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Gyeongbokgung

Gyeongbokgung

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Gyeongbokgung, also known as Gyeongbokgung Palace or Gyeongbok Palace, is a royal palace located in northern Seoul
Seoul
Seoul , officially the Seoul Special City, is the capital and largest metropolis of South Korea. A megacity with a population of over 10 million, it is the largest city proper in the OECD developed world...

, South Korea
South Korea
The Republic of Korea , , is a sovereign state in East Asia, located on the southern portion of the Korean Peninsula. It is neighbored by the People's Republic of China to the west, Japan to the east, North Korea to the north, and the East China Sea and Republic of China to the south...

. First constructed in 1394 and reconstructed in 1867, it was the main and largest palace of the Five Grand Palaces built by the Joseon Dynasty
Joseon Dynasty
Joseon , was a Korean state founded by Taejo Yi Seong-gye that lasted for approximately five centuries. It was founded in the aftermath of the overthrow of the Goryeo at what is today the city of Kaesong. Early on, Korea was retitled and the capital was relocated to modern-day Seoul...

. The name of the palace, Gyeongbokgung, translates in English as "Palace of Shining Happiness."

Nearly destroyed by the Japanese government in the early 20th century, the walled palace complex is slowly being restored to its original form prior to destruction. As of 2009, roughly 40 percent of the original number of palace buildings still stand or are reconstructed.

History


Gyeongbokgung was originally constructed in 1394 by King Taejo
Taejo of Joseon
Taejo of Joseon , born Yi Seong-gye, whose changed name is Yi Dan, was the founder and the first king of the Joseon Dynasty of Korea, and the main figure in overthrowing the Goryeo Dynasty...

, the first king and the founder of the Joseon Dynasty
Joseon Dynasty
Joseon , was a Korean state founded by Taejo Yi Seong-gye that lasted for approximately five centuries. It was founded in the aftermath of the overthrow of the Goryeo at what is today the city of Kaesong. Early on, Korea was retitled and the capital was relocated to modern-day Seoul...

, and its name was conceived by an influential government minister named Jeong Dojeon. Afterwards, the palace was continuously expanded during the reign of King Taejong
Taejong of Joseon
King Taejong was the third king of the Joseon Dynasty in Korea and the father of King Sejong the Great.-Founding of Joseon:...

 and King Sejong the Great
Sejong the Great of Joseon
Sejong the Great was the fourth king of the Joseon Dynasty of Korea. During his regency, he reinforced Korean Confucian policies and executed major legal amendments . He also used the creation of Hangul and the advancement of technology to expand his territory...

, but was severely damaged by fire in 1553; its costly restoration, ordered by King Myeongjong
Myeongjong of Joseon
King Myeongjong was the 13th king of the Joseon Dynasty of Korea. He was the second son of Jungjong, and his mother was Queen Munjeong, who was Jungjong's third queen....

, was completed in the following year. However, the majority of the palace was burnt to the ground during the Japanese invasions of Korea (1592–1598). The palace site was left in ruins for the next three centuries.

In 1867, during the regency of Daewongun, the palace buildings were reconstructed and formed a massive complex with 330 buildings and 5,792 rooms. Standing on 4,657,576 square feet (432,703 square meters) of land, Gyeongbokgung again became an iconic symbol for both the Korean nation and the Korean royal family. In 1895, after the assassination of Empress Myeongseong
Empress Myeongseong
Empress Myeongseong , also known as Queen Min, was the first official wife of King Gojong, the twenty-sixth king of the Joseon dynasty of Korea...

 by Japanese agents, her husband, Emperor Gojong, left the palace; since then, the Imperial family never returned to Gyeongbokgung.

Starting from 1911, the Japanese government
Japan
Japan is an island nation in East Asia. Located in the Pacific Ocean, it lies to the east of the Sea of Japan, China, North Korea, South Korea and Russia, stretching from the Sea of Okhotsk in the north to the East China Sea and Taiwan in the south...

 systemically demolished all but 10 buildings during the Japanese occupation of Korea
Korea under Japanese rule
Korea was under Japanese rule as part of Japan's 35-year imperialist expansion . Japanese rule ended in 1945 shortly after the Japanese defeat in World War II....

 and hosted numerous exhibitions in Gyeongbokgung. In 1926, the government constructed the massive Japanese General Government Building
Japanese General Government Building, Seoul
The Japanese Government-General Building was the chief administrative building in Keijo during the Japanese colonial rule of Korea and the seat of the Governor-General of Korea. It was a neo-classical building designed by German architect Georg De Lalande, and was completed in 1926...

 in front of the throne hall, Geunjeongjeon, in order to eradicate the symbol and heritage of the Joseon Dynasty. Gwanghwamun
Gwanghwamun
Gwanghwamun is the main and largest gate of Gyeongbokgung Palace, located in Seoul, South Korea. As a landmark and symbol of Seoul's long history as the capital city during the Joseon Dynasty, the gate has gone through multiple periods of destruction and disrepair...

 Gate, the main and south gate of Gyeongbokgung, was relocated by the Japanese to the east of the palace, and its wooden structure was completely destroyed during the Korean War
Korean War
The Korean War was a conventional war between South Korea, supported by the United Nations, and North Korea, supported by the People's Republic of China , with military material aid from the Soviet Union...

.

Gyeongbokgung's original 19th century palace buildings that survived both the Japanese occupation of Korea
Korea under Japanese rule
Korea was under Japanese rule as part of Japan's 35-year imperialist expansion . Japanese rule ended in 1945 shortly after the Japanese defeat in World War II....

 and the Korean War
Korean War
The Korean War was a conventional war between South Korea, supported by the United Nations, and North Korea, supported by the People's Republic of China , with military material aid from the Soviet Union...

 include Geunjeongjeon the Imperial Throne Hall (National Treasure No. 223), Hyangwonjeong Pavilion, Jagyeongjeon Hall, Jibokjae Hall, Sajeongjeon Hall, Sujeongjeon Hall, and Gyeonghoeru Pavilion (National Treasure No. 224). Modern archaeological surveys have brought 330 building foundations to light.

In 1989, the South Korean government started a 40-year initiative to rebuild the structures that were destroyed by the Japanese government
Japan
Japan is an island nation in East Asia. Located in the Pacific Ocean, it lies to the east of the Sea of Japan, China, North Korea, South Korea and Russia, stretching from the Sea of Okhotsk in the north to the East China Sea and Taiwan in the south...

 during the period of Japanese occupation of Korea
Korea under Japanese rule
Korea was under Japanese rule as part of Japan's 35-year imperialist expansion . Japanese rule ended in 1945 shortly after the Japanese defeat in World War II....

.

In 1995, the Japanese General Government Building
Japanese General Government Building, Seoul
The Japanese Government-General Building was the chief administrative building in Keijo during the Japanese colonial rule of Korea and the seat of the Governor-General of Korea. It was a neo-classical building designed by German architect Georg De Lalande, and was completed in 1926...

, after many controversial debates about its fate, was demolished in order to reconstruct Heungnyemun Gate and its cloisters.

Today, the palace is open to the public and houses the National Folk Museum of Korea
National Folk Museum of Korea
National Folk Museum of Korea is a national museum of South Korea, located within the grounds of the Gyeongbokgung Palace in Jongno-gu, Seoul, and uses replicas of historical objects to illustrate the history of traditional life of the Korean people.-History:...

 and the National Palace Museum of Korea
National Palace Museum of Korea
National Palace Museum of Korea is a national museum of South Korea located in Gyeongbokgung Palace, Seoul.-History:The museum first began as the "Korean Imperial Museum", which was established on September, 1908 and was originally located in Changgyeonggung Palace. On November of the following...

. The National Museum of Korea
National Museum of Korea
The National Museum of Korea is the flagship museum of Korean history and art in South Korea and is the cultural organization that represents Korea...

, once previously located in the palace grounds, was relocated to Yongsan-gu
Yongsan-gu
Yongsan-gu is a district of Seoul, South Korea. Its name means "Dragon Hill", derived from the hanja characters for dragon and hill/mountain . It sits to the North of the Han River under the shadow of Seoul Tower. Geographically, it is located right in the center of Seoul. It is home to roughly...

 in 2005.

By the end of 2009, it was estimated that approximately 40 percent of the structures that were standing before the Japanese occupation of Korea
Korea under Japanese rule
Korea was under Japanese rule as part of Japan's 35-year imperialist expansion . Japanese rule ended in 1945 shortly after the Japanese defeat in World War II....

 were restored or reconstructed. As a part of the phase 5 of the Gyeongbokgung restoration initiative, Gwanghwamun
Gwanghwamun
Gwanghwamun is the main and largest gate of Gyeongbokgung Palace, located in Seoul, South Korea. As a landmark and symbol of Seoul's long history as the capital city during the Joseon Dynasty, the gate has gone through multiple periods of destruction and disrepair...

, the main gate to the palace, was restored to its original design. Another 20 year restoration project is planned by the South Korean government to restore Gyeongbokgung to its former status.

Layout


Main Gates

  • Gwanghwamun
    Gwanghwamun
    Gwanghwamun is the main and largest gate of Gyeongbokgung Palace, located in Seoul, South Korea. As a landmark and symbol of Seoul's long history as the capital city during the Joseon Dynasty, the gate has gone through multiple periods of destruction and disrepair...

     (The Main and South Gate)
  • Heungnyemun (The Second Inner Gate)
  • Geunjeongmun (The Third Inner Gate)
  • Sinmumun (The North Gate)
  • Geonchunmun (The East Gate)
  • Yeongchumun (The West Gate)

Oejeon (Outer Court)

  • Geunjeongmun (The Third Inner Gate)
  • Geunjeongjeon (The Throne Hall)
  • Sajeongjeon (The Executive Office)
  • Sujeongjeon
  • Cheonchujeon
  • Manchunjeon

Naejeon (Inner Court)

  • Gangnyeongjeon (The King's Quarters)
  • Gyotaejeon (The Queen's Quarters)
  • Jagyeongjeon (The Late Queen's Quarters)

Donggung (Palace of the Crown Prince)

  • Jaseondang (The Crown Prince's and Princesses' Quarters)
  • Bihyeongak (The Study of the Crown Prince)

Gangnyeongjeon



Gangnyeongjeon , also called Gangnyeongjeon Hall, is a building used as the king's main residing quarters. First constructed in 1395, the fourth year of King Taejo, the building contains the king's bed chamber. Destroyed during the Japanese invasions of Korea in 1592, the building was rebuilt when Gyeongbokgung was reconstructed in 1867, but it was again burned down by a major fire on November, 1876 and had to be restored in 1888 following the orders of King Gojong.

However, when Huijeongdang of Changdeokgung
Changdeokgung
Changdeokgung, also known as Changdeokgung Palace or Changdeok Palace, is set within a large park in Jongno-gu, Seoul, South Korea. It is one of the "Five Grand Palaces" built by the kings of the Joseon Dynasty. Because of its location east of Gyeongbok Palace, Changdeokgung, with Changgyeonggung,...

 Palace was burned down by a fire in 1917, the Japanese government dismembered the building and used its construction materials to restore Huijeongdang in 1920. Current Gangnyeongjeon was built in 1994, meticulously restoring the building to its original specifications and design.

Gangnyeongjeon consists of corridors and fourteen rectangular chambers, each seven chambers located to the left and right side of the building in a layout out like a checkerboard. The king used the central chamber while the court attendants occupied the remaining side chambers to protect, assist, and to receive orders. The building rests on top of a tall stone foundation, and a stone deck or veranda is located in front of the building.

The noted feature of the building is an absence of a top white roof ridge called yongmaru ( in Korean. Many theories exist to explain the absence, of which a prominent one states that, since the king was symbolized as the dragon during the Joseon Dynasty, the yongmaru, which contains the letter dragon or yong (龍), cannot rest on top of the king when he is asleep.

Geunjeongjeon



Geunjeongjeon , also known as Geunjeongjeon Hall, is the throne hall where the king formally granted audiences to his officials, gave declarations of national importance, and greeted foreign envoys and ambassadors during the Joseon Dynasty
Joseon Dynasty
Joseon , was a Korean state founded by Taejo Yi Seong-gye that lasted for approximately five centuries. It was founded in the aftermath of the overthrow of the Goryeo at what is today the city of Kaesong. Early on, Korea was retitled and the capital was relocated to modern-day Seoul...

. The building was designated as Korea's National Treasure No. 223 on January 8, 1985.

Geunjeongjeon was originally constructed in 1395 during the reign of King Taejo
Taejo
Taejo, meaning "great ancestor," is a name often applied to the founders of Korean dynasties. The term may refer to:*Taejo of Goguryeo , born Go Gung, sixth monarch of Goguryeo*Taejo of Goryeo , born Wang Geon, founder of the Goryeo dynasty....

, but was burned down in 1592 when the Japanese invaded Korea. The present building was built in 1867 when Gyeongbokgung was being reconstructed. The name Geunjeongjeon, created by the minister Jeong Dojeon, means "diligence helps governance."

Constructed mainly of wood, Geunjeongjeon sits on the center of a large rectangular courtyard, on top of a two-tiered stone platform. This two-tiered platform is lined with detailed balustrades and is decorated with numerous sculptures depicting imaginary and real animals, such as dragons and phoenixes. The stone-paved courtyard is lined with two rows of rank stones, called pumgyeseoks , indicating where the court officials are to stand according to their ranks. The whole courtyard is fully enclosed by wooden cloisters.

Geunjeongmun , aligned and located directly to the south of Geunjeongjeon, is the main gate to the courtyard and to Geunjeongjeon. The gate is divided into three separate aisles, and only the king was allowed to walk through the center.

Gwanghwamun



Gwanghwamun is the main gate of Gyeongbokgung Palace.

Gyeonghoeru


Gyeonghoeru , also known as Gyeonghoeru Pavilion, is a hall used to hold important and special state banquets during the Joseon Dynasty. It is registered as Korea's National Treasure No. 224 on January 8, 1985.

The first Gyeonghoeru was constructed in 1412, the 12th year of the reign of King Taejong, but was burned down during the Japanese invasions of Korea in 1592. The present building was constructed in 1867 (the 4th year of the reign of King Gojong) on an island of an artificial, rectangular lake that is 128 m wide and 113 m across.

Constructed mainly of wood and stone, Gyeonghoeru has a form where the wooden structure of the building sits on top of 48 massive stone pillars, with wooden stairs connecting the second floor to the first floor. The outer perimeters of Gyeonghoeru are supported by square pillars while the inner columns are cylindrical; they were placed thus to represent the idea of Yin & Yang. When Gyeonghoeru was originally built in 1412, these stone pillars were decorated with sculptures depicting dragons rising to the sky, but these details were not reproduced when the building was rebuilt in the 19th century. Three stone bridges connect the building to the palace grounds, and corners of the balustrades around the island are decorated with sculptures depicting twelve Zodiac animals.

Gyeonghoeru is represented on the 10,000 won
Won
Won or WON may refer to:*The Korean won from 1902–1910:**South Korean won, the currency of the Republic of Korea**North Korean won, the currency of the Democratic People's Republic of Korea* Won , the Korean form of Yuan...

 Korean banknotes
South Korean won
The won is the currency of South Korea. A single won is divided into 100 jeon, the monetary subunit. The jeon is no longer used for everyday transactions, and appears only in foreign exchange rates...

 (1983-2002 Series).

Gyotaejeon



Gyotaejeon , also called Gyotaejeon Hall, is a building used as the main residing quarters by the queen during the Joseon Dynasty. The building is located behind Gangnyeongjeon, the king's quarters, and contains the queen's bed chamber. It was first constructed in around 1440, the 22nd year of King Sejong the Great.

King Sejong, who was noted to have a frail health later in his reign, decided to carry out his executive duties in Gangnyeongjeon, where his bed chamber is located, instead of Sajeongjeon. Since this decision meant many government officials routinely needed to visit and intrude Gangnyeongjeon, King Sejong had Gyotaejeon built in consideration of his wife the queen's privacy.

The building was burned down in 1592 when the Japanese invaded Korea, but was reconstructed in 1867. Nevertheless, when Daejojeon of Changdeokgung
Changdeokgung
Changdeokgung, also known as Changdeokgung Palace or Changdeok Palace, is set within a large park in Jongno-gu, Seoul, South Korea. It is one of the "Five Grand Palaces" built by the kings of the Joseon Dynasty. Because of its location east of Gyeongbok Palace, Changdeokgung, with Changgyeonggung,...

 Palace was burned down by a fire in 1917, the Japanese government disassembled the building and recycled its construction materials to restore Daejojeon. The current building was reconstructed in 1994 according to its original design and specifications. The building, like Gangnyeongjeon, does not have a top roof ridge called yongmaru.

Amisan , a famous garden created from an artificial mound, is located behind Gyotaejeon. Four hexagonal chimneys, constructed around 1869 in orange bricks and decorative roof tiles, adorn Amisan without showing their utilitarian function and are notable examples of formative art created during the Joseon Dynasty. The chimneys were registered as Korea's Treasure No. 811 on January 8, 1985.

Hyangwonjeong



Hyangwonjeong , or Hyangwonjeong Pavilion, is a small, two-story hexagonal pavilion built around 1873 by the order of King Gojong
Gojong
Gojong is the temple name of several Korean kings. It can refer to:* Gojong of Goryeo * Gojong of the Korean Empire...

 when Geoncheonggung residence was built to the north within Gyeongbokgung.

The pavilion was constructed on an artificial island of a lake named Hyangwonji , and a bridge named Chwihyanggyo connects it to the palace grounds. The name Hyangwonjeong loosely translates as "Pavilion of Far-Reaching Fragrance," while Chwihyanggyo translates as "Bridge Intoxicated with Fragrance."

The bridge Chwihyanggyo was originally located on the north side of the island and was the longest bridge constructed purely of wood during the Joseon Dynasty; however, it was destroyed during the Korean War
Korean War
The Korean War was a conventional war between South Korea, supported by the United Nations, and North Korea, supported by the People's Republic of China , with military material aid from the Soviet Union...

. The bridge was reconstructed in its present form on the south side of the island in 1953.

Jagyeongjeon



Jagyeongjeon , also called Jagyeongjeon Hall, is a building used as the main residing quarters by Queen Sinjeong , the mother of King Heonjong
Heonjong of Joseon
Heonjong of Joseon was the 24th king of the Joseon Dynasty of Korea. He was the grandson of Sunjo, and his mother was Queen Sinjeong of the Pungyang Jo clan. His father was Prince Munjo, posthumously named Ikjong, who died at the age of 21 before becoming king. Heonjong was born three-years before...

. First constructed in 1865, it was burned down twice by a fire but was reconstructed in 1888. Jagyeongjeon is the only royal residing quarters in Gyeongbokgung that survived the demolition campaigns of the Japanese government during the Japanese occupation of Korea
Korea under Japanese rule
Korea was under Japanese rule as part of Japan's 35-year imperialist expansion . Japanese rule ended in 1945 shortly after the Japanese defeat in World War II....

.

The chimneys of Jagyeongjeon are decorated with ten signs of longevity to wish for a long life for the late queen, while the west walls of the Jagyeongjeon compound are adorned with floral designs. The protruding southeast part of Jagyeongjeon, named Cheongwonru , is designed to provide a cooler space during the summer, while the northwest part of Jagyeongjeon, named Bokandang , is designed for the winter months. The eastern part of Jagyeogjeon, named Hyeopgyeongdang and distinguished by the building's lower height, was used by the late queen's assistants.

The building and the decorative walls were registered as Korea's Treasure No. 809 on January 8, 1985.

Jibokjae



Jibokjae , located next to Geoncheonggung Residence, is a two-story private library used by King Gojong. In 1876, a major fire occurred in Gyeongbokgung Palace, and King Gojong, for a brief period, moved and resided in Changdeokgung
Changdeokgung
Changdeokgung, also known as Changdeokgung Palace or Changdeok Palace, is set within a large park in Jongno-gu, Seoul, South Korea. It is one of the "Five Grand Palaces" built by the kings of the Joseon Dynasty. Because of its location east of Gyeongbok Palace, Changdeokgung, with Changgyeonggung,...

 Palace. He eventually moved back to Gyeongbokgung in 1888, but he had the pre-existing Jibokjae building disassembled and moved from Changdeokgung
Changdeokgung
Changdeokgung, also known as Changdeokgung Palace or Changdeok Palace, is set within a large park in Jongno-gu, Seoul, South Korea. It is one of the "Five Grand Palaces" built by the kings of the Joseon Dynasty. Because of its location east of Gyeongbok Palace, Changdeokgung, with Changgyeonggung,...

 to the present location in 1891. Its name, Jibokjae, translates loosely in English as the "Hall of Collecting Jade."

The building uniquely shows heavy influence of Chinese architecture instead of traditional Korean palace architecture. Its side walls were entirely constructed in brick, a method commonly employed by the contemporary Chinese, and its roof formations, interior screens, and columns also show Chinese influences. Its architecture possibly was meant to give it an exotic appearance.

Jibokjae is flanked by Parujeong , an octagonal two-story pavilion, to the left and Hyeopgildang to the right. Parujeong was constructed to store books, while Hyeopgildang served as a part of Jibokjae. Both of the buildings are internally connected to Jibokjae.

Bohyeondang and Gahoejeong , buildings that also formed a library complex to the south of Jibokjae, were demolished by the Japanese government in the early 20th century.

Sajeongjeon


Sajeongjeon , also called Sajeongjeon Hall, is a building used as the main executive office by the king during the Joseon Dynasty. Located behind Geunjeongjeon Hall, the king carried out his executive duties and held meetings with the top government officials in Sajeongjeon. Two separate side buildings, Cheonchujeon and Manchunjeon , flank the west and east of Sajeongjeon, and while Sajeongjeon is not equipped with a heating system, these buildings are equipped with Ondol
Ondol
An ondol, also called gudeul, in Korean traditional architecture, is underfloor heating which uses direct heat transfer from wood smoke to the underside of a thick masonry floor...

s for their use in the colder months.

Sujeongjeon


Sujeongjeon , a building located to the south of Gyeonghoeru, was constructed in 1867 and used by the cabinet
Cabinet (government)
A Cabinet is a body of high ranking government officials, typically representing the executive branch. It can also sometimes be referred to as the Council of Ministers, an Executive Council, or an Executive Committee.- Overview :...

 of the Joseon Dynasty.

Taewonjeon


Taewonjeon , or Taewonjeon Shrine, is an ancestral shrine originally built in 1868 to house a portrait of King Taejo
Taejo of Joseon
Taejo of Joseon , born Yi Seong-gye, whose changed name is Yi Dan, was the founder and the first king of the Joseon Dynasty of Korea, and the main figure in overthrowing the Goryeo Dynasty...

, the founder of the Joseon Dynasty, and to perform rites to the deceased royalties. Completely destroyed by the Japanese government in the early 20th century, the shrine was accurately restored to its former design in 2005.

Geoncheonggung


Geoncheonggung , also known as Geoncheonggung Residence, was a private royal residence built by King Gojong within the palace grounds in 1873.

King Gojong resided in Geoncheonggung from 1888 and the residence was continuously expanded, but on October 8, 1895, Empress Myeongseong
Empress Myeongseong
Empress Myeongseong , also known as Queen Min, was the first official wife of King Gojong, the twenty-sixth king of the Joseon dynasty of Korea...

, the wife of King Gojong, was brutally assassinated by the Japanese agents at the residence. Her body was raped and cut, and was burned and buried near the residence.

Haunted by the experiences of the incident, the king left the palace on January, 1896, and never returned to the residence. Demolished completely by the Japanese government in 1909, the residence was accurately reconstructed to its former design and open to the public in 2007.

Governor-General's Residence


The back garden of Gyeongbokgung used to contain the main part of the Governor-General's residence that was built during the Japanese occupation. With the establishment of the Republic of Korea in 1948, President Syngman Rhee
Syngman Rhee
Syngman Rhee or Yi Seungman was the first president of South Korea. His presidency, from August 1948 to April 1960, remains controversial, affected by Cold War tensions on the Korean peninsula and elsewhere. Rhee was regarded as an anti-Communist and a strongman, and he led South Korea through the...

 used it as his office and residence. In 1993, after President Kim Young-sam
Kim Young-sam
Kim Young-sam was a South Korean politician and democratic activist. From 1961, he spent 30 years as South Korea's leader of the opposition, and one of Park Chung-hee's most powerful rivals....

's civilian administration was launched, the Japanese Governor-General's residence in the Cheongwadae compound was dismantled to remove a major symbol of the Japanese colonialism.

Transportation


Gyeongbokgung entry is located 22 Sajik-no, Jongno-gu. The nearest subway station is
  • Gyeongbokgung Station
    Gyeongbokgung Station
    Gyeongbokgung station is a on the Seoul Subway Line 3.Gyeongbokgung station is the subway station nearest to the Gyeongbok Palace or ....

     (Station #327 on Line 3
    Seoul Subway Line 3
    Seoul Subway Line 3 of the Seoul Metropolitan Subway is an operation system which connects Goyang, northwestern Seoul to the city center, Gangnam, and southeastern Seoul. Construction began in 1980, and most of the current line opened over two stages in 1985, along with Brother subway Line 4...

    ).


See also

  • Gwanghwamun
    Gwanghwamun
    Gwanghwamun is the main and largest gate of Gyeongbokgung Palace, located in Seoul, South Korea. As a landmark and symbol of Seoul's long history as the capital city during the Joseon Dynasty, the gate has gone through multiple periods of destruction and disrepair...

  • Gyeongbokgung Station
    Gyeongbokgung Station
    Gyeongbokgung station is a on the Seoul Subway Line 3.Gyeongbokgung station is the subway station nearest to the Gyeongbok Palace or ....

  • National Folk Museum of Korea
    National Folk Museum of Korea
    National Folk Museum of Korea is a national museum of South Korea, located within the grounds of the Gyeongbokgung Palace in Jongno-gu, Seoul, and uses replicas of historical objects to illustrate the history of traditional life of the Korean people.-History:...

  • List of Korea-related topics
  • History of Korea
    History of Korea
    The Korean Peninsula was inhabited from the Lower Paleolithic about 400,000-500,000 years ago. Archeological evidence indicates that the presence of modern humans in northeast Asia dates to 39,000 years ago. The earliest known Korean pottery dates to around 8000 BC, and the Neolithic period began...

  • Korean architecture
    Korean architecture
    Korean architecture refers to the built environment of Korea from c. 30,000 BC to the present.-Introduction:From a technical point of view, buildings are structured vertically and horizontally...


External links