Hamadan Province

Hamadan Province

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Hamedan Province is one of the 31 provinces
Provinces of Iran
Iran is subdivided into thirty one provinces , each governed from a local center, usually the largest local city, which is called the capital of that province...

 of Iran
Iran
Iran , officially the Islamic Republic of Iran , is a country in Southern and Western Asia. The name "Iran" has been in use natively since the Sassanian era and came into use internationally in 1935, before which the country was known to the Western world as Persia...

. Its center is Hamedan city. The province of Hamedan covers an area of 19,546 km². In the year 1996, Hamedan province had a population of approximately 1.7 million people.

Other major cities of Hamedan province are: Toyserkan
Toyserkan
Tuyserkan is a city in and capital of Tuyserkan County, Hamadan Province, Iran. At the 2006 census, its population was 42,520, in 11,802 families....

, Nahavand
Nahavand
Nahavand is a city in and capital of Nahavand County, Hamadan Province, Iran. At the 2006 census, its population was 72,218, in 19,419 families. It is located south of Hamadan, east of Malayer and northwest of Borujerd...

, Malayer
Malayer
Malayer , also Romanized as Dowlatābād and Daūlatābād) is a city in and capital of Malayer County, Hamadan Province, Iran. At the 2006 census, its population was 153,748, in 40,750 families....

, Asad Abad, Bahar
Bahar, Iran
Bahar is a city in and capital of Bahar County, Hamadan Province, Iran. At the 2006 census, its population was 27,271, in 6,956 families.The population has a Persian and Turkic-speaking majority....

, Razan
Razan
Razan is a city in and capital of Razan County, Hamadan Province, Iran. At the 2006 census, its population was 11,390, in 2,871 families....

, Kabudrahang
Kabudrahang
Kabudarahang is a city in and capital of Kabudarahang County, Hamadan Province, Iran. At the 2006 census, its population was 19,216, in 4,940 families....

.

Geography


The province lies in an elevated region, with the 'Alvand' mountains, running from the north west to the south west. These are part of the Zagros mountain range of Iran
Iran
Iran , officially the Islamic Republic of Iran , is a country in Southern and Western Asia. The name "Iran" has been in use natively since the Sassanian era and came into use internationally in 1935, before which the country was known to the Western world as Persia...

.

Hamedan enjoys temperate warm summers and relatively cold winters.

Demographics and languages


Malayer
Malayer
Malayer , also Romanized as Dowlatābād and Daūlatābād) is a city in and capital of Malayer County, Hamadan Province, Iran. At the 2006 census, its population was 153,748, in 40,750 families....

 county has a population of around 310,000 people, Nahavand
Nahavand
Nahavand is a city in and capital of Nahavand County, Hamadan Province, Iran. At the 2006 census, its population was 72,218, in 19,419 families. It is located south of Hamadan, east of Malayer and northwest of Borujerd...

 county has a population of 200,000 people, Hamadan County
Hamadan County
Hamadan County is a county in Hamadan Province in Iran. The capital of the county is Hamadan. At the 2006 census, the county's population was 626,183, in 165,753 families; excluding those portions, the population was 585,642, in 155,825 families...

 has a population of 700,000 thousand people, Tooserkan and Asadabad each have a population of around 150,000, Kabutare ahang, Razan, and Bahar each have a population of between 120,000 - 140,000 people.
Kurdish
Kurdish language
Kurdish is a dialect continuum spoken by the Kurds in western Asia. It is part of the Iranian branch of the Indo-Iranian group of Indo-European languages....

, Azeri
Azerbaijani language
Azerbaijani or Azeri or Torki is a language belonging to the Turkic language family, spoken in southwestern Asia by the Azerbaijani people, primarily in Azerbaijan and northwestern Iran...

, Luri
Luri language
Lori or Luri is a collection of Southwestern Iranian languages which are mainly spoken by the Lurs and Bakhtiari people in the Iranian provinces of Loristan, Chaharmahal and Bakhtiari, Kohgiluyeh and Boyer-Ahmad and parts of Khuzestan and Esfahan province and Fars provinces...

, and Persian language
Persian language
Persian is an Iranian language within the Indo-Iranian branch of the Indo-European languages. It is primarily spoken in Iran, Afghanistan, Tajikistan and countries which historically came under Persian influence...

 are spoken amongst the people of Hamadan Province, where Azeri is more popular in northern and eastern areas and Kurdish are mostly spoken in the west. In the central parts likeHamadan County
Hamadan County
Hamadan County is a county in Hamadan Province in Iran. The capital of the county is Hamadan. At the 2006 census, the county's population was 626,183, in 165,753 families; excluding those portions, the population was 585,642, in 155,825 families...

 and parts of Tooserkan, Persian is more common. Luri is spoken in southern parts of Malayer
Malayer
Malayer , also Romanized as Dowlatābād and Daūlatābād) is a city in and capital of Malayer County, Hamadan Province, Iran. At the 2006 census, its population was 153,748, in 40,750 families....

 country and all of Nahavand
Nahavand
Nahavand is a city in and capital of Nahavand County, Hamadan Province, Iran. At the 2006 census, its population was 72,218, in 19,419 families. It is located south of Hamadan, east of Malayer and northwest of Borujerd...

 http://www.hamedanmiras.ir/en_site/mardom-zaban.htm.

According to the survey of 1997, the population of province was 1677957. Based on official statistics of 1997, the population of the city and Hamadan county was 563444 peoples. In Hamadan county (which mainly includes Hamadan city), 80% of the people identified their language as Persian
Persian language
Persian is an Iranian language within the Indo-Iranian branch of the Indo-European languages. It is primarily spoken in Iran, Afghanistan, Tajikistan and countries which historically came under Persian influence...

, 12% Azeri
Azerbaijani language
Azerbaijani or Azeri or Torki is a language belonging to the Turkic language family, spoken in southwestern Asia by the Azerbaijani people, primarily in Azerbaijan and northwestern Iran...

 and 8% Luri, Kurdish
Kurdish people
The Kurdish people, or Kurds , are an Iranian people native to the Middle East, mostly inhabiting a region known as Kurdistan, which includes adjacent parts of Iran, Iraq, Syria, and Turkey...

 and Laki
Laki language
Laki is a Northwestern Iranian language. Although it is usually grouped with Southern Kurdish dialects, Ethnologue classifies it as a fourth subgroup of Kurdish....

.

In the counties of Hamadan province, the population of Nahavand was 184160 (in 1997) with approximately 99% speaking Luri and Laki. The population of Malayer in 1997 was 297062 and approximately 75% speak Persian, 15% Luri and Laki and 10% others. In 1997, the population of Tooserkan county was 118945 and the majority of the population is Luri and Laki. In Asadabad county, the population was 110077 (in 1997) and 63% were Persian, 14% Azeri, 19% Kurdish and 4% Luri and Laki. In Kabudarahang, the population in 1997 was 152318 with 90% speaking Azeri, 5% Persian and another 5% Kurdish. In Razan county, the population was 123790 (in 1997) with 99.47% of the residents speaking Azeri and 0.53 speaking Kurdish. In Bahar country was 127600 with 86.3% speaking Azeri, 7.9% speaking Kurdish, 4.5% speaking Persian and 1.3% speaking Luri.

History




Hamedan province is one of the most ancient parts of Iran and its civilization. Relics of this area confirm this fact. Today's Hamedan is what is left of Ecbatana
Ecbatana
Ecbatana is supposed to be the capital of Astyages , which was taken by the Persian emperor Cyrus the Great in the sixth year of Nabonidus...

, The Medes
Medes
The MedesThe Medes...

' capital before they formed a union with the Persians. The poet Ferdowsi
Ferdowsi
Ferdowsi was a highly revered Persian poet. He was the author of the Shahnameh, the national epic of Iran and related societies.The Shahnameh was originally composed by Ferdowsi for the princes of the Samanid dynasty, who were responsible for a revival of Persian cultural traditions after the...

 says that Ecbatana was built by King Jamshid.

According to historical records, there was once a castle in this city by the name of Haft Hessar (Seven Walls) which had a thousand rooms and its grandeur equalled that of the Babylon Tower.

The structures of city are related to Diya Aku, a King of the Medes
Medes
The MedesThe Medes...

 from 700 BC. According to Greek records, this territory was called 'Ekbatan' and 'Hegmataneh' by this King, thus transformed into a huge capital.

During the Parthia
Parthia
Parthia is a region of north-eastern Iran, best known for having been the political and cultural base of the Arsacid dynasty, rulers of the Parthian Empire....

n era, Ctesiphon
Ctesiphon
Ctesiphon, the imperial capital of the Parthian Arsacids and of the Persian Sassanids, was one of the great cities of ancient Mesopotamia.The ruins of the city are located on the east bank of the Tigris, across the river from the Hellenistic city of Seleucia...

 became capital of Persia, and Hamedan became the summer capital and residence of the Parthian rulers. After the Parthians, the Sassanids constructed their summer palaces in Hamedan as well.

In the year 633
633
Year 633 was a common year starting on Friday of the Julian calendar. The denomination 633 for this year has been used since the early medieval period, when the Anno Domini calendar era became the prevalent method in Europe for naming years.- Europe :* Oswald of Bernicia becomes Bretwalda.* Osric...

 when the war of Nahavand
Nahavand
Nahavand is a city in and capital of Nahavand County, Hamadan Province, Iran. At the 2006 census, its population was 72,218, in 19,419 families. It is located south of Hamadan, east of Malayer and northwest of Borujerd...

 took place and Hamedan came into the hands of the invading Arabs, at times it thrived and at times it declined and witnessed hardships. During the Buwayhids, it suffered plenty of damages. In the 11th century, the Seljuks shifted their capital from Baghdad
Baghdad
Baghdad is the capital of Iraq, as well as the coterminous Baghdad Governorate. The population of Baghdad in 2011 is approximately 7,216,040...

 to Hamedan once again.

The city of Hamaden was always at risk during the rise and fall of powers. It was completely destroyed during the Timurid
Timurid Dynasty
The Timurids , self-designated Gurkānī , were a Persianate, Central Asian Sunni Muslim dynasty of Turko-Mongol descent whose empire included the whole of Iran, modern Afghanistan, and modern Uzbekistan, as well as large parts of contemporary Pakistan, North India, Mesopotamia, Anatolia and the...

 invasion. But during the Safavid era the city thrived once more. In the 18th century, Hamedan surrendered to the Ottomans, but Hamedan was retaken by Nader Shah Afshari, and under the peace treaty between Iran and the Ottomans it was returned to Iran.

The city of Hamedan lay on the Silk Road
Silk Road
The Silk Road or Silk Route refers to a historical network of interlinking trade routes across the Afro-Eurasian landmass that connected East, South, and Western Asia with the Mediterranean and European world, as well as parts of North and East Africa...

 and even in recent centuries enjoyed good prospects in commerce and trade being on the main road network in the western region of Iran
Iran
Iran , officially the Islamic Republic of Iran , is a country in Southern and Western Asia. The name "Iran" has been in use natively since the Sassanian era and came into use internationally in 1935, before which the country was known to the Western world as Persia...

.

According to local Jewish traditions, the City of Hamedan is mentioned in the Bible
Bible
The Bible refers to any one of the collections of the primary religious texts of Judaism and Christianity. There is no common version of the Bible, as the individual books , their contents and their order vary among denominations...

, as the capital of Ancient Persia in the days of King Ahasuerus
Ahasuerus
Ahasuerus is a name used several times in the Hebrew Bible, as well as related legends and Apocrypha. This name is applied in the Hebrew Scriptures to three rulers...

 in the Book of Esther
Book of Esther
The Book of Esther is a book in the Ketuvim , the third section of the Jewish Tanakh and is part of the Christian Old Testament. The Book of Esther or the Megillah is the basis for the Jewish celebration of Purim...

. It was then known as Shushan. The Tombs of Mordecai
Mordecai
Mordecai or Mordechai is one of the main personalities in the Book of Esther in the Hebrew Bible. He was the son of Jair, of the tribe of Benjamin.-Biblical account:...

 and Esther
Esther
Esther , born Hadassah, is the eponymous heroine of the Biblical Book of Esther.According to the Bible, she was a Jewish queen of the Persian king Ahasuerus...

 are located in modern-day Hamedan.

Administrative divisions

Hamedan Province


The province has a population of over 1,820,000 million. (As of 2008)
The province is divided into 8 Shahrestan
Shahrestan
Shahrestan or Shahristan may refer to:*Counties of Iran*Shahristan District*Shahrestan, Afghanistan...

s (≈counties), which in turn are divided into 23 Bakhsh
Bakhsh
A bakhsh is a type of administrative division of Iran. While sometimes translated as county, it is more accurately translated as district, as they are similar to a township in the United States or a district of England....

s (≈districts) in total. These divisions are shown on the map as well as the center of each county and the neighbor provinces.

Colleges and universities

  1. Hamedan Medical University
  2. Bu-Ali Sina University
    Bu-Ali Sina University
    Bu-Ali Sina University, also written Bu Ali Sina University and Avicenna University , is a university in the city of Hamedan in Hamedan province of Iran.The university was first established with the assistance of France in February 1973....

  3. Hamedan University of Technology
  4. Islamic Azad University of Hamedan
  5. Payam Noor University of Hamedan
  6. Payam Noor University of Bahar
  7. Payam Noor University of Kabootar Ahang
  8. Payam Noor University of Toyserkan
  9. Payam Noor University of Nahavand
  10. Payam Noor University of razan
  11. Islamic Azad University of Toyserkan
  12. Islamic Azad University of Nahavand

Attractions


The Cultural Heritage of Iran lists 442 sites of historical and cultural significance located in Hamedan, thus making the province a rich one in terms of historical attractions.

Some of the most popular sites are:
  1. Tomb of Baba Taher
    Baba Taher
    Baba Tahir, was an 11th century poet in Persian literature and mystic.-Biography:Baba Tahir is known as one of the most revered and respectable early poets in Iranian literature. Most of his life is clouded in mystery. He was born and lived in Hamadan, the capital city of the Hamedan Province in...

     the poet
  2. Ganj Nameh inscriptions of Darius The Great
  3. Tomb of Esther
    Esther
    Esther , born Hadassah, is the eponymous heroine of the Biblical Book of Esther.According to the Bible, she was a Jewish queen of the Persian king Ahasuerus...

     and Mordechai
  4. Ali Sadr (Ardeles) cave
  5. Tomb of Avicenna
    Avicenna
    Abū ʿAlī al-Ḥusayn ibn ʿAbd Allāh ibn Sīnā , commonly known as Ibn Sīnā or by his Latinized name Avicenna, was a Persian polymath, who wrote almost 450 treatises on a wide range of subjects, of which around 240 have survived...

  6. Waterfall of Ganjnameh
  7. Stone Lion of Hamedan
    Hamedan Stone Lion
    The stone lion of Hamedan is a historical monument in Hamedan, Iran.The stone lion -one part of the 'Lions Gate'- sits on a hill where a Parthian era cemetery is said to have been located....

  8. Abass Abad jangle(Baugh)
  9. Qorban Building
  10. Alavian Tomb
  11. Eram Park
  12. Hegmatane (Ekbatan) City of 5000 years ago
  13. Imam(pahlavi) Sq
  14. Alvand Mountain
  15. Grand Bazzar of Mozafarieh

External links