Hallstatt culture

Hallstatt culture

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{{about|the archaeological culture|other uses|Hallstatt (disambiguation)}} The '''Hallstatt culture''' was the predominant [[Central Europe]]an culture from the 8th to 6th centuries BC (European [[Early Iron Age]]), developing out of the [[Urnfield culture]] of the 12th century BC (Late Bronze Age) and followed in much of Central Europe by the [[La Tène culture]]. By the 6th century BC, the Hallstatt culture extended for some 1000 km, from the [[Champagne-Ardenne]] in the west, through the [[Upper Rhine]] and the upper [[Danube]], as far as the [[Vienna Basin]] and the [[Danubian Lowland]] in the east, from the [[Main (river)|Main]], [[Bohemia]] and the [[Little Carpathians]] in the north, to the [[Swiss plateau]], the [[Salzkammergut]] and to [[Lower Styria]]. It is named for its [[type site]], ''[[Hallstatt]]'', a lakeside village in the [[Austria]]n [[Salzkammergut]] southeast of [[Salzburg, Austria|Salzburg]]. The culture is commonly linked to [[Proto-Celtic]] and [[Celts|Celtic]] populations in its western zone and with (pre-)[[Illyrians]] in its eastern zone. ==Hallstatt type site== [[Image:Hallstatt culture ramsauer.jpg|thumb|150px|left|A drawing commissioned by Johann G. Ramsauer documenting one of his cemetery digs at [[Hallstatt]] ; an unknown local artist painted these watercolors]] In 1846, [[Johann Georg Ramsauer]] (1795–1874) discovered a large [[Prehistory|prehistoric]] [[cemetery]] near [[Hallstatt]], which he excavated during the second half of the nineteenth century. Eventually the excavation would yield 1,045 burials. The community at Hallstatt exploited the [[salt mine]]s in the area, which had been worked from time to time since the [[Neolithic]] period, from the eighth century to fifth century BC. The style and decoration of the grave goods found in the cemetery are very distinctive, and artifacts made in this style are widespread in [[Europe]]. Stratigraphy at the type site, extending from about 1200 BC until around 500 BC, is divided by archaeologists into four phases:
date BC
HaA1200-1000
HaB1000-800
HaC800-650
HaD650-475
Hallstatt A-B are part of the [[Bronze Age Europe|Bronze Age]] [[Urnfield culture]]. Phase A saw [[Villanova culture|Villanovan]] influence. In phase B, [[tumulus]] ([[kurgan]]) burial becomes common, and [[cremation]] predominates. The "Hallstatt period" proper is restricted to HaC and HaD (8th to 6th centuries BC), corresponding to the early [[European Iron Age]]. Hallstatt D is succeeded by the [[La Tène culture]]. Hallstatt C is characterized by the first appearance of iron swords mixed amongst the bronze ones. Inhumation and cremation co-occur. For the final phase, Hallstatt D, only daggers are found in graves ranging from ''c.'' 600–500 BC. There are also differences in the pottery and [[brooch]]es. Burials were mostly inhumations. ==Geography== Two culturally distinct areas, an eastern and a western zone, have been postulated by Kossack (1959). The dividing line runs across the Czech Republic and Austria, at about 14 to 15 degrees eastern longitude. The main distinction is in burial rite and [[grave goods]]: in the western zone, members of the elite were buried with sword (HaC) or dagger (HaD), in the eastern zone with an axe. The western zone has [[chariot burial]]s. In the eastern zone, warriors are frequently buried in full armour. The approximate division line between the two subcultures runs from north to south through central [[Bohemia]] and [[Lower Austria]], and then traces the eastern and southern rim of the Alps to Eastern and Southern [[State of Tyrol|Tyrol]].{{Citation needed|date=April 2008}} ===Western Hallstatt zone=== *The western Hallstatt zone includes: **northeastern [[France]]: [[Champagne-Ardenne]], [[Lorraine (region)|Lorraine]], [[Alsace]] **northern [[Switzerland]]: [[Swiss plateau]] **[[Southern Germany]]: much of [[Swabia]] and [[Bavaria]] **western [[Czech Republic]]: [[Bohemia]] **western [[Austria]]: [[Vorarlberg]], [[North Tyrol]], [[Salzkammergut]] **northern and central [[Spain]]: [[Galicia (Spain)|Galicia]], [[Asturias]], [[Castile (historical region)|Castile]] **northern and north-central [[Portugal]]: [[Minho Province|Minho]], [[Douro]], [[Trás-os-Montes (region)|Tras-os-Montes]], [[Beira Alta]] While Hallstatt is regarded as the dominant settlement of the western zone, a settlement at the [[Burgstallkogel (Sulm valley)|Burgstallkogel]] in the central [[Sulm (Austrian river)|Sulm valley]] (southern [[Styria]], west of [[Leibnitz]], Austria) was a major center during the Hallstatt C period. Parts of the huge [[necropolis]] (which originally consisted of more than 1,100 [[Tumulus|tumuli]]) surrounding this settlement can be seen today near [[Gleinstätten]]. Grave goods from a chieftain's grave, including bronze armor and the burial mask and hands from the ''Kröllkogel'' between towns of Gleinstätten and Kleinklein well as the famous [[Cult Wagon of Strettweg]] from the Strettweg excavation near [[Judenburg]], [[Styria]] are on display in the [[Landesmuseum Joanneum|Joanneum's]] Archaeology Museum located at [[Schloss Eggenberg (Graz)|Schloss Eggenberg]] in the Styrian capital of [[Graz]]. ===Eastern Hallstatt zone=== *The eastern Hallstatt zone includes: **eastern [[Austria]]: [[Lower Austria]], [[Upper Styria]] **eastern [[Czech Republic]]: [[Moravia]] **southwestern [[Slovakia]]: [[Danubian Lowland]] **western [[Hungary]]: [[Little Hungarian Plain]] **eastern [[Slovenia]]: [[Lower Styria]], [[Lower Carniola]] **northern [[Croatia]]: [[Hrvatsko Zagorje]], [[Istria]] The Slovenian city of [[Novo Mesto]] in [[Lower Carniola]], one of the most important archeological sites of the Hallstatt culture, has been nicknamed the "City of Situlas" after numerous [[situla (vessel)|situlas]] found in the area. ==Culture and trade== {{see|Greeks in pre-Roman Gaul}} [[Image:Rasoir Acy-Romance.jpg|thumb|right|190px|Bronze Hallstatt culture tool, possibly an early [[razor]], the three circular holes on the handle and the blade body indicate the possibility they could be used for [[fastener]]s in a [[spear]] head as well]] [[Image:Magdalenenberg collier.jpg|thumb|right|190px|Hallstatt [[Amber]] Choker [[necklace]]]] Trade and population movements (very probably both) spread the Hallstatt cultural complex into the western [[Iberian peninsula]], [[Great Britain|Britain]], and [[Ireland]]. It is probable that some if not all of this diffusion took place in a [[Celtic languages|Celtic]]-speaking context. Trade with [[Greece]] is attested by finds of [[Attica|Attic]] [[black-figure pottery]] in the élite graves of the late Hallstatt period. It was probably imported via Massilia ([[Marseille]]). Other imported luxuries include [[amber]], [[ivory]] ([[Gräfenbühl]]) and probably [[wine]]. Recent analyses have shown that the reputed [[silk]] in the [[Tumulus|barrow]] at [[Hohmichele]] was misidentified. Red [[dye]] ([[cochineal]]) was imported from the south as well (Hochdorf burial). The settlements were mostly fortified, situated on hilltops, and frequently included the workshops of bronze-, silver-, and goldsmiths. Typical sites are the [[Heuneburg]] on the upper [[Danube]] surrounded by nine very large grave tumuli, [[Mont Lassois]] in eastern France near [[Châtillon-sur-Seine]] with, at its foot, the very rich grave at [[Vix Grave|Vix]], and the hill fort at [[Molpír]] in [[Slovakia]]. In the central Hallstatt regions toward the end of the period, very rich graves of high-status individuals under large [[Tumulus|tumuli]] are found near the remains of fortified hilltop settlements. They often contain [[chariot]]s and horse [[bit (horse)|bit]]s or [[yoke]]s as commonly used by [[Cimmerian]] knights ([[Eurasian nomads]]). Well known chariot burials include [[Býčí Skála]], [[Vix Grave|Vix]] and [[Hochdorf Chieftain's Grave|Hochdorf]]. A model of a chariot made from lead has been found in [[Frögg]], [[Carinthia (state)|Carinthia]]. Elaborate jewellery made of [[bronze]] and [[gold]], as well as stone [[stela]]e (see the famous [[warrior of Hirschlanden]]) were found in this context. The material culture of Western Hallstatt culture was apparently sufficient to provide a stable social and economic equilibrium. The founding of [[Marseille]] and the penetration by Greek and Etruscan culture after ca 600 BC, resulted in long-range trade relationships up the Rhone valley which triggered social and cultural transformations in the Hallstatt settlements north of the Alps. Powerful local chiefdoms emerged which controlled the redistribution of luxury goods from the Mediterranean world that is characteristic of the [[La Tène culture]]. The biggest deposit of Hallstatt bronze artifacts from Europe was found in [[Romania]]. ==See also== {{Commons category|Hallstatt culture}} *[[Basarabi culture]] *[[Bronze- and Iron-Age Poland]] *[[Burgstallkogel (Sulm valley)]] *[[Celtic warfare]] *[[Celts]] *[[Glauberg]] *[[Golasecca culture]] *[[Illyrians]] *[[Iron Age sword]] *[[Irschen]] *[[Noric steel]] *[[Vix Grave]] *[[Prehistoric France]] *[[Warrior of Hirschlanden]] *[[Zollfeld]] ==External links== *http://www.hallstattzeit.de/ {{Celts}} {{World Heritage Sites in Austria}} {{coord missing|Austria}} {{DEFAULTSORT:Hallstatt Culture}}