The Gulfstream IV
) and derivatives are a family of twin-jet
A jet aircraft is an aircraft propelled by jet engines. Jet aircraft generally fly much faster than propeller-powered aircraft and at higher altitudes – as high as . At these altitudes, jet engines achieve maximum efficiency over long distances. The engines in propeller-powered aircraft...
aircraft, mainly for private or business
Business jet, private jet or, colloquially, bizjet is a term describing a jet aircraft, usually of smaller size, designed for transporting groups of up to 19 business people or wealthy individuals...
use. The aircraft was designed and built by Gulfstream Aerospace
Gulfstream Aerospace Corporation is a producer of several models of jet aircraft. Gulfstream has been a unit of General Dynamics since 1999.The company has produced more than 1,500 aircraft for corporate, government, private, and military customers around the world...
, a General Dynamics
General Dynamics Corporation is a U.S. defense conglomerate formed by mergers and divestitures, and as of 2008 it is the fifth largest defense contractor in the world. Its headquarters are in West Falls Church , unincorporated Fairfax County, Virginia, in the Falls Church area.The company has...
company based in Savannah, Georgia
Savannah is the largest city and the county seat of Chatham County, in the U.S. state of Georgia. Established in 1733, the city of Savannah was the colonial capital of the Province of Georgia and later the first state capital of Georgia. Today Savannah is an industrial center and an important...
, United States
The United States of America is a federal constitutional republic comprising fifty states and a federal district...
from 1985 until 2003.
Design and development
Gulfstream, in collaboration with Grumman began work on the Gulfstream IV in March 1983 as a re-engined,stretched fuselage derivative of the Gulfstream III. A decision to redesign the wing structure for weight reduction presented an opportunity for an aerodynamic redesign of the wing to reduce cruise drag and increase range. Wing contour modifications had to be restricted to the forward 65% of wing chord so that no redesign of the control surfaces would be necessary. Modification of the inboard wing would have entailed a redesign of the fuselage floor structure, consequently this region of the wing was not modified. Outboard wing modifications were aimed at reducing the peak subcritical pressure coefficient and moving it aft in an effort to reduce shock strength and increase shock sweep. The Gulfstream IV wing has a weaker, more swept outboard shock resulting in a lower cruise drag. Other benefits arising from this design are a lower root bending moment due to the more inboard center of pressure, a lower stall speed due to washout and a larger fuel volume due to increased chord. These aerodynamic improvements result in an increase in range of over 300 nautical miles.
The first GIV made its maiden flight on September 19, 1985. The model received type certification from the FAA in April 1987. The G-IV entered into service with serial number 1000 in 1987 and was upgraded to the special purpose GIV-SP
version at serial number 1214 in 1993. It was later redesignated G400
at serial number 1500.
A shorter range variant was created based on the GIV and given the G300
designation in 2002. The G400 has a large cabin, long range of 4,350 nautical miles (8,060 km) and the same comfort and design that characterize the G series. Typical cruise height and speed are 45,000 ft and Mach
Mach number is the speed of an object moving through air, or any other fluid substance, divided by the speed of sound as it is in that substance for its particular physical conditions, including those of temperature and pressure...
0.88. Earlier models were fitted with Honeywell's SPZ 8000 Avionics package. The SPZ 8400 Avionics Package was an option, becoming standard on later models. It costs about $15 million at 2009 prices.
In 2001 Gulfstream began work on an improved version of the GIV-SP, originally designated GIV-X
. It was later renamed G450
. The G450 is lengthened 1 ft (0.305 m) over the G400 and shares the forward fuselage and larger cockpit of the G550. Production of the G450 began in October 2004, replacing the G400. The G450 has better performance and comes with the PlaneView cockpit with four 14 in (355 mm) liquid crystal display
A liquid crystal display is a flat panel display, electronic visual display, or video display that uses the light modulating properties of liquid crystals . LCs do not emit light directly....
s and a Head up display (HUD). The shorter range G350 version of the G450 was developed and received certification in 2004.
The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration
The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration , pronounced , like "noah", is a scientific agency within the United States Department of Commerce focused on the conditions of the oceans and the atmosphere...
(NOAA) operates a GIV-SP (N49RF) modified to fly scientist
A scientist in a broad sense is one engaging in a systematic activity to acquire knowledge. In a more restricted sense, a scientist is an individual who uses the scientific method. The person may be an expert in one or more areas of science. This article focuses on the more restricted use of the word...
s and crew members at 45,000 feet around tropical cyclone
A tropical cyclone is a storm system characterized by a large low-pressure center and numerous thunderstorms that produce strong winds and heavy rain. Tropical cyclones strengthen when water evaporated from the ocean is released as the saturated air rises, resulting in condensation of water vapor...
s. The aircraft was modified to drop instruments called "dropsonde
A dropsonde is a weather reconnaissance device created by the National Center for Atmospheric Research , designed to be dropped from an aircraft at altitude to more accurately measure tropical storm conditions as the device falls to the surface...
s" to measure windspeed, barometric pressure, humidity
Humidity is a term for the amount of water vapor in the air, and can refer to any one of several measurements of humidity. Formally, humid air is not "moist air" but a mixture of water vapor and other constituents of air, and humidity is defined in terms of the water content of this mixture,...
, and temperature as they fall to the surface of the ocean. By sampling the cyclone with these dropsondes over a 4,000 mile track around the storm, the forecasters at NOAA's National Hurricane Center
The National Hurricane Center , located at Florida International University in Miami, Florida, is the division of the National Weather Service responsible for tracking and predicting weather systems within the tropics between the Prime Meridian and the 140th meridian west poleward to the 30th...
and Hurricane Research Division
The Hurricane Research Division is a section of the Atlantic Oceanographic and Meteorological Laboratory in Miami, Florida, and is the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's focus for tropical cyclone research...
can better predict where the hurricane will be "steered" by the upper level winds. They also predict wind shear
Wind shear, sometimes referred to as windshear or wind gradient, is a difference in wind speed and direction over a relatively short distance in the atmosphere...
that will either increase or decrease a hurricane's strength. The GIV-SP is suited for this mission since it is fast, and can fly long distances with ample cabin space for the crew and instruments. In 2009, the NOAA GIV-SP was further modified by the addition of a side-scanning Doppler radar to the rear fuselage. This radar is used for storm cloud profiling.
In June 1987 a Gulfstream IV set 22 world records in its class in flying west around the world in 45 hr 25 min. The next year another GIV set 11 world records flying east around the world. In 1990, Gulfstream CEO Allen E. Paulson
Allen Eugene Paulson was an American aviation entrepreneur, philanthropist, thoroughbred racehorse breeder and owner, and a self-made multi-millionaire.-Business career in aviation:Born in Clinton, Iowa, Allen E...
and a Gulfstream flight crew set 35 international records for around-the-world flight in a GIV.
On October 30, 1996, a twin engine Gulfstream IV business jet departing from Chicago Executive Airport with three crew members and one passenger lost control upon takeoff and crashed immediately to the north of the airport. All four aboard perished.
C-20F/G/H/J military variants
The U.S. military variant of the IV, designated C-20F/G/H/J Gulfstream IV
in Department of Defense
The United States Department of Defense is the U.S...
service. The C-20F
is a GIV model operated by the U.S. Army in a command/executive transport role.
aircraft may be configured for cargo operations, 26 passenger operations or combinations of the two. With passengers seats removed, it may be configured as three pallets with no passengers or two pallets and eight passengers or one pallet and fourteen passengers. With full seating, the aircraft is capable of accommodating up to twenty-six passengers and a crew of four. A hydraulically-operated cargo door is installed on the starboard side of the aircraft, and a ball roller cargo floor is capable of accommodating palletized cargo. The C-20G is operated by Fleet Logistics Support Squadron Four Eight (VR-48) and Marine Air Support Detachment (MASD) at Naval Air Facility, Andrews Air Force Base, Washington, DC and at Fleet Logistics Support Wing Detachment, Marine Corps Base Hawaii
Marine Corps Base Hawaii , formerly Marine Corps Air Station, Kaneohe Bay and originally Naval Air Station Kaneohe Bay, is a U.S. Marine Corps base facility and air station located on the Mokapu Peninsula of windward O'ahu in the City & County of Honolulu. As of the 2000 Census, the base had a...
is a GIV-SP model operated by the U.S. Air Force in a command/executive transport role. The C-20J
is a GIV-SP model operated by the U.S. Army in a command/executive transport role.
is an improved version of the GIV-SP/G400 using technologies from the G500/G550 (an upgrade to the GV
The Gulfstream V is a business jet aircraft produced by Gulfstream Aerospace. It is also used by the US military under the designation C-37A. The G500 and G550 are improved versions which are currently in production...
). It has a "PlaneView" cockpit with 4 Honeywell 21 EFIS screens, and a Gulfstream-designed cursor control system. It also has the "Enhanced Vision System" (EVS), an infrared camera that displays an image of the view in front of the camera on a head up display. EVS permits the aircraft to land in lower-visibility instrument meteorological conditions
Instrument meteorological conditions is an aviation flight category that describes weather conditions that require pilots to fly primarily by reference to instruments, and therefore under Instrument Flight Rules , rather than by outside visual references under Visual Flight Rules . Typically, this...
than a non-EVS-equipped aircraft.
is the short-range version of the G450. It has the same exterior appearance as G450, and includes the PlaneView cockpit, but does not have EVS as standard equipment, which is available as an option.
The aircraft is operated by private individuals, companies and executive charter operators, and in fractional ownership programs.
Government and military operators
The Botswana Air Force operates a single G-IV for VIP
VIP and V.I.P. is a three-letter acronym that may refer to:-In general:* Vacuum insulated panel* Values, Influence, and Peers, an anti-crime campaign in Ontario elementary schools* Variable Information Printing, a form of on-demand printing...
The Sultan of Brunei operates a G-IV.
The Chilean Air Force
The Chilean Air Force is the air force of Chile, a branch of the Chilean military.-History:The first step towards the current FACh was taken by Teniente Coronel Pedro Pablo Dartnell, when he founded the Servicio de Aviación Militar de Chile on December 20, 1910, being trained as a pilot in France...
operates four G-IVs in a commander / executive transport role.
(formerly Ivory Coast)
The Egyptian Air Force
The Egyptian Air Force, or EAF , is the aviation branch of the Egyptian Armed Forces. The EAF is headed by an Air Marshal . Currently, the commander of the Egyptian Air Force is Air Marshal Reda Mahmoud Hafez Mohamed...
operates four G-IVs in a commander / executive transport role.
The Indian Air Force
The Indian Air Force is the air arm of the Indian armed forces. Its primary responsibility is to secure Indian airspace and to conduct aerial warfare during a conflict...
in Reconnaissance Role.
The Irish Air Corps
The Air Corps is the air component of the Defence Forces of Ireland providing support to the Army and Naval Service, together with non-military air services such as search and rescue and the Ministerial Air Transport Service...
operates a G-IV in a Government Transport Role.
The Japan Air Self-Defense Force
The , or JASDF, is the aviation branch of the Japan Self-Defense Forces responsible for the defense of Japanese airspace and other aerospace operations. The JASDF carries out combat air patrols around Japan, while also maintaining an extensive network of ground and air early warning radar systems...
operates five G-IVs under the designation U-4
, modified to incorporate a large cargo door and can move palletized cargo and passenger mixes similar to the C-20G aircraft operated by the U.S. Navy and Marines.
The Sultan of Johor
Sultan of Johor is a hereditary seat and the nominal ruler of the Malaysian state of Johor. In the past, the sultan held absolute power over the state and was advised by a bendahara...
operates a G-IV.
The Royal Netherlands Air Force operates one G-IV SP in a commander / government transport role.
The Royal Saudi Air Force operates one G-IV in a commander / government transport role. The military operates one G-IV SP in the med/vac transport role. The Saudi Arabian Minister of Finance and Economy operates a G-IV (G300).
The Swedish Air Force
The Swedish Air Force is the air force branch of the Swedish Armed Forces.-History:The Swedish Air Force was created on July 1, 1926 when the aircraft units of the Army and Navy were merged. Because of the escalating international tension during the 1930s the Air Force was reorganized and expanded...
operates four Gulfstream IVs, two are highly modified G-IV SPs in the SIGINT
Signals intelligence is intelligence-gathering by interception of signals, whether between people , whether involving electronic signals not directly used in communication , or combinations of the two...
role and are designated S 102B Korpen
(Raven). Two other aircraft, a G-IV designated TP 102A
, and a G-IV SP, designated TP 102C
, serve as transport for the Royal Family
The Swedish Royal Family since 1818 consists of a number of persons in the Swedish Royal House of Bernadotte, closely related to the King of Sweden. They are entitled to royal titles and style , and some perform official engagements and ceremonial duties of state...
and the Prime Minister
The Prime Minister is the head of government in the Kingdom of Sweden. Before the creation of the office of a Prime Minister in 1876, Sweden did not have a head of government separate from its head of state, namely the King, in whom the executive authority was vested...
The Turkish Air Force
The Turkish Air Force is the aerial warfare service branch of the Turkish Armed Forces. It ranks 3rd in NATO in terms of fleet size behind the USAF and Royal Air Force with a current inventory of 798 aircraft .-Initial stages:...
operates a G-IV SP in a commander / executive transport role.
The Pakistan Air Force
The Pakistan Air Force is the leading air arm of the Pakistan Armed Forces and is primarily tasked with the aerial defence of Pakistan with a secondary role of providing air support to the Pakistan Army and the Pakistan Navy. The PAF also has a tertiary role of providing strategic air transport...
operates four G-IV SPs in a commander / executive transport roles.
The Government of Uganda
Uganda , officially the Republic of Uganda, is a landlocked country in East Africa. Uganda is also known as the "Pearl of Africa". It is bordered on the east by Kenya, on the north by South Sudan, on the west by the Democratic Republic of the Congo, on the southwest by Rwanda, and on the south by...
purchased one G-IV in December 2000 at a cost of US$31.5 million for Presidential flights. It was sold in December 2009.
- United States Air Force
The United States Air Force is the aerial warfare service branch of the United States Armed Forces and one of the American uniformed services. Initially part of the United States Army, the USAF was formed as a separate branch of the military on September 18, 1947 under the National Security Act of...
as C-20 series
- United States Army
The United States Army is the main branch of the United States Armed Forces responsible for land-based military operations. It is the largest and oldest established branch of the U.S. military, and is one of seven U.S. uniformed services...
as C-20 series
- United States Navy
The United States Navy is the naval warfare service branch of the United States Armed Forces and one of the seven uniformed services of the United States. The U.S. Navy is the largest in the world; its battle fleet tonnage is greater than that of the next 13 largest navies combined. The U.S...
as C-20 series
- United States Marine Corps
The United States Marine Corps is a branch of the United States Armed Forces responsible for providing power projection from the sea, using the mobility of the United States Navy to deliver combined-arms task forces rapidly. It is one of seven uniformed services of the United States...
as C-20 series
- NOAA - operates a G-IV-SP in an atmospheric research and Hurricane tracking role.
The Venezuelan Air Force operates a G-IV in a commander / executive transport role.
||GIV || GIV-SP || G350 || G450
| Cockpit crew
| Seating capacity
|| 19 maximum
|| 88 in 4 in (26.92 m)
|| 89 in 4 in (27.23 m)
|| 77 in 10 in (23.72 m)
| Overall height
|| 24 in 5 in (7.44 m)
|| 25 in 2 in (7.67 m)
| Maximum take-off weight
The Maximum Takeoff Weight or Maximum Takeoff Mass of an aircraft is the maximum weight at which the pilot of the aircraft is allowed to attempt to take off, due to structural or other limits. The analogous term for rockets is Gross Lift-Off Mass, or GLOW...
| 73200 lb (33,203 kg)
|| 74600 lb (33,838 kg)
|| 70900 lb (32,159.7 kg)
|| 73900 lb (33,520.5 kg)
| Empty weight
|| 35500 lb (16,102.5 kg)
|| 42700 lb (19,368.4 kg)
|| 43000 lb (19,504.5 kg)
| Cruising speed
|| Mach 0.80 (460 knots, 528 mph, 850 km/h at altitude)
| Maximum speed
|| Mach 0.88 (505 knots, 581 mph, 935 km/h at altitude)
|| 4220 nmi (7,815.4 km)
|| 4220 nmi (7,815.4 km)
|| 3800 nmi (7,037.6 km)
|| 4350 nmi (8,056.2 km)
| Service ceiling
|| 45000 ft (13,716 m)
| Engines (×2)
|| Rolls-Royce Tay 611-8
|| Rolls-Royce Tay 611-8C
| Thrust (×2)
|| 13850 lbf (61.6 kN)
Sources: Frawley, Gulfstream G450 page, Gulfstream G350 page