, is colloquially known as Hagongda (哈工大, Hāgōngdà). It is a research university in the city of Harbin
Harbin
Harbin ; Manchu language: , Harbin; Russian: Харби́н Kharbin ), is the capital and largest city of Heilongjiang Province in Northeast China, lying on the southern bank of the Songhua River...

, Heilongjiang
Heilongjiang
For the river known in Mandarin as Heilong Jiang, see Amur River' is a province of the People's Republic of China located in the northeastern part of the country. "Heilongjiang" literally means Black Dragon River, which is the Chinese name for the Amur. The one-character abbreviation is 黑...

 Province, China
China
Chinese civilization may refer to:* China for more general discussion of the country.* Chinese culture* Greater China, the transnational community of ethnic Chinese.* History of China* Sinosphere, the area historically affected by Chinese culture...

.
Harbin Institute of Technology consists of three campuses: the main campus in Harbin, HIT in Weihai
Weihai
Weihai is a city in eastern Shandong Province, People's Republic of China. It is the easternmost prefecture-level city of the province and a major seaport. Between 1898 and 1930, the town was a British colony known as Weihaiwei or the Weihai Garrison , and sometimes as Port Edward...

 and HIT Shenzhen
Shenzhen
Shenzhen is a major city in the south of Southern China's Guangdong Province, situated immediately north of Hong Kong. The area became China's first—and one of the most successful—Special Economic Zones...

 Graduate School.
Harbin Institute of Technology is widely recognized as one of the top universities in China and consistently ranked among the best engineering schools. The school is also member of the C9 League
C9 League
The C9 League is an association of nine Chinese universities, which were selected by the Chinese government in 1998.On May 4, 1998, Project 985 was initiated by the Chinese government in order to advance the higher education system. In the first phase, nine universities were selected and allocated...

.

History



Harbin Institute of Technology was established in 1920, as Harbin Sino-Russian School for Industry to educate, in the Russian education style, railway engineers. Students were educated in the two majors at the time: Railway Construction and Electric Mechanic Engineering. On April 2, 1922, the School was renamed Sino-Russian Industrial University. The original two majors became two departments: the Railway Construction Department and the Electric Engineering Department. Between 1925 and 1928 the University's Rector was Leonid Aleksandrovich Ustrugov, Russian Deputy Minister of Railways under Nicholas II before the Russian Revolution and was involved in the development of the East Chinese Railway.

On February 4, 1928 , the institution came under the leadership of the Northeastern Provincial Special Administrative Region of the Republic of China, and was renamed the Industrial University of the Northeastern Provincial Special Administrative Region. On October 20, 1928, the Law College and College of Commerce were incorporated, and the institution was officially named HIT, co-managed by China and the USSR , with General Zhang Xueliang
Zhang Xueliang
Zhang Xueliang or Chang Hsüeh-liang , occasionally called Peter Hsueh Liang Chang in English, nicknamed the Young Marshal , was the effective ruler of Manchuria and much of North China after the assassination of his father, Zhang Zuolin, by the Japanese on 4 June 1928...

 as the President of the School Board. Postgraduate students were enrolled from the spring of 1931.

With the invasion by the Japanese, by 1935, the institution had been completely taken over by the Japanese. The classes were taught in Japanese, and only Chinese and Japanese students could be enrolled. On January 1, 1936, the name of the institution was changed into National Harbin Polytechnic. After January 1937, the educational system was entirely transitioned to that of the Japanese. On January 1, 1938, the name Harbin Institute of Technology was reinstated, a name that has been in use since.

After the Allies defeated Japan in World War II, Japan departed China on September 3, 1945, and HIT came under the joint management of the Chinese and Soviet governments through the China Changchun Railway Administration.

In June 1950, the administration of HIT was taken over by the Chinese government and started a period of full-scale reform and growth. In 1951, HIT was approved by the central government to become one of the two institutions of higher learning to learn advanced techniques from the USSR . HIT then became the important base for learning from the USSR and training talents for universities throughout the country, HIT enjoyed the fame of being the 'Cradle for Engineers'.

In 1958, HIT made significant rearrangement in its majors, creating a batch of advanced disciplines. By 1962, HIT had accomplished the change from civic purposes to that of military, becoming an all-embracing, multidisciplinary university, whose disciplines complemented one another, and served the construction of national economy and national defense science and technology.

During this era, the enrollment increased dramatically, the largest being more than 8000. The number of teachers also increased rapidly. By 1957, teachers numbered more than 800, averaged 27.5 years of age, responsible for all the teaching and research tasks, and being reputed the '800 warriors' of HIT. The research at HIT experienced great development and improvement. All the disciplines established ties of scientific cooperation with factories and research institutes, laying solid foundations for the integration of teaching, research, and production and for scientific research to serve the national economy.

The Cultural Revolution
Cultural Revolution
The Great Proletarian Cultural Revolution, commonly known as the Cultural Revolution , was a socio-political movement that took place in the People's Republic of China from 1966 through 1976...

, which started in 1966, severely affected the normal teaching and research activities of HIT.

In Spring 1970, according to the order of the authorities, a small number of HIT personnel and most equipment moved south to Chongqing
Chongqing
Chongqing is a major city in Southwest China and one of the five national central cities of China. Administratively, it is one of the PRC's four direct-controlled municipalities , and the only such municipality in inland China.The municipality was created on 14 March 1997, succeeding the...

 , and, together with Department 2 of the PLA Military Engineering Institute , formed Chongqing Institute of Technology. The rest of HIT, combined with Heilongjiang Institute of Technology and Harbin Institute of Electrotechnics, became the new HIT. In August 1973, the State Council and the Military Commission of the CPC Central Committee decided that Chongqing Institute of Technology should again move back north to Harbin.

In 1977, the undergraduate programs reopened, 1978 the graduate programs followed, and in 1982 doctoral programs were for the first time offered. In 1984, HIT again found its way into the list of 15 universities to be favorably built. In the same year, HIT became one of the first 22 universities to establish a graduate school. In 1992, HIT High-and-New Tech Park was founded. In 1996, HIT was in the first batch of universities to enter the list of Project 211
Project 211
Project 211 is a project of National Key Universities and colleges initiated in 1995 by the Ministry of Education of the People's Republic of China, with the intent of raising the research standards of high-level universities and cultivating strategies for socio-economic development...

. In November 1999, HIT was appointed by the Central Government one of the 9 best universities to be preferentially built according to the standards of internationally renowned universities.

In 1985 HIT opened a new campus in Weihai
Weihai
Weihai is a city in eastern Shandong Province, People's Republic of China. It is the easternmost prefecture-level city of the province and a major seaport. Between 1898 and 1930, the town was a British colony known as Weihaiwei or the Weihai Garrison , and sometimes as Port Edward...

, Shandong Province. In 2000 Harbin University of Architecture was merged into HIT.

Administration and Organization


Harbin Institute of Technology is organized into 20 full-time schools, which hold 73 undergraduate degree programs, 143 master programs, 81 doctorate programs. Though most of HIT’s schools are in science and engineering areas, it also has several schools in humanity, social science, and management. HIT does not have any agriculture or medical schools. A school may have several departments and researcher institutes (or research centers). However, Dept. of Media Technology and Art does not belong to any of the schools.
Schools of HIT (Science, Engineering, and Architecture)
School of Astronautics
School of Mechatronics Engineering
School of Material Science and Engineering School of Energy Science and Engineering School of Electrical Engineering and Automation School of Civil Engineering School of Municipal and Environmental Engineering
School of Architecture School of Transportation Science and Engineering School of Computer Science and Technology School of Software School of Electronics and Information Technology
School of Science Dept. of Media Technology and Art

Schools of HIT (Humanity, social science, and management)
School of Management
School of Humanities and Social Sciences
School of International Relations of Economics and Trade
School of Law
School of Foreign Languages

Academics


As a famous university in China, HIT is known for its selectivity in several decades. Usually, only the students having very high scores in the National Higher Education Entrance Examination can be admitted into the undergraduate programs. Admission into the graduate school is also very competitive. In 2008 the minimum score needed to be admitted into engineering majors ranks #1 in all of the Chinese universities.

HIT operates on a year round schedule that includes a fall and spring semester. Winter and summer holidays are placed between semesters. In all holidays, the dormitories and part of the dining halls remain open to students.

HIT has a very strict standard in education. The motto, “Being strict in qualifications for graduates; making every endeavor in educating students”, which is quite different from the motto of other universities, reflects the tradition of HIT. Both theories and applications are emphasized. Instructors are required to have very good preparation for lectures. Many engineering major courses have laboratory sections, and the students must do well in both exams and experiments to get credit.

Engineering Programs' National Ranking based on China Academic Degrees & Graduate Education Information's evaluation reports(2007~2009)

Mechanics #3///
Mechanical Engineering #4///
Instrument Science and Techonology #3///
Materials Science and Engineering #4///
Power Engineering #7///
Electrical Engineering #4///
Electronics Science and Technology #12///
Information and Communication Engineering #13///
Control Science and Engineering #7///
Computer Science and Technology #5///
Architecture #7///
Civil Engineering #3///
Chemical Engineering and Technology #10///
Transportation Engineering #8///
Aeronautics and Astronautics Science and Technology #5 (Astronautics Science and Technology #1)///
Environmental Science and Engineering #3///

Research


Research at Harbin Institute of Technology spans a broad range of topics with a strong focus on engineering sciences. A 2009 analysis of research citations by Thomson Reuters
Thomson Reuters
Thomson Reuters Corporation is a provider of information for the world's businesses and professionals and is created by the Thomson Corporation's purchase of Reuters Group on 17 April 2008. Thomson Reuters is headquartered at 3 Times Square, New York City, USA...

 Essential Science Indicators found HIT among the top 1% of institutions in the fields of Material Science, Chemistry, Engineering and Physics, and No.9 in the number of thesis published in the area of Material Science world wide.

HIT has 40 national key disciplines granted by the Ministry of Education
Ministry of Education of the People's Republic of China
The Ministry of Education of the People's Republic of China , formerly Ministry of Education, Central People's Government from 1949 to 1954, State Education Commission from 1985 to 1998, is headquartered in Beijing. It is the agency of the State Council which regulates all aspects of the...

 P.R.C. At present, it has 10 state key laboratories
State Key Laboratories
The National Key Laboratories is a list of university laboratories currently receiving funding and administrative support from the central government of the People's Republic of China.These labs often specializes in particular areas of academic interest...

 and 30 provincial / ministerial-level key laboratories.

Harbin Institute of Technology has a high-level research faculty of over 2,900 full-time teachers and researchers, including 1,950 professors and associate professors, 22 academicians of the Chinese Academy of Sciences
Chinese Academy of Sciences
The Chinese Academy of Sciences , formerly known as Academia Sinica, is the national academy for the natural sciences of the People's Republic of China. It is an institution of the State Council of China. It is headquartered in Beijing, with institutes all over the People's Republic of China...

 and the Chinese Academy of Engineering
Chinese Academy of Engineering
The Chinese Academy of Engineering is the national academy of the People's Republic of China for engineering. It was established in 1994 and is an institution of the State Council of China...

, nearly 640 doctoral supervisors. It has 12 principal scientists of Project 973 and 13 “Young Experts with Prominent Contributions to the Country.”

With a strong emphasis in scientific research, HIT has been bold and innovative in its scientific research and has consistently undertaken large-scale and highly sophisticated national projects. Because of this, the funding for research increases yearly. In 2009, research funding from the government, industry, and business sectors reached 1.6 billion RMB yuan (US $233million ).

HIT is known to have close links to the People's Liberation Army
People's Liberation Army
The People's Liberation Army is the unified military organization of all land, sea, strategic missile and air forces of the People's Republic of China. The PLA was established on August 1, 1927 — celebrated annually as "PLA Day" — as the military arm of the Communist Party of China...

 and the space program of China as one of the main universities in China for space and defense-related research. HIT made great contribution to the Chinese Shenzhou
Shenzhou program
The Shenzhou program is a manned spaceflight initiative by the People's Republic of China. The program put the first Chinese citizen, Yang Liwei, into orbit on 15 October 2003....

 spacecraft project. In 2010, the Astronautics Innovation Research Center was established at HIT in conjunction with China Aerospace Science and Technology Corporation
China Aerospace Science and Technology Corporation
The China Aerospace Science and Technology Corporation is the main contractor for the Chinese space program. It is state-owned and has a number of subordinate entities which design, develop and manufacture a range of spacecraft, launch vehicles, strategic and tactical missile systems, and ground...

. The establishment is the biggest investment of the same class in China.

As reported, most of the key technology of National internet information security management system and Internet censorship in the People's Republic of China
Internet censorship in the People's Republic of China
Internet censorship in the People's Republic of China is conducted under a wide variety of laws and administrative regulations. There are no specific laws or regulations which the censorship follows...

 were developed by the Harbin Institute of Technology.

Campus



The main campus of HIT locates on No.92 of West Dazhi Street in Harbin, Heilongjiang Province.

The institute's main building, or Zhu-Lou in Chinese, is a smaller version of the main building of the Lomonosov Moscow State University, and the majority of the buildings were built during the time of Sino-Soviet friendship from 1949 to 1959 when the Soviets
Soviet Union
The Soviet Union , officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics , was a constitutionally socialist state that existed in Eurasia between 1922 and 1991....

 were actively involved in the development of Northeast China
Northeast China
Northeast China, historically known in English as Manchuria, is a geographical region of China, consisting of the three provinces of Liaoning, Jilin and Heilongjiang. The region is sometimes called the Three Northeast Provinces...

.

The Campuses of the Original Harbin University of Architecture


The School of Architecture locates on No.66 of West Dazhi Street, not far from the Main Building. It originally belonged to HIT, however, when HIT was divided into 3 institutes in 1959, it was used by the Harbin Architectural and Civil Engineering Institute. After the integration of Harbin University of Architecture (formerly Harbin Architectural and Civil engineering Institute)into HIT, the building is called "Civil Building", though it is the building of the school of architecture.

The No.2 campus in Harbin is originally a campus of the Harbin University of Architecture. All the undergraduate students will spend their first year in that campus since 2003. The school buses between the No.2 campus and main campus are free of charge.

Satellite Campus


HIT has a satellite campus in Weihai
Weihai
Weihai is a city in eastern Shandong Province, People's Republic of China. It is the easternmost prefecture-level city of the province and a major seaport. Between 1898 and 1930, the town was a British colony known as Weihaiwei or the Weihai Garrison , and sometimes as Port Edward...

, Shandong Province. It has a graduate school in Shenzhen
Shenzhen
Shenzhen is a major city in the south of Southern China's Guangdong Province, situated immediately north of Hong Kong. The area became China's first—and one of the most successful—Special Economic Zones...

, Guangdong Province besides the graduate school in Harbin.

People

  • Members of Chinese Academy of Engineering (CAE)
    Chinese Academy of Engineering
    The Chinese Academy of Engineering is the national academy of the People's Republic of China for engineering. It was established in 1994 and is an institution of the State Council of China...



Liu Yongtan, Wang Guangyuan, Xie Lili, Huang Wenhu, Li Guibai, Liang Weiyan, Fu Hengzhi, Wang Zhongqi, Zhang Jie, Shen Shizhao, Chen Qingquan, Lei Tingquan, Cai Hegao, Du Shanyi, Zhang Naitong, Wang Zicai, Qin Yukun, Ou Jinping, Zhao Liancheng, Chen Yushu, Fang Binxing
Fang Binxing
Fang Binxing is Principal of Beijing University of Posts and Telecommunications. He is also known for his substantial contribution to China's Internet censorship infrastructure, and has been dubbed "Father of China's Great Fire Wall"....


  • Members of Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS)
    Chinese Academy of Sciences
    The Chinese Academy of Sciences , formerly known as Academia Sinica, is the national academy for the natural sciences of the People's Republic of China. It is an institution of the State Council of China. It is headquartered in Beijing, with institutes all over the People's Republic of China...



Liu Yongtan, Ma Zuguang
  • Alumni
    • Scholar
      • Vice Dean of Chinese Academy of Science (CAS), Li Jinghai
      • Member of Chinese Academy of Science (CAS) and Chinese Academy of Engineering (CAE
        Chinese Academy of Engineering
        The Chinese Academy of Engineering is the national academy of the People's Republic of China for engineering. It was established in 1994 and is an institution of the State Council of China...

        ), Liu Yongtan
      • Sun Yu XXX, Premier of Republic of China (aka Taiwan).
    • Enterpreneurs
      • CEO of Neptunus Group, 10th of Top Forbes China Rish List 2001, Zhang Simin
      • CEOs of Broad Air Conditioning Group, 10th of Top Forbes China Rish List 2001 , Zhang Jian, Zhang Yue
      • CEO of Changning Group, Shi Shanli
      • CEO of Geely Group
        Geely Automobile
        Zhejiang Geely Holding Group is a holding company and parent of Geely Automobile Holdings Ltd a private automobile manufacturer. Geely may often round out the top ten Chinese automakers....

        , Li Shufu
    • Politicians
      • 10th President of Executive Yuan
        Premier of the Republic of China
        The President of the Executive Yuan , commonly known as the Premier of the Republic of China , is the head of the Executive Yuan, the executive branch of the Republic of China , which currently administers Taiwan, Matsu, and Kinmen. The premier is appointed by the President of the Republic of China...

        , Sun Yun-suan
        Sun Yun-suan
        Sun Yun-suan was a Chinese engineer and politician. As minister of economic affairs from 1969 to 1978 and Premier of the Republic of China from 1978 to 1984, he was credited for overseeing the transformation of Taiwan from being a mainly agricultural economy to an export powerhouse.-Early life...

      • Ex-Vice Chairman of North Korea, Li Jong-ok
        Li Jong-ok
        Li Jong-ok was the Premier of North Korea from 1977 to 1984. He succeeded Park Sung-chul.-See also:* List of Korea-related topics...

      • Ex-County Chief of Lankao in China, Jiao Yulu
      • Member of the Standing Committee of Political Bureau of the CPC Central Committee, Li Changchun
        Li Changchun
        Li Changchun is the Propaganda chief of the Communist Party of China. He is the 5th ranked member of the Politburo Standing Committee of the Communist Party of China, China's de facto top power organ, and has been a member since 2002...

      • Member of Political Bureau of the CPC Central Committee, Wang Zhaoguo
        Wang Zhaoguo
        Wang Zhaoguo is a Chinese politician who came to prominence during the era of Deng Xiaoping. At age 41 he had already acquired a ministerial position job.-Biography:...

      • Member of Military Commission of the CPC Central Committee, Li Jinai
        Li Jinai
        Li Jinai is a general in the People's Liberation Army.-Biography:Li Jinai was born in Tengzhou, Shandong province in July 1942. He joined the Chinese Communist Party in May 1965 and joined the People's Liberation Army in December 1967...


Events

  • In recent years, the research staffs and student made great contribution to the success of Shenzhou series Spacecraft
    Shenzhou spacecraft
    Shenzhou is a spacecraft developed and operated by the People's Republic of China to support its manned spaceflight program. The name is variously translated as "Divine Craft," "Divine Vessel of God," "Magic Boat" or similar and is also homophonous with an ancient name for China...

  • April 2004, the 'Experiment Satellite No.1' was launched successfully, which is the first applicable small satellite led by a Chinese college.
  • In 1999, one of the nine universities in China to be developed as a world-class university.
  • In 1996, one of the first universities in Project 211
    Project 211
    Project 211 is a project of National Key Universities and colleges initiated in 1995 by the Ministry of Education of the People's Republic of China, with the intent of raising the research standards of high-level universities and cultivating strategies for socio-economic development...

  • In 1954, one of the top six universities in China.

External links