Halal

Halal

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Encyclopedia
Halal is a term designating any object or an action which is permissible to use or engage in, according to Islamic law
Sharia
Sharia law, is the moral code and religious law of Islam. Sharia is derived from two primary sources of Islamic law: the precepts set forth in the Quran, and the example set by the Islamic prophet Muhammad in the Sunnah. Fiqh jurisprudence interprets and extends the application of sharia to...

. The term is used to designate food seen as permissible according to Islamic law (Sharia
Sharia
Sharia law, is the moral code and religious law of Islam. Sharia is derived from two primary sources of Islamic law: the precepts set forth in the Quran, and the example set by the Islamic prophet Muhammad in the Sunnah. Fiqh jurisprudence interprets and extends the application of sharia to...

). The opposite of this word is haraam
Haraam
Haraam is an Arabic term meaning "forbidden", or "sacred". In Islam it is used to refer to anything that is prohibited by the word of Allah in the Qur'an or the Hadith Qudsi. Haraam is the highest status of prohibition given to anything that would result in sin when a Muslim commits it...

.

Food


The terms halal and haraam
Haraam
Haraam is an Arabic term meaning "forbidden", or "sacred". In Islam it is used to refer to anything that is prohibited by the word of Allah in the Qur'an or the Hadith Qudsi. Haraam is the highest status of prohibition given to anything that would result in sin when a Muslim commits it...

are applied to many facets of life; and one of the most common uses of these terms is in reference to meat products, food contact materials, and pharmaceuticals.
In Islam there are many things that are clearly halal or haraam. There are also items which are not as clear, and for which further information is needed. Items that are not clear are called mashbooh, which means "questionable".
'Halal' means permissible. 'Haraam' means forbidden.

In Islam, other forbidden items include pork and all its products; animals improperly slaughtered; alcoholic drinks, including all forms of intoxicants; carnivorous animals; birds of prey; and any food contaminated with any of these products.

Dhabiha: method of slaughter



is the prescribed method of slaughtering all animals excluding fish and most sea-life per Islamic law. This method of slaughtering animals consists of using a well sharpened knife to make a swift, deep incision that cuts the front of the throat, the carotid artery, wind pipe and jugular veins but leaves the spinal cord intact.
The head of an animal that is slaughtered using halal methods is aligned with the Qiblah. In addition to the direction, permitted animal should be slaughtered in the name of Allah (the Lord) and the person who is slaughtering should be a Muslim and he/she should be in a good mental condition and faith.

Dietary laws



Islam has laws regarding which foods can and cannot be eaten and also on the proper method of slaughtering an animal for consumption, known as dhabihah. However if there is no other food available then a Muslim is allowed to eat non-halal food. Surah 2:174 states:

If one is forced because there is no other choice, neither craving nor transgressing, there is no sin on him.


Surah 6:5 states:

"This day are things good and pure made lawful to you. The food of the People of the Book
People of the Book
People of the Book is a term used to designate non-Muslim adherents to faiths which have a revealed scripture called, in Arabic, Al-Kitab . The three types of adherents to faiths that the Qur'an mentions as people of the book are the Jews, Sabians and Christians.In Islam, the Muslim scripture, the...

 is lawful to you and yours is lawful to them."

Explicitly forbidden substances



A variety of substances are considered as harmful (haraam) for humans to consume and, therefore, forbidden as per various Quranic verses:
  • Pork
    Pork
    Pork is the culinary name for meat from the domestic pig , which is eaten in many countries. It is one of the most commonly consumed meats worldwide, with evidence of pig husbandry dating back to 5000 BC....

  • Blood
    Blood
    Blood is a specialized bodily fluid in animals that delivers necessary substances such as nutrients and oxygen to the cells and transports metabolic waste products away from those same cells....


http://www.muftisays.com/blog/abu+mohammed/934_17-01-2011/why-is-blood-haram-(to-eat)%3F.html
  • Animals slaughtered in the name of anyone but Allah. All that has been dedicated or offered in sacrifice to an idolatrous altar or saint or a person considered to be "divine"
  • Carrion
    Carrion
    Carrion refers to the carcass of a dead animal. Carrion is an important food source for large carnivores and omnivores in most ecosystems. Examples of carrion-eaters include vultures, hawks, eagles, hyenas, Virginia Opossum, Tasmanian Devils, coyotes, Komodo dragons, and burying beetles...

     (carcasses of dead animals)
  • An animal that has been strangled, beaten (to death), killed by a fall, gored (to death), savaged by a beast of prey (except by a human)
  • Food over which Allah's name is not pronounced (or at least not in a name other than Allah)
  • Alcohol
    Alcohol
    In chemistry, an alcohol is an organic compound in which the hydroxy functional group is bound to a carbon atom. In particular, this carbon center should be saturated, having single bonds to three other atoms....

     and other intoxicants

- Any type of alcohol such as beer, wine, whiskey, and anything that has alcohol in it such as Vanilla extract.
  • All animals which hunt with claws (lion, eagle, panther, vulture etc.)

- Any animal that eats another animal, and a human eats it. For example a lion eats a deer, that makes the lion haraam(not permissible to eat)
  • These verses also have information regarding Halal foods,2:173,5:5,and 6:118-119,121.

Comparison to Jewish dietary laws


There is similarity between the laws of Dhabiĥa halal and kashrut
Kashrut
Kashrut is the set of Jewish dietary laws. Food in accord with halakha is termed kosher in English, from the Ashkenazi pronunciation of the Hebrew term kashér , meaning "fit" Kashrut (also kashruth or kashrus) is the set of Jewish dietary laws. Food in accord with halakha (Jewish law) is termed...

. In Surah 5:5 of the Qur'an it is written: "The food of the People of the Book [Jews and Christians] is lawful for you as your food is lawful for them." condition is; it should be slaughtered in the name of Allah. Jews do the same but Christians don't. So, Jews kashrut is permitted but excludes Christians. According to Islamic law; one can not eat the meat even it is slaughtered by Muslim but name of Allah was not recited.

In Non-Islamic countries




In South Africa
South Africa
The Republic of South Africa is a country in southern Africa. Located at the southern tip of Africa, it is divided into nine provinces, with of coastline on the Atlantic and Indian oceans...

 most chicken products have a halal stamp. The South African National Halal Authority issues certificates and products bearing this logo range from water, snacks, and even meat free products (Which may contain non-halal ingredients). The South African National Halal Authority (SANHA) also licenses the usage of the Halal logo in restaurants where the food is halal but also no-alcohol or pork products can be served.

In Dearborn, Michigan
Dearborn, Michigan
-Economy:Ford Motor Company has its world headquarters in Dearborn. In addition its Dearborn campus contains many research, testing, finance and some production facilities. Ford Land controls the numerous properties owned by Ford including sales and leasing to unrelated businesses such as the...

, thet home of one of the largest Muslim and Arab populations in the United States
United States
The United States of America is a federal constitutional republic comprising fifty states and a federal district...

, some fast food restaurant chains such as the McDonald's Corporation have introduced halal chicken nugget
Chicken nugget
A chicken nugget is a molded piece of chicken product, breaded or battered, then fried or baked. Fast food restaurants typically deep fry their nuggets in vegetable oil, such as coconut oil....

s.

In the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern IrelandIn the United Kingdom and Dependencies, other languages have been officially recognised as legitimate autochthonous languages under the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages...

, China
China
Chinese civilization may refer to:* China for more general discussion of the country.* Chinese culture* Greater China, the transnational community of ethnic Chinese.* History of China* Sinosphere, the area historically affected by Chinese culture...

, Malaysia or Singapore
Singapore
Singapore , officially the Republic of Singapore, is a Southeast Asian city-state off the southern tip of the Malay Peninsula, north of the equator. An island country made up of 63 islands, it is separated from Malaysia by the Straits of Johor to its north and from Indonesia's Riau Islands by the...

, halal fried chicken restaurants having thousands of outlets serve halal foods, such as the Chicking Fried Chicken, Kentucky Fried Chicken, Brown's Chicken, and Crown Fried Chicken companies. As of February 2009, Kentucky Fried Chicken restaurants in the U.K. began to sell halal meals in several restaurants.http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-1177969/Fast-food-chain-KFC-converts-London-restaurants-halal-menu.html

Also, in New York City
New York City
New York is the most populous city in the United States and the center of the New York Metropolitan Area, one of the most populous metropolitan areas in the world. New York exerts a significant impact upon global commerce, finance, media, art, fashion, research, technology, education, and...

 there are numerous halal food cart
Food cart
A food cart is a mobile kitchen that is set up on the street to facilitate the sale and marketing of street food to people from the local pedestrian traffic. Food carts are often found in large cities throughout the world and can be found selling food of just about any variety.Food carts come in...

s in business which serve gyros, chicken platters, and other halal fast foods, whereas in Europe, there are many of the Muslim
Muslim
A Muslim, also spelled Moslem, is an adherent of Islam, a monotheistic, Abrahamic religion based on the Quran, which Muslims consider the verbatim word of God as revealed to prophet Muhammad. "Muslim" is the Arabic term for "submitter" .Muslims believe that God is one and incomparable...

-owned Döner kebab
Döner kebab
Doner kebab is a dish made of roasted meat cooked on a vertical spit. It is also known regionally as gyro , shawarma, and al pastor . It consists of shaved lamb, goat, chicken, turkey, beef, or mixed meats roasted on a spit. Less common alternatives include fish and sausage...

 shops.

A law passed by a county in Ohio
Ohio
Ohio is a Midwestern state in the United States. The 34th largest state by area in the U.S.,it is the 7th‑most populous with over 11.5 million residents, containing several major American cities and seven metropolitan areas with populations of 500,000 or more.The state's capital is Columbus...

 in 2005 bans the sale, distribution, or production of food mislabeled "halal," when county authorities determine that the food does not meet Islamic dietary standards. Similar laws protect kosher
Kashrut
Kashrut is the set of Jewish dietary laws. Food in accord with halakha is termed kosher in English, from the Ashkenazi pronunciation of the Hebrew term kashér , meaning "fit" Kashrut (also kashruth or kashrus) is the set of Jewish dietary laws. Food in accord with halakha (Jewish law) is termed...

 foods in most of the United States
United States
The United States of America is a federal constitutional republic comprising fifty states and a federal district...

, and in many other countries, states, or provinces.

All McDonald's, Pizza Hut
Pizza Hut
Pizza Hut is an American restaurant chain and international franchise that offers different styles of pizza along with side dishes including pasta, buffalo wings, breadsticks, and garlic bread....

, and Kentucky Fried Chicken outlets in India are all halal, due to the sizeable Muslim minority.

McDonald's, Pizza Hut, and Kentucky Fried Chicken have been declared to be halal in Sri Lanka by the Jamiyathul Ulama, the only authority able to give out the certification there.

In 2008 and 2009, twelve stores in the Mary Brown's
Mary Brown's
Mary Brown's is a Canadian fast-food restaurant chain most popular for its Big Mary sandwich, chicken and 'taters' or potato wedges. Its process involves marinating chicken for up to 48 hours prior to cooking. The company has 83 locations in Canada: 38 in Newfoundland and Labrador, 30 in Ontario,...

 chain in Ontario
Ontario
Ontario is a province of Canada, located in east-central Canada. It is Canada's most populous province and second largest in total area. It is home to the nation's most populous city, Toronto, and the nation's capital, Ottawa....

 and Alberta
Alberta
Alberta is a province of Canada. It had an estimated population of 3.7 million in 2010 making it the most populous of Canada's three prairie provinces...

 become 100% halal. Numerous halal meat markets also exist in Southern Ontario
Southern Ontario
Southern Ontario is a region of the province of Ontario, Canada that lies south of the French River and Algonquin Park. Depending on the inclusion of the Parry Sound and Muskoka districts, its surface area would cover between 14 to 15% of the province. It is the southernmost region of...

 and Metro Vancouver.

Thailand also has a noticeable population of Muslims and Halal-meat shops country-wide.

Within the People's Republic of China
People's Republic of China
China , officially the People's Republic of China , is the most populous country in the world, with over 1.3 billion citizens. Located in East Asia, the country covers approximately 9.6 million square kilometres...

, which has a sizable Hui Muslim
Hui people
The Hui people are an ethnic group in China, defined as Chinese speaking people descended from foreign Muslims. They are typically distinguished by their practice of Islam, however some also practice other religions, and many are direct descendants of Silk Road travelers.In modern People's...

 minority population, halal food is known as "Qingzhen" . Halal restaurants run by Hui Chinese resemble typical Chinese food, only that they do not serve pork. Dishes specific to Hui Chinese are known as Chinese Islamic cuisine
Chinese Islamic cuisine
Chinese Islamic cuisine is the cuisine of the Hui and other Muslims living in China.-History:Due to the large Muslim population in western China, many Chinese restaurants cater to, or are run by, Muslims. Northern Chinese Islamic cuisine originated in China proper...

.

Dhabiḥa


Dhabiḥa is relatively difficult to adhere to in non-Muslim countries:
  • The abundance of pork and non-dhabiḥa meats at restaurants presents a rather difficult problem to overcome. While a Muslim will not order a non-halal dish, there is a concern about cross-contamination. This is likely to occur when the dhabiḥa halal dish is prepared with the same cooking tools and in the same kitchen as other non-dhabiḥa halal dishes. Food particles and juices from the two dishes are likely to be exchanged, technically rendering the dhabiḥa halal dish as haraam
    Haraam
    Haraam is an Arabic term meaning "forbidden", or "sacred". In Islam it is used to refer to anything that is prohibited by the word of Allah in the Qur'an or the Hadith Qudsi. Haraam is the highest status of prohibition given to anything that would result in sin when a Muslim commits it...

    .

  • Many apparently meat-free dishes, and even some desserts, contain pork, such as most kinds of gelatin
    Gelatin
    Gelatin is a translucent, colorless, brittle , flavorless solid substance, derived from the collagen inside animals' skin and bones. It is commonly used as a gelling agent in food, pharmaceuticals, photography, and cosmetic manufacturing. Substances containing gelatin or functioning in a similar...

    , or other non-conforming substances. There is some disagreement about food additives such as monosodium glutamate
    Monosodium glutamate
    Monosodium glutamate, also known as sodium glutamate or MSG, is the sodium salt of glutamic acid, one of the most abundant naturally occurring non-essential amino acids....

     (MSG) that may use enzymes derived from pig fat in the production process. It is difficult to avoid such additives when eating out since they are usually not listed on restaurant menus. Some Muslim organizations compile tables of such additives.

  • Alcoholic beverages, including wine
    Wine
    Wine is an alcoholic beverage, made of fermented fruit juice, usually from grapes. The natural chemical balance of grapes lets them ferment without the addition of sugars, acids, enzymes, or other nutrients. Grape wine is produced by fermenting crushed grapes using various types of yeast. Yeast...

     and whiskey, are used in many sauces and cakes, and alcohol is used as an ingredient (a solvent
    Solvent
    A solvent is a liquid, solid, or gas that dissolves another solid, liquid, or gaseous solute, resulting in a solution that is soluble in a certain volume of solvent at a specified temperature...

     and a preservative
    Preservative
    A preservative is a naturally occurring or synthetically produced substance that is added to products such as foods, pharmaceuticals, paints, biological samples, wood, etc. to prevent decomposition by microbial growth or by undesirable chemical changes....

    ) for the production and storage of food flavorings such as vanilla and other extracts.


Since the turn of the 21st century, there have been efforts to create organizations such as the Muslim Consumer Group
Muslim Consumer Group
The Muslim Consumer Group is a U.S. non-profit organization founded in November 1993 by Syed Rasheeduddin Ahmed, based in Rolling Meadows, Illinois...

 that certify food products as halal for Muslim consumers.http://halaladvocates.org/

"Halal" is an Arabic word meaning "lawful" or "permissible", and the term not only covers food and drink, but also to all matters of daily life. When it comes to halal food, most people think of meat foods only. However, Muslims must ensure that all foods, particularly processed foods, pharmaceuticals, and non-food items like cosmetics, are also halal. Frequently, these products contain animal by-products or other ingredients that are not permissible for Muslims to eat or use on their bodies.

The leading North America
North America
North America is a continent wholly within the Northern Hemisphere and almost wholly within the Western Hemisphere. It is also considered a northern subcontinent of the Americas...

n halal food producer and distributor in the United States is the Midamar Corporation. Midamar is the first company in the USA to slaughter halal beef in USDA inspected plants.{Midamar Milestones} This company has been in operation since 1974, and it is based in Cedar Rapids, Iowa
Cedar Rapids, Iowa
Cedar Rapids is the second largest city in Iowa and is the county seat of Linn County. The city lies on both banks of the Cedar River, north of Iowa City and east of Des Moines, the state's capital and largest city...

, the home of the oldest mosque in the Americas still standing. The children of Muslims who settled in Iowa around 1900 discerned a need to start producing halal beef and chicken catering to the tastes of American Muslims.

Since 1991, mainstream manufacturers of soups, grains, cosmetics
Cosmetics
Cosmetics are substances used to enhance the appearance or odor of the human body. Cosmetics include skin-care creams, lotions, powders, perfumes, lipsticks, fingernail and toe nail polish, eye and facial makeup, towelettes, permanent waves, colored contact lenses, hair colors, hair sprays and...

, pharmaceuticals, prepared foods, and other products, as well as hotel
Hotel
A hotel is an establishment that provides paid lodging on a short-term basis. The provision of basic accommodation, in times past, consisting only of a room with a bed, a cupboard, a small table and a washstand has largely been replaced by rooms with modern facilities, including en-suite bathrooms...

s, restaurants, airline
Airline
An airline provides air transport services for traveling passengers and freight. Airlines lease or own their aircraft with which to supply these services and may form partnerships or alliances with other airlines for mutual benefit...

s, hospital
Hospital
A hospital is a health care institution providing patient treatment by specialized staff and equipment. Hospitals often, but not always, provide for inpatient care or longer-term patient stays....

s, and other service providers have pursued the halal market. These companies purchase halal-certified products. Halal certification tells Muslims that their ingredients and production methods have been tested and declared permissible by a certification body. It also allows companies to export products to most Middle Eastern countries and South East Asian Countries. The oldest and most well-known halal certifier in the United States is called the "Islamic Services of America". Something that companies which intend to export halal products must keep in mind, when choosing a certifier, is whether or not the certifier is recognized by foreign governmental bodies.
  • In 1986, the "Islamic Meat & Poultry Company" was founded in Stockton, California
    Stockton, California
    Stockton, California, the seat of San Joaquin County, is the fourth-largest city in the Central Valley of the U.S. state of California. With a population of 291,707 at the 2010 census, Stockton ranks as this state's 13th largest city...

    . Islamic Meat & Poultry is a halal-only, U.S. Department of Agriculture-inspected, hand-slaughtering and meat-processing facility. This company follows the principles of slaughtering and meat-processing according to the Islamic Shariah.http://www.gmdu.net/corp-7577.html

  • In 2011, Halal Products Certification Institute was established in California, United States of America and became the first worldwide corporation that Certified Halal Consumer Products such as Cosmetics, Personal Care Products, Perfumes & Fragrances, The institute was established by renowned Islamic intellectual scholars and top Muslim scientists in the world to assure the dissemination of halal consumer products.


Also in Europe, several organizations have been created over the past 20 years in order to certify the halal products. A survey recently published by a French association of Muslim Consumers (ASIDCOM) shows that the market of halal products has been developed in a chaotic way. The certification organizations do not have a common definition of "halal" nor agreed upon control procedures and traceability. The controls implemented by individual agencies are all very different: it can go from an annual audit of the slaughterhouse to checking each production with permanent controls in place and on-going independent.

Animal welfare concerns



Before the Second World War, religious slaughter was tolerated in Europe, except for four countries (Switzerland in 1893, Norway in 1930, Poland and Sweden in 1938). Religious slaughter without stunning was prohibited in several countries in Europe from 1936 to 1944 under the occupation of Nazi Germany
Nazi Germany
Nazi Germany , also known as the Third Reich , but officially called German Reich from 1933 to 1943 and Greater German Reich from 26 June 1943 onward, is the name commonly used to refer to the state of Germany from 1933 to 1945, when it was a totalitarian dictatorship ruled by...

 (Germany in 1936, Italy in 1938, then in the majority of the other European countries according to the Nazi Germany occupation progress between 1940 and 1944).

The ritual method of slaughter as practiced in Islam and Judaism has been described as inhumane by animal welfare organisations in the U.K. and the U.S.A., who have stated that it "causes severe suffering to animals." These animal welfare organizations hope to forbid the right to practise the ritual slaughter without stunning in Non-islamic countries.

In 1978, a study incorporating EEG (electroencephalograph) with electrodes surgically implanted on the skull of 17 sheep and 15 calves, and conducted by Wilhelm Schulze
Wilhelm Schulze (professor of veterinary medicine)
Wilhelm Schulze was a German professor of veterinary medicine, director of the University of Veterinary Medicine Hanover and a specialist for pigs....

 et al. at the University of Veterinary Medicine
University of Veterinary Medicine Hanover
The University of Veterinary Medicine Hanover is a university in Hanover and one of the five facilities for veterinary medicine in Germany, and the only one that remains independent. It is often referred to as TiHo by its staff and students....

 in Germany concluded that "the slaughter in the form of a ritual cut is, if carried out properly, painless in sheep and calves according to EEG recordings and the missing defensive actions" (of the animals) and that "For sheep, there were in part severe reactions both in bloodletting cut and the pain stimuli" when captive bolt stunning
Stunning
Stunning is the process of rendering animals immobile or unconscious, without killing the animal, prior to their being slaughtered for food.-History:...

 (CBS) was used. This study is cited by the German Constitutional Court in its permitting of dhabiha slaughtering.

In 2003, the Farm Animal Welfare Council
Farm Animal Welfare Council
The Farm Animal Welfare Council was an independent advisory body established by the Government of Great Britain in 1979. FAWC has published its Final Report before its closure on 31 March 2011...

 (FAWC), an independent advisory group, concluded that the way halal and kosher meat is produced causes severe suffering to animals and should be banned immediately. FAWC argued that cattle required up to two minutes to bleed to death when such means are employed. The Chairperson of FAWC at the time, Judy MacArthur Clark, added, "this is a major incision into the animal and to say that it doesn't suffer is quite ridiculous." Halal and kosher butchers deny that their method of killing animals is cruel and expressed anger over the FAWC recommendation.

Majid Katme of the Muslim Council of Britain
Muslim Council of Britain
The Muslim Council of Britain is a self-appointed umbrella body for national, regional, local and specialist organisations and institutions from different ethnic and sectarian backgrounds within British Islamic society. It was established in 1997 to help Muslims, to increase education about the...

 also disagreed, stating that "it's a sudden and quick haemorrhage. A quick loss of blood pressure and the brain is instantaneously starved of blood and there is no time to start feeling any pain."

In April 2008, the Food and Farming minister in the UK, Lord Rooker, stated that halal and kosher meat should be labeled when it is put on sale, so that members of the public can decide whether or not they want to buy food from animals that have been bled to death. He was quoted as saying, "I object to the method of slaughter ... my choice as a customer is that I would want to buy meat that has been looked after, and slaughtered in the most humane way possible." The RSPCA supported Lord Rooker's views."

The same years, the French Ministry of Food, Agriculture and Fishing has published ASIDCOM’s Bibliographical Report on Religious Slaughter and the Welfare of Animals, as a contribution within the framework of a meeting on animals and society organized in the first half of the year 2008. This report quotes scientific papers and French veterinary PhD which support the equality or even possible superiority of religious slaughter to other methods of slaughter. This report quotes in particular the Ph.D work of Dr Pouillaude which concludes by: "religious slaughter would thus be a less stressing mode of slaughter. Conclusions of all the scientific experiments converge towards a firmly supported certainty: properly carried out, religious slaughter is the most humane way because it leads to less trauma to animals to be killed to be consumed for its meat".

For the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations and the Humane Society International
Humane Society International
The Humane Society International is the international division of The Humane Society of the United States. Founded in 1991, HSI has expanded The HSUS's activities into Central and South America, Africa, and Asia...

, "the animals that are slaughtered according to kosher and halal should be securely restrained, particularly the head and neck, before cutting the throat" as "movements (during slaughter) results in a poor cut, bad bleeding, slow loss of consciousness, if at all, and pain."

In Europe, the DIALREL project addressed religious slaughter issues by gathering and disseminating information and by encouraging dialogue between the both Muslim and Jewish communities and veterinary, animal welfare, and other scientists. The European Commission funded DIALREL, which started functioning in November of 2006. DIALREL produced many fact sheets and ultimately published a final report in 2010, "Report on good and adverse practices - Animal welfare concerns in relation to slaughter practices from the viewpoint of veterinary sciences." Both the Muslim and Jewish communities were frustrated with the process of dialogue because of the scientific community's views on animal slaughter.

See also


  • Al-Jamia
    Al-Jamia
    Al-Jamia is a sacred and secret Shia text, the words of which were dictated by Muhammad to Ali, who then wrote down these words...

    , Shia text which contains all the details of halal things.

  • {{Usul al-fiqh}}
    Halal ({{lang-ar|حلال}} {{transl|ar|DIN|ḥalāl}}, "lawful") is a term designating any object or an action which is permissible to use or engage in, according to Islamic law
    Sharia
    Sharia law, is the moral code and religious law of Islam. Sharia is derived from two primary sources of Islamic law: the precepts set forth in the Quran, and the example set by the Islamic prophet Muhammad in the Sunnah. Fiqh jurisprudence interprets and extends the application of sharia to...

    . The term is used to designate food seen as permissible according to Islamic law (Sharia
    Sharia
    Sharia law, is the moral code and religious law of Islam. Sharia is derived from two primary sources of Islamic law: the precepts set forth in the Quran, and the example set by the Islamic prophet Muhammad in the Sunnah. Fiqh jurisprudence interprets and extends the application of sharia to...

    , {{lang|ar|الشريعة الإسلامية}}). The opposite of this word is haraam
    Haraam
    Haraam is an Arabic term meaning "forbidden", or "sacred". In Islam it is used to refer to anything that is prohibited by the word of Allah in the Qur'an or the Hadith Qudsi. Haraam is the highest status of prohibition given to anything that would result in sin when a Muslim commits it...

    .

    Food


    The terms halal and haraam
    Haraam
    Haraam is an Arabic term meaning "forbidden", or "sacred". In Islam it is used to refer to anything that is prohibited by the word of Allah in the Qur'an or the Hadith Qudsi. Haraam is the highest status of prohibition given to anything that would result in sin when a Muslim commits it...

    are applied to many facets of life; and one of the most common uses of these terms is in reference to meat products, food contact materials, and pharmaceuticals.
    In Islam there are many things that are clearly halal or haraam. There are also items which are not as clear, and for which further information is needed. Items that are not clear are called mashbooh, which means "questionable".
    'Halal' means permissible. 'Haraam' means forbidden.

    In Islam, other forbidden items include pork and all its products; animals improperly slaughtered; alcoholic drinks, including all forms of intoxicants; carnivorous animals; birds of prey; and any food contaminated with any of these products.

    Dhabiha: method of slaughter


    {{Main|Dhabihah}}
    {{transl|ar|DIN|Ḏabīḥah}} ({{lang|ar|ذَبِيْحَة}}) is the prescribed method of slaughtering all animals excluding fish and most sea-life per Islamic law. This method of slaughtering animals consists of using a well sharpened knife to make a swift, deep incision that cuts the front of the throat, the carotid artery, wind pipe and jugular veins but leaves the spinal cord intact.
    The head of an animal that is slaughtered using halal methods is aligned with the Qiblah. In addition to the direction, permitted animal should be slaughtered in the name of Allah (the Lord) and the person who is slaughtering should be a Muslim and he/she should be in a good mental condition and faith.

    Dietary laws


    {{Merge to|Islamic dietary laws|date=November 2010}}
    Islam has laws regarding which foods can and cannot be eaten and also on the proper method of slaughtering an animal for consumption, known as dhabihah. However if there is no other food available then a Muslim is allowed to eat non-halal food. Surah 2:174 states:

    If one is forced because there is no other choice, neither craving nor transgressing, there is no sin on him.


    Surah 6:5 states:

    "This day are things good and pure made lawful to you. The food of the People of the Book
    People of the Book
    People of the Book is a term used to designate non-Muslim adherents to faiths which have a revealed scripture called, in Arabic, Al-Kitab . The three types of adherents to faiths that the Qur'an mentions as people of the book are the Jews, Sabians and Christians.In Islam, the Muslim scripture, the...

     is lawful to you and yours is lawful to them."

    Explicitly forbidden substances


    {{Religious text primary|section|date=October 2011}}
    A variety of substances are considered as harmful (haraam) for humans to consume and, therefore, forbidden as per various Quranic verses:
    • Pork
      Pork
      Pork is the culinary name for meat from the domestic pig , which is eaten in many countries. It is one of the most commonly consumed meats worldwide, with evidence of pig husbandry dating back to 5000 BC....

      {{cite quran|2|173}}
    • Blood
      Blood
      Blood is a specialized bodily fluid in animals that delivers necessary substances such as nutrients and oxygen to the cells and transports metabolic waste products away from those same cells....

      {{cite quran|2|173}}

    http://www.muftisays.com/blog/abu+mohammed/934_17-01-2011/why-is-blood-haram-(to-eat)%3F.html
    • Animals slaughtered in the name of anyone but Allah. All that has been dedicated or offered in sacrifice to an idolatrous altar or saint or a person considered to be "divine"{{cite quran|2|173}} {{cite quran|5|3}}
    • Carrion
      Carrion
      Carrion refers to the carcass of a dead animal. Carrion is an important food source for large carnivores and omnivores in most ecosystems. Examples of carrion-eaters include vultures, hawks, eagles, hyenas, Virginia Opossum, Tasmanian Devils, coyotes, Komodo dragons, and burying beetles...

       (carcasses of dead animals){{cite quran|2|173}}
    • An animal that has been strangled, beaten (to death), killed by a fall, gored (to death), savaged by a beast of prey (except by a human){{cite quran|5|3}}
    • Food over which Allah's name is not pronounced (or at least not in a name other than Allah){{cite quran|6|121}}
    • Alcohol
      Alcohol
      In chemistry, an alcohol is an organic compound in which the hydroxy functional group is bound to a carbon atom. In particular, this carbon center should be saturated, having single bonds to three other atoms....

       and other intoxicants{{cite quran|5|090}}

    - Any type of alcohol such as beer, wine, whiskey, and anything that has alcohol in it such as Vanilla extract.
    • All animals which hunt with claws (lion, eagle, panther, vulture etc.)

    - Any animal that eats another animal, and a human eats it. For example a lion eats a deer, that makes the lion haraam(not permissible to eat)
    • These verses also have information regarding Halal foods,2:173,5:5,and 6:118-119,121.

    Comparison to Jewish dietary laws


    {{Main|Islamic and Jewish dietary laws compared}}

    There is similarity between the laws of Dhabiĥa halal and kashrut
    Kashrut
    Kashrut is the set of Jewish dietary laws. Food in accord with halakha is termed kosher in English, from the Ashkenazi pronunciation of the Hebrew term kashér , meaning "fit" Kashrut (also kashruth or kashrus) is the set of Jewish dietary laws. Food in accord with halakha (Jewish law) is termed...

    . In Surah 5:5 of the Qur'an it is written: "The food of the People of the Book [Jews and Christians] is lawful for you as your food is lawful for them." condition is; it should be slaughtered in the name of Allah. Jews do the same but Christians don't. So, Jews kashrut is permitted but excludes Christians. According to Islamic law; one can not eat the meat even it is slaughtered by Muslim but name of Allah was not recited.

    In Non-Islamic countries




    In South Africa
    South Africa
    The Republic of South Africa is a country in southern Africa. Located at the southern tip of Africa, it is divided into nine provinces, with of coastline on the Atlantic and Indian oceans...

     most chicken products have a halal stamp. The South African National Halal Authority issues certificates and products bearing this logo range from water, snacks, and even meat free products (Which may contain non-halal ingredients). The South African National Halal Authority (SANHA) also licenses the usage of the Halal logo in restaurants where the food is halal but also no-alcohol or pork products can be served.

    In Dearborn, Michigan
    Dearborn, Michigan
    -Economy:Ford Motor Company has its world headquarters in Dearborn. In addition its Dearborn campus contains many research, testing, finance and some production facilities. Ford Land controls the numerous properties owned by Ford including sales and leasing to unrelated businesses such as the...

    , thet home of one of the largest Muslim and Arab populations in the United States
    United States
    The United States of America is a federal constitutional republic comprising fifty states and a federal district...

    , some fast food restaurant chains such as the McDonald's Corporation have introduced halal chicken nugget
    Chicken nugget
    A chicken nugget is a molded piece of chicken product, breaded or battered, then fried or baked. Fast food restaurants typically deep fry their nuggets in vegetable oil, such as coconut oil....

    s.

    In the United Kingdom
    United Kingdom
    The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern IrelandIn the United Kingdom and Dependencies, other languages have been officially recognised as legitimate autochthonous languages under the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages...

    , China
    China
    Chinese civilization may refer to:* China for more general discussion of the country.* Chinese culture* Greater China, the transnational community of ethnic Chinese.* History of China* Sinosphere, the area historically affected by Chinese culture...

    , Malaysia or Singapore
    Singapore
    Singapore , officially the Republic of Singapore, is a Southeast Asian city-state off the southern tip of the Malay Peninsula, north of the equator. An island country made up of 63 islands, it is separated from Malaysia by the Straits of Johor to its north and from Indonesia's Riau Islands by the...

    , halal fried chicken restaurants having thousands of outlets serve halal foods, such as the Chicking Fried Chicken, Kentucky Fried Chicken, Brown's Chicken, and Crown Fried Chicken companies. As of February 2009, Kentucky Fried Chicken restaurants in the U.K. began to sell halal meals in several restaurants.{{Citation needed|date=October 2011}}http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-1177969/Fast-food-chain-KFC-converts-London-restaurants-halal-menu.html

    Also, in New York City
    New York City
    New York is the most populous city in the United States and the center of the New York Metropolitan Area, one of the most populous metropolitan areas in the world. New York exerts a significant impact upon global commerce, finance, media, art, fashion, research, technology, education, and...

     there are numerous halal food cart
    Food cart
    A food cart is a mobile kitchen that is set up on the street to facilitate the sale and marketing of street food to people from the local pedestrian traffic. Food carts are often found in large cities throughout the world and can be found selling food of just about any variety.Food carts come in...

    s in business which serve gyros, chicken platters, and other halal fast foods, whereas in Europe, there are many of the Muslim
    Muslim
    A Muslim, also spelled Moslem, is an adherent of Islam, a monotheistic, Abrahamic religion based on the Quran, which Muslims consider the verbatim word of God as revealed to prophet Muhammad. "Muslim" is the Arabic term for "submitter" .Muslims believe that God is one and incomparable...

    -owned Döner kebab
    Döner kebab
    Doner kebab is a dish made of roasted meat cooked on a vertical spit. It is also known regionally as gyro , shawarma, and al pastor . It consists of shaved lamb, goat, chicken, turkey, beef, or mixed meats roasted on a spit. Less common alternatives include fish and sausage...

     shops.{{Citation needed|date=October 2011}}

    A law passed by a county in Ohio
    Ohio
    Ohio is a Midwestern state in the United States. The 34th largest state by area in the U.S.,it is the 7th‑most populous with over 11.5 million residents, containing several major American cities and seven metropolitan areas with populations of 500,000 or more.The state's capital is Columbus...

     in 2005 bans the sale, distribution, or production of food mislabeled "halal," when county authorities determine that the food does not meet Islamic dietary standards. Similar laws protect kosher
    Kashrut
    Kashrut is the set of Jewish dietary laws. Food in accord with halakha is termed kosher in English, from the Ashkenazi pronunciation of the Hebrew term kashér , meaning "fit" Kashrut (also kashruth or kashrus) is the set of Jewish dietary laws. Food in accord with halakha (Jewish law) is termed...

     foods in most of the United States
    United States
    The United States of America is a federal constitutional republic comprising fifty states and a federal district...

    , and in many other countries, states, or provinces. {{See|Kashrut}}

    All McDonald's, Pizza Hut
    Pizza Hut
    Pizza Hut is an American restaurant chain and international franchise that offers different styles of pizza along with side dishes including pasta, buffalo wings, breadsticks, and garlic bread....

    , and Kentucky Fried Chicken outlets in India are all halal, due to the sizeable Muslim minority.{{Citation needed|date=October 2011}}

    McDonald's, Pizza Hut, and Kentucky Fried Chicken have been declared to be halal in Sri Lanka by the Jamiyathul Ulama, the only authority able to give out the certification there.{{Citation needed|date=May 2010}}

    In 2008 and 2009, twelve stores in the Mary Brown's
    Mary Brown's
    Mary Brown's is a Canadian fast-food restaurant chain most popular for its Big Mary sandwich, chicken and 'taters' or potato wedges. Its process involves marinating chicken for up to 48 hours prior to cooking. The company has 83 locations in Canada: 38 in Newfoundland and Labrador, 30 in Ontario,...

     chain in Ontario
    Ontario
    Ontario is a province of Canada, located in east-central Canada. It is Canada's most populous province and second largest in total area. It is home to the nation's most populous city, Toronto, and the nation's capital, Ottawa....

     and Alberta
    Alberta
    Alberta is a province of Canada. It had an estimated population of 3.7 million in 2010 making it the most populous of Canada's three prairie provinces...

     become 100% halal. Numerous halal meat markets also exist in Southern Ontario
    Southern Ontario
    Southern Ontario is a region of the province of Ontario, Canada that lies south of the French River and Algonquin Park. Depending on the inclusion of the Parry Sound and Muskoka districts, its surface area would cover between 14 to 15% of the province. It is the southernmost region of...

     and Metro Vancouver.{{Citation needed|date=October 2011}}

    Thailand also has a noticeable population of Muslims and Halal-meat shops country-wide.{{Citation needed|date=October 2011}}

    Within the People's Republic of China
    People's Republic of China
    China , officially the People's Republic of China , is the most populous country in the world, with over 1.3 billion citizens. Located in East Asia, the country covers approximately 9.6 million square kilometres...

    , which has a sizable Hui Muslim
    Hui people
    The Hui people are an ethnic group in China, defined as Chinese speaking people descended from foreign Muslims. They are typically distinguished by their practice of Islam, however some also practice other religions, and many are direct descendants of Silk Road travelers.In modern People's...

     minority population, halal food is known as "Qingzhen" ({{zh|c=清真|p=qīngzhēn|l=pure truth}}). Halal restaurants run by Hui Chinese resemble typical Chinese food, only that they do not serve pork. Dishes specific to Hui Chinese are known as Chinese Islamic cuisine
    Chinese Islamic cuisine
    Chinese Islamic cuisine is the cuisine of the Hui and other Muslims living in China.-History:Due to the large Muslim population in western China, many Chinese restaurants cater to, or are run by, Muslims. Northern Chinese Islamic cuisine originated in China proper...

    .{{Citation needed|date=October 2011}}

    Dhabiḥa


    Dhabiḥa is relatively difficult to adhere to in non-Muslim countries:
    • The abundance of pork and non-dhabiḥa meats at restaurants presents a rather difficult problem to overcome. While a Muslim will not order a non-halal dish, there is a concern about cross-contamination. This is likely to occur when the dhabiḥa halal dish is prepared with the same cooking tools and in the same kitchen as other non-dhabiḥa halal dishes. Food particles and juices from the two dishes are likely to be exchanged, technically rendering the dhabiḥa halal dish as haraam
      Haraam
      Haraam is an Arabic term meaning "forbidden", or "sacred". In Islam it is used to refer to anything that is prohibited by the word of Allah in the Qur'an or the Hadith Qudsi. Haraam is the highest status of prohibition given to anything that would result in sin when a Muslim commits it...

      .{{Citation needed|date=October 2011}}

    • Many apparently meat-free dishes, and even some desserts, contain pork, such as most kinds of gelatin
      Gelatin
      Gelatin is a translucent, colorless, brittle , flavorless solid substance, derived from the collagen inside animals' skin and bones. It is commonly used as a gelling agent in food, pharmaceuticals, photography, and cosmetic manufacturing. Substances containing gelatin or functioning in a similar...

      , or other non-conforming substances. There is some disagreement about food additives such as monosodium glutamate
      Monosodium glutamate
      Monosodium glutamate, also known as sodium glutamate or MSG, is the sodium salt of glutamic acid, one of the most abundant naturally occurring non-essential amino acids....

       (MSG) that may use enzymes derived from pig fat in the production process. It is difficult to avoid such additives when eating out since they are usually not listed on restaurant menus. Some Muslim organizations compile tables of such additives.

    • Alcoholic beverages, including wine
      Wine
      Wine is an alcoholic beverage, made of fermented fruit juice, usually from grapes. The natural chemical balance of grapes lets them ferment without the addition of sugars, acids, enzymes, or other nutrients. Grape wine is produced by fermenting crushed grapes using various types of yeast. Yeast...

       and whiskey, are used in many sauces and cakes, and alcohol is used as an ingredient (a solvent
      Solvent
      A solvent is a liquid, solid, or gas that dissolves another solid, liquid, or gaseous solute, resulting in a solution that is soluble in a certain volume of solvent at a specified temperature...

       and a preservative
      Preservative
      A preservative is a naturally occurring or synthetically produced substance that is added to products such as foods, pharmaceuticals, paints, biological samples, wood, etc. to prevent decomposition by microbial growth or by undesirable chemical changes....

      ) for the production and storage of food flavorings such as vanilla and other extracts.{{Citation needed|date=October 2011}}


    Since the turn of the 21st century, there have been efforts to create organizations such as the Muslim Consumer Group
    Muslim Consumer Group
    The Muslim Consumer Group is a U.S. non-profit organization founded in November 1993 by Syed Rasheeduddin Ahmed, based in Rolling Meadows, Illinois...

     that certify food products as halal for Muslim consumers.http://halaladvocates.org/

    "Halal" is an Arabic word meaning "lawful" or "permissible", and the term not only covers food and drink, but also to all matters of daily life. When it comes to halal food, most people think of meat foods only. However, Muslims must ensure that all foods, particularly processed foods, pharmaceuticals, and non-food items like cosmetics, are also halal. Frequently, these products contain animal by-products or other ingredients that are not permissible for Muslims to eat or use on their bodies.{{Citation needed|date=October 2011}}

    The leading North America
    North America
    North America is a continent wholly within the Northern Hemisphere and almost wholly within the Western Hemisphere. It is also considered a northern subcontinent of the Americas...

    n halal food producer and distributor in the United States is the Midamar Corporation. Midamar is the first company in the USA to slaughter halal beef in USDA inspected plants.{Midamar Milestones} This company has been in operation since 1974, and it is based in Cedar Rapids, Iowa
    Cedar Rapids, Iowa
    Cedar Rapids is the second largest city in Iowa and is the county seat of Linn County. The city lies on both banks of the Cedar River, north of Iowa City and east of Des Moines, the state's capital and largest city...

    , the home of the oldest mosque in the Americas still standing. The children of Muslims who settled in Iowa around 1900 discerned a need to start producing halal beef and chicken catering to the tastes of American Muslims.

    Since 1991, mainstream manufacturers of soups, grains, cosmetics
    Cosmetics
    Cosmetics are substances used to enhance the appearance or odor of the human body. Cosmetics include skin-care creams, lotions, powders, perfumes, lipsticks, fingernail and toe nail polish, eye and facial makeup, towelettes, permanent waves, colored contact lenses, hair colors, hair sprays and...

    , pharmaceuticals, prepared foods, and other products, as well as hotel
    Hotel
    A hotel is an establishment that provides paid lodging on a short-term basis. The provision of basic accommodation, in times past, consisting only of a room with a bed, a cupboard, a small table and a washstand has largely been replaced by rooms with modern facilities, including en-suite bathrooms...

    s, restaurants, airline
    Airline
    An airline provides air transport services for traveling passengers and freight. Airlines lease or own their aircraft with which to supply these services and may form partnerships or alliances with other airlines for mutual benefit...

    s, hospital
    Hospital
    A hospital is a health care institution providing patient treatment by specialized staff and equipment. Hospitals often, but not always, provide for inpatient care or longer-term patient stays....

    s, and other service providers have pursued the halal market. These companies purchase halal-certified products. Halal certification tells Muslims that their ingredients and production methods have been tested and declared permissible by a certification body. It also allows companies to export products to most Middle Eastern countries and South East Asian Countries. The oldest and most well-known halal certifier in the United States is called the "Islamic Services of America". Something that companies which intend to export halal products must keep in mind, when choosing a certifier, is whether or not the certifier is recognized by foreign governmental bodies.
    • In 1986, the "Islamic Meat & Poultry Company" was founded in Stockton, California
      Stockton, California
      Stockton, California, the seat of San Joaquin County, is the fourth-largest city in the Central Valley of the U.S. state of California. With a population of 291,707 at the 2010 census, Stockton ranks as this state's 13th largest city...

      . Islamic Meat & Poultry is a halal-only, U.S. Department of Agriculture-inspected, hand-slaughtering and meat-processing facility. This company follows the principles of slaughtering and meat-processing according to the Islamic Shariah.{{Citation needed|date=October 2011}}http://www.gmdu.net/corp-7577.html

    • In 2011, Halal Products Certification Institute was established in California, United States of America and became the first worldwide corporation that Certified Halal Consumer Products such as Cosmetics, Personal Care Products, Perfumes & Fragrances, The institute was established by renowned Islamic intellectual scholars and top Muslim scientists in the world to assure the dissemination of halal consumer products.


    Also in Europe, several organizations have been created over the past 20 years in order to certify the halal products. A survey recently published by a French association of Muslim Consumers (ASIDCOM) shows that the market of halal products has been developed in a chaotic way. The certification organizations do not have a common definition of "halal" nor agreed upon control procedures and traceability. The controls implemented by individual agencies are all very different: it can go from an annual audit of the slaughterhouse to checking each production with permanent controls in place and on-going independent.

    Animal welfare concerns


    {{Criticism section|date = August 2010}}
    Before the Second World War, religious slaughter was tolerated in Europe, except for four countries (Switzerland in 1893, Norway in 1930, Poland and Sweden in 1938). Religious slaughter without stunning was prohibited in several countries in Europe from 1936 to 1944 under the occupation of Nazi Germany
    Nazi Germany
    Nazi Germany , also known as the Third Reich , but officially called German Reich from 1933 to 1943 and Greater German Reich from 26 June 1943 onward, is the name commonly used to refer to the state of Germany from 1933 to 1945, when it was a totalitarian dictatorship ruled by...

     (Germany in 1936, Italy in 1938, then in the majority of the other European countries according to the Nazi Germany occupation progress between 1940 and 1944). {{See|Animal welfare in Nazi Germany}}

    The ritual method of slaughter as practiced in Islam and Judaism has been described as inhumane by animal welfare organisations in the U.K. and the U.S.A., who have stated that it "causes severe suffering to animals." These animal welfare organizations hope to forbid the right to practise the ritual slaughter without stunning in Non-islamic countries.

    In 1978, a study incorporating EEG (electroencephalograph) with electrodes surgically implanted on the skull of 17 sheep and 15 calves, and conducted by Wilhelm Schulze
    Wilhelm Schulze (professor of veterinary medicine)
    Wilhelm Schulze was a German professor of veterinary medicine, director of the University of Veterinary Medicine Hanover and a specialist for pigs....

     et al. at the University of Veterinary Medicine
    University of Veterinary Medicine Hanover
    The University of Veterinary Medicine Hanover is a university in Hanover and one of the five facilities for veterinary medicine in Germany, and the only one that remains independent. It is often referred to as TiHo by its staff and students....

     in Germany concluded that "the slaughter in the form of a ritual cut is, if carried out properly, painless in sheep and calves according to EEG recordings and the missing defensive actions" (of the animals) and that "For sheep, there were in part severe reactions both in bloodletting cut and the pain stimuli" when captive bolt stunning
    Stunning
    Stunning is the process of rendering animals immobile or unconscious, without killing the animal, prior to their being slaughtered for food.-History:...

     (CBS) was used. This study is cited by the German Constitutional Court in its permitting of dhabiha slaughtering.

    In 2003, the Farm Animal Welfare Council
    Farm Animal Welfare Council
    The Farm Animal Welfare Council was an independent advisory body established by the Government of Great Britain in 1979. FAWC has published its Final Report before its closure on 31 March 2011...

     (FAWC), an independent advisory group, concluded that the way halal and kosher meat is produced causes severe suffering to animals and should be banned immediately. FAWC argued that cattle required up to two minutes to bleed to death when such means are employed. The Chairperson of FAWC at the time, Judy MacArthur Clark, added, "this is a major incision into the animal and to say that it doesn't suffer is quite ridiculous." Halal and kosher butchers deny that their method of killing animals is cruel and expressed anger over the FAWC recommendation.

    Majid Katme of the Muslim Council of Britain
    Muslim Council of Britain
    The Muslim Council of Britain is a self-appointed umbrella body for national, regional, local and specialist organisations and institutions from different ethnic and sectarian backgrounds within British Islamic society. It was established in 1997 to help Muslims, to increase education about the...

     also disagreed, stating that "it's a sudden and quick haemorrhage. A quick loss of blood pressure and the brain is instantaneously starved of blood and there is no time to start feeling any pain."

    In April 2008, the Food and Farming minister in the UK, Lord Rooker, stated that halal and kosher meat should be labeled when it is put on sale, so that members of the public can decide whether or not they want to buy food from animals that have been bled to death. He was quoted as saying, "I object to the method of slaughter ... my choice as a customer is that I would want to buy meat that has been looked after, and slaughtered in the most humane way possible." The RSPCA supported Lord Rooker's views."

    The same years, the French Ministry of Food, Agriculture and Fishing has published ASIDCOM’s Bibliographical Report on Religious Slaughter and the Welfare of Animals, as a contribution within the framework of a meeting on animals and society organized in the first half of the year 2008. This report quotes scientific papers and French veterinary PhD which support the equality or even possible superiority of religious slaughter to other methods of slaughter. This report quotes in particular the Ph.D work of Dr Pouillaude which concludes by: "religious slaughter would thus be a less stressing mode of slaughter. Conclusions of all the scientific experiments converge towards a firmly supported certainty: properly carried out, religious slaughter is the most humane way because it leads to less trauma to animals to be killed to be consumed for its meat".

    For the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations and the Humane Society International
    Humane Society International
    The Humane Society International is the international division of The Humane Society of the United States. Founded in 1991, HSI has expanded The HSUS's activities into Central and South America, Africa, and Asia...

    , "the animals that are slaughtered according to kosher and halal should be securely restrained, particularly the head and neck, before cutting the throat" as "movements (during slaughter) results in a poor cut, bad bleeding, slow loss of consciousness, if at all, and pain."

    In Europe, the DIALREL project addressed religious slaughter issues by gathering and disseminating information and by encouraging dialogue between the both Muslim and Jewish communities and veterinary, animal welfare, and other scientists. The European Commission funded DIALREL, which started functioning in November of 2006. DIALREL produced many fact sheets and ultimately published a final report in 2010, "Report on good and adverse practices - Animal welfare concerns in relation to slaughter practices from the viewpoint of veterinary sciences." Both the Muslim and Jewish communities were frustrated with the process of dialogue because of the scientific community's views on animal slaughter.

    See also


    {{col-begin}}{{col-break}}
    • Al-Jamia
      Al-Jamia
      Al-Jamia is a sacred and secret Shia text, the words of which were dictated by Muhammad to Ali, who then wrote down these words...

      , Shia text which contains all the details of halal things.

    • {{Usul al-fiqh}}
      Halal ({{lang-ar|حلال}} {{transl|ar|DIN|ḥalāl}}, "lawful") is a term designating any object or an action which is permissible to use or engage in, according to Islamic law
      Sharia
      Sharia law, is the moral code and religious law of Islam. Sharia is derived from two primary sources of Islamic law: the precepts set forth in the Quran, and the example set by the Islamic prophet Muhammad in the Sunnah. Fiqh jurisprudence interprets and extends the application of sharia to...

      . The term is used to designate food seen as permissible according to Islamic law (Sharia
      Sharia
      Sharia law, is the moral code and religious law of Islam. Sharia is derived from two primary sources of Islamic law: the precepts set forth in the Quran, and the example set by the Islamic prophet Muhammad in the Sunnah. Fiqh jurisprudence interprets and extends the application of sharia to...

      , {{lang|ar|الشريعة الإسلامية}}). The opposite of this word is haraam
      Haraam
      Haraam is an Arabic term meaning "forbidden", or "sacred". In Islam it is used to refer to anything that is prohibited by the word of Allah in the Qur'an or the Hadith Qudsi. Haraam is the highest status of prohibition given to anything that would result in sin when a Muslim commits it...

      .

      Food


      The terms halal and haraam
      Haraam
      Haraam is an Arabic term meaning "forbidden", or "sacred". In Islam it is used to refer to anything that is prohibited by the word of Allah in the Qur'an or the Hadith Qudsi. Haraam is the highest status of prohibition given to anything that would result in sin when a Muslim commits it...

      are applied to many facets of life; and one of the most common uses of these terms is in reference to meat products, food contact materials, and pharmaceuticals.
      In Islam there are many things that are clearly halal or haraam. There are also items which are not as clear, and for which further information is needed. Items that are not clear are called mashbooh, which means "questionable".
      'Halal' means permissible. 'Haraam' means forbidden.

      In Islam, other forbidden items include pork and all its products; animals improperly slaughtered; alcoholic drinks, including all forms of intoxicants; carnivorous animals; birds of prey; and any food contaminated with any of these products.

      Dhabiha: method of slaughter


      {{Main|Dhabihah}}
      {{transl|ar|DIN|Ḏabīḥah}} ({{lang|ar|ذَبِيْحَة}}) is the prescribed method of slaughtering all animals excluding fish and most sea-life per Islamic law. This method of slaughtering animals consists of using a well sharpened knife to make a swift, deep incision that cuts the front of the throat, the carotid artery, wind pipe and jugular veins but leaves the spinal cord intact.
      The head of an animal that is slaughtered using halal methods is aligned with the Qiblah. In addition to the direction, permitted animal should be slaughtered in the name of Allah (the Lord) and the person who is slaughtering should be a Muslim and he/she should be in a good mental condition and faith.

      Dietary laws


      {{Merge to|Islamic dietary laws|date=November 2010}}
      Islam has laws regarding which foods can and cannot be eaten and also on the proper method of slaughtering an animal for consumption, known as dhabihah. However if there is no other food available then a Muslim is allowed to eat non-halal food. Surah 2:174 states:

      If one is forced because there is no other choice, neither craving nor transgressing, there is no sin on him.


      Surah 6:5 states:

      "This day are things good and pure made lawful to you. The food of the People of the Book
      People of the Book
      People of the Book is a term used to designate non-Muslim adherents to faiths which have a revealed scripture called, in Arabic, Al-Kitab . The three types of adherents to faiths that the Qur'an mentions as people of the book are the Jews, Sabians and Christians.In Islam, the Muslim scripture, the...

       is lawful to you and yours is lawful to them."

      Explicitly forbidden substances


      {{Religious text primary|section|date=October 2011}}
      A variety of substances are considered as harmful (haraam) for humans to consume and, therefore, forbidden as per various Quranic verses:
      • Pork
        Pork
        Pork is the culinary name for meat from the domestic pig , which is eaten in many countries. It is one of the most commonly consumed meats worldwide, with evidence of pig husbandry dating back to 5000 BC....

        {{cite quran|2|173}}
      • Blood
        Blood
        Blood is a specialized bodily fluid in animals that delivers necessary substances such as nutrients and oxygen to the cells and transports metabolic waste products away from those same cells....

        {{cite quran|2|173}}

      http://www.muftisays.com/blog/abu+mohammed/934_17-01-2011/why-is-blood-haram-(to-eat)%3F.html
      • Animals slaughtered in the name of anyone but Allah. All that has been dedicated or offered in sacrifice to an idolatrous altar or saint or a person considered to be "divine"{{cite quran|2|173}} {{cite quran|5|3}}
      • Carrion
        Carrion
        Carrion refers to the carcass of a dead animal. Carrion is an important food source for large carnivores and omnivores in most ecosystems. Examples of carrion-eaters include vultures, hawks, eagles, hyenas, Virginia Opossum, Tasmanian Devils, coyotes, Komodo dragons, and burying beetles...

         (carcasses of dead animals){{cite quran|2|173}}
      • An animal that has been strangled, beaten (to death), killed by a fall, gored (to death), savaged by a beast of prey (except by a human){{cite quran|5|3}}
      • Food over which Allah's name is not pronounced (or at least not in a name other than Allah){{cite quran|6|121}}
      • Alcohol
        Alcohol
        In chemistry, an alcohol is an organic compound in which the hydroxy functional group is bound to a carbon atom. In particular, this carbon center should be saturated, having single bonds to three other atoms....

         and other intoxicants{{cite quran|5|090}}

      - Any type of alcohol such as beer, wine, whiskey, and anything that has alcohol in it such as Vanilla extract.
      • All animals which hunt with claws (lion, eagle, panther, vulture etc.)

      - Any animal that eats another animal, and a human eats it. For example a lion eats a deer, that makes the lion haraam(not permissible to eat)
      • These verses also have information regarding Halal foods,2:173,5:5,and 6:118-119,121.

      Comparison to Jewish dietary laws


      {{Main|Islamic and Jewish dietary laws compared}}

      There is similarity between the laws of Dhabiĥa halal and kashrut
      Kashrut
      Kashrut is the set of Jewish dietary laws. Food in accord with halakha is termed kosher in English, from the Ashkenazi pronunciation of the Hebrew term kashér , meaning "fit" Kashrut (also kashruth or kashrus) is the set of Jewish dietary laws. Food in accord with halakha (Jewish law) is termed...

      . In Surah 5:5 of the Qur'an it is written: "The food of the People of the Book [Jews and Christians] is lawful for you as your food is lawful for them." condition is; it should be slaughtered in the name of Allah. Jews do the same but Christians don't. So, Jews kashrut is permitted but excludes Christians. According to Islamic law; one can not eat the meat even it is slaughtered by Muslim but name of Allah was not recited.

      In Non-Islamic countries




      In South Africa
      South Africa
      The Republic of South Africa is a country in southern Africa. Located at the southern tip of Africa, it is divided into nine provinces, with of coastline on the Atlantic and Indian oceans...

       most chicken products have a halal stamp. The South African National Halal Authority issues certificates and products bearing this logo range from water, snacks, and even meat free products (Which may contain non-halal ingredients). The South African National Halal Authority (SANHA) also licenses the usage of the Halal logo in restaurants where the food is halal but also no-alcohol or pork products can be served.

      In Dearborn, Michigan
      Dearborn, Michigan
      -Economy:Ford Motor Company has its world headquarters in Dearborn. In addition its Dearborn campus contains many research, testing, finance and some production facilities. Ford Land controls the numerous properties owned by Ford including sales and leasing to unrelated businesses such as the...

      , thet home of one of the largest Muslim and Arab populations in the United States
      United States
      The United States of America is a federal constitutional republic comprising fifty states and a federal district...

      , some fast food restaurant chains such as the McDonald's Corporation have introduced halal chicken nugget
      Chicken nugget
      A chicken nugget is a molded piece of chicken product, breaded or battered, then fried or baked. Fast food restaurants typically deep fry their nuggets in vegetable oil, such as coconut oil....

      s.

      In the United Kingdom
      United Kingdom
      The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern IrelandIn the United Kingdom and Dependencies, other languages have been officially recognised as legitimate autochthonous languages under the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages...

      , China
      China
      Chinese civilization may refer to:* China for more general discussion of the country.* Chinese culture* Greater China, the transnational community of ethnic Chinese.* History of China* Sinosphere, the area historically affected by Chinese culture...

      , Malaysia or Singapore
      Singapore
      Singapore , officially the Republic of Singapore, is a Southeast Asian city-state off the southern tip of the Malay Peninsula, north of the equator. An island country made up of 63 islands, it is separated from Malaysia by the Straits of Johor to its north and from Indonesia's Riau Islands by the...

      , halal fried chicken restaurants having thousands of outlets serve halal foods, such as the Chicking Fried Chicken, Kentucky Fried Chicken, Brown's Chicken, and Crown Fried Chicken companies. As of February 2009, Kentucky Fried Chicken restaurants in the U.K. began to sell halal meals in several restaurants.{{Citation needed|date=October 2011}}http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-1177969/Fast-food-chain-KFC-converts-London-restaurants-halal-menu.html

      Also, in New York City
      New York City
      New York is the most populous city in the United States and the center of the New York Metropolitan Area, one of the most populous metropolitan areas in the world. New York exerts a significant impact upon global commerce, finance, media, art, fashion, research, technology, education, and...

       there are numerous halal food cart
      Food cart
      A food cart is a mobile kitchen that is set up on the street to facilitate the sale and marketing of street food to people from the local pedestrian traffic. Food carts are often found in large cities throughout the world and can be found selling food of just about any variety.Food carts come in...

      s in business which serve gyros, chicken platters, and other halal fast foods, whereas in Europe, there are many of the Muslim
      Muslim
      A Muslim, also spelled Moslem, is an adherent of Islam, a monotheistic, Abrahamic religion based on the Quran, which Muslims consider the verbatim word of God as revealed to prophet Muhammad. "Muslim" is the Arabic term for "submitter" .Muslims believe that God is one and incomparable...

      -owned Döner kebab
      Döner kebab
      Doner kebab is a dish made of roasted meat cooked on a vertical spit. It is also known regionally as gyro , shawarma, and al pastor . It consists of shaved lamb, goat, chicken, turkey, beef, or mixed meats roasted on a spit. Less common alternatives include fish and sausage...

       shops.{{Citation needed|date=October 2011}}

      A law passed by a county in Ohio
      Ohio
      Ohio is a Midwestern state in the United States. The 34th largest state by area in the U.S.,it is the 7th‑most populous with over 11.5 million residents, containing several major American cities and seven metropolitan areas with populations of 500,000 or more.The state's capital is Columbus...

       in 2005 bans the sale, distribution, or production of food mislabeled "halal," when county authorities determine that the food does not meet Islamic dietary standards. Similar laws protect kosher
      Kashrut
      Kashrut is the set of Jewish dietary laws. Food in accord with halakha is termed kosher in English, from the Ashkenazi pronunciation of the Hebrew term kashér , meaning "fit" Kashrut (also kashruth or kashrus) is the set of Jewish dietary laws. Food in accord with halakha (Jewish law) is termed...

       foods in most of the United States
      United States
      The United States of America is a federal constitutional republic comprising fifty states and a federal district...

      , and in many other countries, states, or provinces. {{See|Kashrut}}

      All McDonald's, Pizza Hut
      Pizza Hut
      Pizza Hut is an American restaurant chain and international franchise that offers different styles of pizza along with side dishes including pasta, buffalo wings, breadsticks, and garlic bread....

      , and Kentucky Fried Chicken outlets in India are all halal, due to the sizeable Muslim minority.{{Citation needed|date=October 2011}}

      McDonald's, Pizza Hut, and Kentucky Fried Chicken have been declared to be halal in Sri Lanka by the Jamiyathul Ulama, the only authority able to give out the certification there.{{Citation needed|date=May 2010}}

      In 2008 and 2009, twelve stores in the Mary Brown's
      Mary Brown's
      Mary Brown's is a Canadian fast-food restaurant chain most popular for its Big Mary sandwich, chicken and 'taters' or potato wedges. Its process involves marinating chicken for up to 48 hours prior to cooking. The company has 83 locations in Canada: 38 in Newfoundland and Labrador, 30 in Ontario,...

       chain in Ontario
      Ontario
      Ontario is a province of Canada, located in east-central Canada. It is Canada's most populous province and second largest in total area. It is home to the nation's most populous city, Toronto, and the nation's capital, Ottawa....

       and Alberta
      Alberta
      Alberta is a province of Canada. It had an estimated population of 3.7 million in 2010 making it the most populous of Canada's three prairie provinces...

       become 100% halal. Numerous halal meat markets also exist in Southern Ontario
      Southern Ontario
      Southern Ontario is a region of the province of Ontario, Canada that lies south of the French River and Algonquin Park. Depending on the inclusion of the Parry Sound and Muskoka districts, its surface area would cover between 14 to 15% of the province. It is the southernmost region of...

       and Metro Vancouver.{{Citation needed|date=October 2011}}

      Thailand also has a noticeable population of Muslims and Halal-meat shops country-wide.{{Citation needed|date=October 2011}}

      Within the People's Republic of China
      People's Republic of China
      China , officially the People's Republic of China , is the most populous country in the world, with over 1.3 billion citizens. Located in East Asia, the country covers approximately 9.6 million square kilometres...

      , which has a sizable Hui Muslim
      Hui people
      The Hui people are an ethnic group in China, defined as Chinese speaking people descended from foreign Muslims. They are typically distinguished by their practice of Islam, however some also practice other religions, and many are direct descendants of Silk Road travelers.In modern People's...

       minority population, halal food is known as "Qingzhen" ({{zh|c=清真|p=qīngzhēn|l=pure truth}}). Halal restaurants run by Hui Chinese resemble typical Chinese food, only that they do not serve pork. Dishes specific to Hui Chinese are known as Chinese Islamic cuisine
      Chinese Islamic cuisine
      Chinese Islamic cuisine is the cuisine of the Hui and other Muslims living in China.-History:Due to the large Muslim population in western China, many Chinese restaurants cater to, or are run by, Muslims. Northern Chinese Islamic cuisine originated in China proper...

      .{{Citation needed|date=October 2011}}

      Dhabiḥa


      Dhabiḥa is relatively difficult to adhere to in non-Muslim countries:
      • The abundance of pork and non-dhabiḥa meats at restaurants presents a rather difficult problem to overcome. While a Muslim will not order a non-halal dish, there is a concern about cross-contamination. This is likely to occur when the dhabiḥa halal dish is prepared with the same cooking tools and in the same kitchen as other non-dhabiḥa halal dishes. Food particles and juices from the two dishes are likely to be exchanged, technically rendering the dhabiḥa halal dish as haraam
        Haraam
        Haraam is an Arabic term meaning "forbidden", or "sacred". In Islam it is used to refer to anything that is prohibited by the word of Allah in the Qur'an or the Hadith Qudsi. Haraam is the highest status of prohibition given to anything that would result in sin when a Muslim commits it...

        .{{Citation needed|date=October 2011}}

      • Many apparently meat-free dishes, and even some desserts, contain pork, such as most kinds of gelatin
        Gelatin
        Gelatin is a translucent, colorless, brittle , flavorless solid substance, derived from the collagen inside animals' skin and bones. It is commonly used as a gelling agent in food, pharmaceuticals, photography, and cosmetic manufacturing. Substances containing gelatin or functioning in a similar...

        , or other non-conforming substances. There is some disagreement about food additives such as monosodium glutamate
        Monosodium glutamate
        Monosodium glutamate, also known as sodium glutamate or MSG, is the sodium salt of glutamic acid, one of the most abundant naturally occurring non-essential amino acids....

         (MSG) that may use enzymes derived from pig fat in the production process. It is difficult to avoid such additives when eating out since they are usually not listed on restaurant menus. Some Muslim organizations compile tables of such additives.

      • Alcoholic beverages, including wine
        Wine
        Wine is an alcoholic beverage, made of fermented fruit juice, usually from grapes. The natural chemical balance of grapes lets them ferment without the addition of sugars, acids, enzymes, or other nutrients. Grape wine is produced by fermenting crushed grapes using various types of yeast. Yeast...

         and whiskey, are used in many sauces and cakes, and alcohol is used as an ingredient (a solvent
        Solvent
        A solvent is a liquid, solid, or gas that dissolves another solid, liquid, or gaseous solute, resulting in a solution that is soluble in a certain volume of solvent at a specified temperature...

         and a preservative
        Preservative
        A preservative is a naturally occurring or synthetically produced substance that is added to products such as foods, pharmaceuticals, paints, biological samples, wood, etc. to prevent decomposition by microbial growth or by undesirable chemical changes....

        ) for the production and storage of food flavorings such as vanilla and other extracts.{{Citation needed|date=October 2011}}


      Since the turn of the 21st century, there have been efforts to create organizations such as the Muslim Consumer Group
      Muslim Consumer Group
      The Muslim Consumer Group is a U.S. non-profit organization founded in November 1993 by Syed Rasheeduddin Ahmed, based in Rolling Meadows, Illinois...

       that certify food products as halal for Muslim consumers.http://halaladvocates.org/

      "Halal" is an Arabic word meaning "lawful" or "permissible", and the term not only covers food and drink, but also to all matters of daily life. When it comes to halal food, most people think of meat foods only. However, Muslims must ensure that all foods, particularly processed foods, pharmaceuticals, and non-food items like cosmetics, are also halal. Frequently, these products contain animal by-products or other ingredients that are not permissible for Muslims to eat or use on their bodies.{{Citation needed|date=October 2011}}

      The leading North America
      North America
      North America is a continent wholly within the Northern Hemisphere and almost wholly within the Western Hemisphere. It is also considered a northern subcontinent of the Americas...

      n halal food producer and distributor in the United States is the Midamar Corporation. Midamar is the first company in the USA to slaughter halal beef in USDA inspected plants.{Midamar Milestones} This company has been in operation since 1974, and it is based in Cedar Rapids, Iowa
      Cedar Rapids, Iowa
      Cedar Rapids is the second largest city in Iowa and is the county seat of Linn County. The city lies on both banks of the Cedar River, north of Iowa City and east of Des Moines, the state's capital and largest city...

      , the home of the oldest mosque in the Americas still standing. The children of Muslims who settled in Iowa around 1900 discerned a need to start producing halal beef and chicken catering to the tastes of American Muslims.

      Since 1991, mainstream manufacturers of soups, grains, cosmetics
      Cosmetics
      Cosmetics are substances used to enhance the appearance or odor of the human body. Cosmetics include skin-care creams, lotions, powders, perfumes, lipsticks, fingernail and toe nail polish, eye and facial makeup, towelettes, permanent waves, colored contact lenses, hair colors, hair sprays and...

      , pharmaceuticals, prepared foods, and other products, as well as hotel
      Hotel
      A hotel is an establishment that provides paid lodging on a short-term basis. The provision of basic accommodation, in times past, consisting only of a room with a bed, a cupboard, a small table and a washstand has largely been replaced by rooms with modern facilities, including en-suite bathrooms...

      s, restaurants, airline
      Airline
      An airline provides air transport services for traveling passengers and freight. Airlines lease or own their aircraft with which to supply these services and may form partnerships or alliances with other airlines for mutual benefit...

      s, hospital
      Hospital
      A hospital is a health care institution providing patient treatment by specialized staff and equipment. Hospitals often, but not always, provide for inpatient care or longer-term patient stays....

      s, and other service providers have pursued the halal market. These companies purchase halal-certified products. Halal certification tells Muslims that their ingredients and production methods have been tested and declared permissible by a certification body. It also allows companies to export products to most Middle Eastern countries and South East Asian Countries. The oldest and most well-known halal certifier in the United States is called the "Islamic Services of America". Something that companies which intend to export halal products must keep in mind, when choosing a certifier, is whether or not the certifier is recognized by foreign governmental bodies.
      • In 1986, the "Islamic Meat & Poultry Company" was founded in Stockton, California
        Stockton, California
        Stockton, California, the seat of San Joaquin County, is the fourth-largest city in the Central Valley of the U.S. state of California. With a population of 291,707 at the 2010 census, Stockton ranks as this state's 13th largest city...

        . Islamic Meat & Poultry is a halal-only, U.S. Department of Agriculture-inspected, hand-slaughtering and meat-processing facility. This company follows the principles of slaughtering and meat-processing according to the Islamic Shariah.{{Citation needed|date=October 2011}}http://www.gmdu.net/corp-7577.html

      • In 2011, Halal Products Certification Institute was established in California, United States of America and became the first worldwide corporation that Certified Halal Consumer Products such as Cosmetics, Personal Care Products, Perfumes & Fragrances, The institute was established by renowned Islamic intellectual scholars and top Muslim scientists in the world to assure the dissemination of halal consumer products.


      Also in Europe, several organizations have been created over the past 20 years in order to certify the halal products. A survey recently published by a French association of Muslim Consumers (ASIDCOM) shows that the market of halal products has been developed in a chaotic way. The certification organizations do not have a common definition of "halal" nor agreed upon control procedures and traceability. The controls implemented by individual agencies are all very different: it can go from an annual audit of the slaughterhouse to checking each production with permanent controls in place and on-going independent.

      Animal welfare concerns


      {{Criticism section|date = August 2010}}
      Before the Second World War, religious slaughter was tolerated in Europe, except for four countries (Switzerland in 1893, Norway in 1930, Poland and Sweden in 1938). Religious slaughter without stunning was prohibited in several countries in Europe from 1936 to 1944 under the occupation of Nazi Germany
      Nazi Germany
      Nazi Germany , also known as the Third Reich , but officially called German Reich from 1933 to 1943 and Greater German Reich from 26 June 1943 onward, is the name commonly used to refer to the state of Germany from 1933 to 1945, when it was a totalitarian dictatorship ruled by...

       (Germany in 1936, Italy in 1938, then in the majority of the other European countries according to the Nazi Germany occupation progress between 1940 and 1944). {{See|Animal welfare in Nazi Germany}}

      The ritual method of slaughter as practiced in Islam and Judaism has been described as inhumane by animal welfare organisations in the U.K. and the U.S.A., who have stated that it "causes severe suffering to animals." These animal welfare organizations hope to forbid the right to practise the ritual slaughter without stunning in Non-islamic countries.

      In 1978, a study incorporating EEG (electroencephalograph) with electrodes surgically implanted on the skull of 17 sheep and 15 calves, and conducted by Wilhelm Schulze
      Wilhelm Schulze (professor of veterinary medicine)
      Wilhelm Schulze was a German professor of veterinary medicine, director of the University of Veterinary Medicine Hanover and a specialist for pigs....

       et al. at the University of Veterinary Medicine
      University of Veterinary Medicine Hanover
      The University of Veterinary Medicine Hanover is a university in Hanover and one of the five facilities for veterinary medicine in Germany, and the only one that remains independent. It is often referred to as TiHo by its staff and students....

       in Germany concluded that "the slaughter in the form of a ritual cut is, if carried out properly, painless in sheep and calves according to EEG recordings and the missing defensive actions" (of the animals) and that "For sheep, there were in part severe reactions both in bloodletting cut and the pain stimuli" when captive bolt stunning
      Stunning
      Stunning is the process of rendering animals immobile or unconscious, without killing the animal, prior to their being slaughtered for food.-History:...

       (CBS) was used. This study is cited by the German Constitutional Court in its permitting of dhabiha slaughtering.

      In 2003, the Farm Animal Welfare Council
      Farm Animal Welfare Council
      The Farm Animal Welfare Council was an independent advisory body established by the Government of Great Britain in 1979. FAWC has published its Final Report before its closure on 31 March 2011...

       (FAWC), an independent advisory group, concluded that the way halal and kosher meat is produced causes severe suffering to animals and should be banned immediately. FAWC argued that cattle required up to two minutes to bleed to death when such means are employed. The Chairperson of FAWC at the time, Judy MacArthur Clark, added, "this is a major incision into the animal and to say that it doesn't suffer is quite ridiculous." Halal and kosher butchers deny that their method of killing animals is cruel and expressed anger over the FAWC recommendation.

      Majid Katme of the Muslim Council of Britain
      Muslim Council of Britain
      The Muslim Council of Britain is a self-appointed umbrella body for national, regional, local and specialist organisations and institutions from different ethnic and sectarian backgrounds within British Islamic society. It was established in 1997 to help Muslims, to increase education about the...

       also disagreed, stating that "it's a sudden and quick haemorrhage. A quick loss of blood pressure and the brain is instantaneously starved of blood and there is no time to start feeling any pain."

      In April 2008, the Food and Farming minister in the UK, Lord Rooker, stated that halal and kosher meat should be labeled when it is put on sale, so that members of the public can decide whether or not they want to buy food from animals that have been bled to death. He was quoted as saying, "I object to the method of slaughter ... my choice as a customer is that I would want to buy meat that has been looked after, and slaughtered in the most humane way possible." The RSPCA supported Lord Rooker's views."

      The same years, the French Ministry of Food, Agriculture and Fishing has published ASIDCOM’s Bibliographical Report on Religious Slaughter and the Welfare of Animals, as a contribution within the framework of a meeting on animals and society organized in the first half of the year 2008. This report quotes scientific papers and French veterinary PhD which support the equality or even possible superiority of religious slaughter to other methods of slaughter. This report quotes in particular the Ph.D work of Dr Pouillaude which concludes by: "religious slaughter would thus be a less stressing mode of slaughter. Conclusions of all the scientific experiments converge towards a firmly supported certainty: properly carried out, religious slaughter is the most humane way because it leads to less trauma to animals to be killed to be consumed for its meat".

      For the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations and the Humane Society International
      Humane Society International
      The Humane Society International is the international division of The Humane Society of the United States. Founded in 1991, HSI has expanded The HSUS's activities into Central and South America, Africa, and Asia...

      , "the animals that are slaughtered according to kosher and halal should be securely restrained, particularly the head and neck, before cutting the throat" as "movements (during slaughter) results in a poor cut, bad bleeding, slow loss of consciousness, if at all, and pain."

      In Europe, the DIALREL project addressed religious slaughter issues by gathering and disseminating information and by encouraging dialogue between the both Muslim and Jewish communities and veterinary, animal welfare, and other scientists. The European Commission funded DIALREL, which started functioning in November of 2006. DIALREL produced many fact sheets and ultimately published a final report in 2010, "Report on good and adverse practices - Animal welfare concerns in relation to slaughter practices from the viewpoint of veterinary sciences." Both the Muslim and Jewish communities were frustrated with the process of dialogue because of the scientific community's views on animal slaughter.

      See also


      {{col-begin}}{{col-break}}
      • Al-Jamia
        Al-Jamia
        Al-Jamia is a sacred and secret Shia text, the words of which were dictated by Muhammad to Ali, who then wrote down these words...

        , Shia text which contains all the details of halal things.
      • {{transl
      • {{transl
        Haraam
        Haraam is an Arabic term meaning "forbidden", or "sacred". In Islam it is used to refer to anything that is prohibited by the word of Allah in the Qur'an or the Hadith Qudsi. Haraam is the highest status of prohibition given to anything that would result in sin when a Muslim commits it...

      • Islamic dietary laws
        Islamic dietary laws
        Islamic dietary laws provide direction on what is to be considered clean and unclean regarding diet and related issues.-Overview:Islamic jurisprudence specifies which foods are ' and which are '...

         {{nb10}}
      • {{transl
        Istihlal
        Istihlal is a term used in Islamic jurisprudence, or fiqh, to refer to the act of regarding some action as permissible, or halaal; the implication is that such a regard is an erroneous and improper distortion of Islamic law...

      • Ital
        Ital
        Ital or I-tal is food often celebrated by those in the Rastafari movement. The word derives from the English word "vital", with the initial syllable replaced by i. This is done to many words in the Rastafari vocabulary to signify the unity of the speaker with all of nature...

      • Kashrut
        Kashrut
        Kashrut is the set of Jewish dietary laws. Food in accord with halakha is termed kosher in English, from the Ashkenazi pronunciation of the Hebrew term kashér , meaning "fit" Kashrut (also kashruth or kashrus) is the set of Jewish dietary laws. Food in accord with halakha (Jewish law) is termed...

      • DIALREL
        DIALREL
        DIALREL was a project financed by the EU...


      {{col-break}}
      • Kosher
      • {{transl
        Makruh
        In Islamic terminology, something which is makruh is a disliked or offensive act . Though it is not haram and therefore not a sin, a person who abstains from this action will be rewarded. Muslims are encouraged to avoid such actions when possible...

      • {{transl
        Mubah
        'Mubah' is an Islamic Arabic term denoting an action as neither forbidden nor recommended, and so religiously neutral. This is one of the degrees of approval in Islamic law....

      • Scottish pork taboo
        Scottish pork taboo
        The Scottish pork taboo was Donald Alexander Mackenzie's phrase for discussing an aversion to pork amongst Scots, particularly Highlanders, which he believed to stem from an ancient taboo. Several writers who confirm that there was a prejudice against pork, or a superstitious attitude to pigs, do...

      • Taboo food and drink
        Taboo food and drink
        Taboo food and drink are food and beverages which people abstain from consuming for religious, cultural or hygienic reasons. Many food taboos forbid the meat of a particular animal, including mammals, rodents, reptiles, amphibians, bony fish, and crustaceans...

      • Sattvic diet
        Sattvic diet
        A sattvic diet, also referred to as a yoga diet or sentient diet, is a diet based on foods which, according to Ayurveda, Yoga, and Jainism, are strong in the sattva guna, and lead to clarity and equanimity of mind while also being beneficial to the body.Such foods include water, cereal grains, mung...

        , Also commonly referred to as Vaishnav Bhojan or Swaminarayan Food
      • Veganism
        Veganism
        Veganism is the practice of eliminating the use of animal products. Ethical vegans reject the commodity status of animals and the use of animal products for any purpose, while dietary vegans or strict vegetarians eliminate them from their diet only...

      • Vegetarianism
        Vegetarianism
        Vegetarianism encompasses the practice of following plant-based diets , with or without the inclusion of dairy products or eggs, and with the exclusion of meat...

      • Beurgeois
        Beurgeois
        Beurgeois is a portmanteau neologism created in France from the words “beur” and “bourgeois”...


      {{col-end}}

      External links


      {{Cookbook|Halal}}
      {{Use dmy dates|date=March 2011}}