Gujjar

Gujjar

Overview
The Gurjar are an ethnic group in India
India
India , officially the Republic of India , is a country in South Asia. It is the seventh-largest country by geographical area, the second-most populous country with over 1.2 billion people, and the most populous democracy in the world...

, Pakistan
Pakistan
Pakistan , officially the Islamic Republic of Pakistan is a sovereign state in South Asia. It has a coastline along the Arabian Sea and the Gulf of Oman in the south and is bordered by Afghanistan and Iran in the west, India in the east and China in the far northeast. In the north, Tajikistan...

 and Afghanistan
Afghanistan
Afghanistan , officially the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan, is a landlocked country located in the centre of Asia, forming South Asia, Central Asia and the Middle East. With a population of about 29 million, it has an area of , making it the 42nd most populous and 41st largest nation in the world...

. Alternative spellings include Gurjara, Gujar, Gurjjara and Gūrjara. The spelling Gurjara or Gurjar is preferable to the rest.

While the origin of the Gurjars is uncertain, the Gurjar clan appeared in ancient North India
North India
North India, known natively as Uttar Bhārat or Shumālī Hindustān , is a loosely defined region in the northern part of India. The exact meaning of the term varies by usage...

 about the time of the Huna
Huna people
Huna is the name under which the Xionite tribes who invaded northern India during the first half of the 5th century were known.-History:...

 invasions of the region. In the 6th to 12th Century, they were primarily classed as Kshatriya
Kshatriya
*For the Bollywood film of the same name see Kshatriya Kshatriya or Kashtriya, meaning warrior, is one of the four varnas in Hinduism...

 and Brahmin
Brahmin
Brahmin Brahman, Brahma and Brahmin.Brahman, Brahmin and Brahma have different meanings. Brahman refers to the Supreme Self...

, and many of them later converted to Islam
Islam
Islam . The most common are and .   : Arabic pronunciation varies regionally. The first vowel ranges from ~~. The second vowel ranges from ~~~...

 during the Muslim rule in South Asia
Muslim conquest in the Indian subcontinent
Muslim conquest in South Asia mainly took place from the 13th to the 16th centuries, though earlier Muslim conquests made limited inroads into the region, beginning during the period of the ascendancy of the Rajput Kingdoms in North India, from the 7th century onwards.However, the Himalayan...

.
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Encyclopedia
The Gurjar are an ethnic group in India
India
India , officially the Republic of India , is a country in South Asia. It is the seventh-largest country by geographical area, the second-most populous country with over 1.2 billion people, and the most populous democracy in the world...

, Pakistan
Pakistan
Pakistan , officially the Islamic Republic of Pakistan is a sovereign state in South Asia. It has a coastline along the Arabian Sea and the Gulf of Oman in the south and is bordered by Afghanistan and Iran in the west, India in the east and China in the far northeast. In the north, Tajikistan...

 and Afghanistan
Afghanistan
Afghanistan , officially the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan, is a landlocked country located in the centre of Asia, forming South Asia, Central Asia and the Middle East. With a population of about 29 million, it has an area of , making it the 42nd most populous and 41st largest nation in the world...

. Alternative spellings include Gurjara, Gujar, Gurjjara and Gūrjara. The spelling Gurjara or Gurjar is preferable to the rest.

While the origin of the Gurjars is uncertain, the Gurjar clan appeared in ancient North India
North India
North India, known natively as Uttar Bhārat or Shumālī Hindustān , is a loosely defined region in the northern part of India. The exact meaning of the term varies by usage...

 about the time of the Huna
Huna people
Huna is the name under which the Xionite tribes who invaded northern India during the first half of the 5th century were known.-History:...

 invasions of the region. In the 6th to 12th Century, they were primarily classed as Kshatriya
Kshatriya
*For the Bollywood film of the same name see Kshatriya Kshatriya or Kashtriya, meaning warrior, is one of the four varnas in Hinduism...

 and Brahmin
Brahmin
Brahmin Brahman, Brahma and Brahmin.Brahman, Brahmin and Brahma have different meanings. Brahman refers to the Supreme Self...

, and many of them later converted to Islam
Islam
Islam . The most common are and .   : Arabic pronunciation varies regionally. The first vowel ranges from ~~. The second vowel ranges from ~~~...

 during the Muslim rule in South Asia
Muslim conquest in the Indian subcontinent
Muslim conquest in South Asia mainly took place from the 13th to the 16th centuries, though earlier Muslim conquests made limited inroads into the region, beginning during the period of the ascendancy of the Rajput Kingdoms in North India, from the 7th century onwards.However, the Himalayan...

. Today, the Gurjars are classified under the Other Backward Class
Other Backward Class
The Central Government of India classifies some of its citizens based on their social and economic condition as Scheduled Caste , Scheduled Tribe , and Other Backward Class . The OBC list presented by the commission is dynamic and will change from time to time depending on social, educational and...

 (OBC) category in some states in India
India
India , officially the Republic of India , is a country in South Asia. It is the seventh-largest country by geographical area, the second-most populous country with over 1.2 billion people, and the most populous democracy in the world...

. Hindu
Hinduism
Hinduism is the predominant and indigenous religious tradition of the Indian Subcontinent. Hinduism is known to its followers as , amongst many other expressions...

 Gurjars today are assimilated into several varnas.

Origin



The origin of the Gurjars is uncertain. Many Gurjars claim descent from Suryavanshi
Suryavansha
The Sooryavamsham or Suryavansh or Suryavamsa or Sun Dynasty or Solar Dynasty was one of the most prominent dynasties in the mythical history of India, along with the "Chandra-vaṃśa" or Lunar Dynasty.-Introduction:...

 Kshatriya
Kshatriya
*For the Bollywood film of the same name see Kshatriya Kshatriya or Kashtriya, meaning warrior, is one of the four varnas in Hinduism...

s (Sun Dynasty) and connect themselves with the Hindu deity Rama
Rama
Rama or full name Ramachandra is considered to be the seventh avatar of Vishnu in Hinduism, and a king of Ayodhya in ancient Indian...

.
Historically, the Gurjars were Sun-worshipers and are described as devoted to the feet of the Sun-god (God Surya
Surya
Surya Suraya or Phra Athit is the chief solar deity in Hinduism, one of the Adityas, son of Kasyapa and one of his wives, Aditi; of Indra; or of Dyaus Pitar . The term Surya also refers to the Sun, in general. Surya has hair and arms of gold...

).Their copper-plate grants bear an emblem of the Sun and on their seals too, this symbol is depicted. Also the Gurjar title of honor is Mihir
Mihira
Mihira is an ancient Indian word meaning "Sun".* It is another name for the Indo-Iranian sun god Mithra.* It is another name for the Indian astronomer Varahamihira.* It is part of the name of the Huna king Mihirakula....

 which means Sun
Surya
Surya Suraya or Phra Athit is the chief solar deity in Hinduism, one of the Adityas, son of Kasyapa and one of his wives, Aditi; of Indra; or of Dyaus Pitar . The term Surya also refers to the Sun, in general. Surya has hair and arms of gold...

. Ancient Sanskrit Poet Rajasekhara
Rajasekhara
Rajashekhara was an eminent Sanskrit poet, dramatist and critic. He was court poet of the Gurjara Pratiharas.He wrote Kavyamimamsa between 880 and 920 CE. The work is essentially a practical guide for poets that explains the elements and composition of a good poem. The fame of Rajashekhara...

 in his plays styled Gurjar rulers as Raghu-kula-tilaka (Ornament of the race of Raghu
Raghu
The Great Emperor Raghu was a valorous king of the Ikshvaku dynasty. According to the Raghuvamsha, he was born to king Dilipa and his queen Sudakshina. His name in Sanskrit means the fast one, deriving from Raghu's chariot driving abilities. So celebrated were the exploits of Raghu, that his...

), Raghu-gramani (the leader of the Raghu
Raghu
The Great Emperor Raghu was a valorous king of the Ikshvaku dynasty. According to the Raghuvamsha, he was born to king Dilipa and his queen Sudakshina. His name in Sanskrit means the fast one, deriving from Raghu's chariot driving abilities. So celebrated were the exploits of Raghu, that his...

s)and so forth.

In Ramayana
Ramayana
The Ramayana is an ancient Sanskrit epic. It is ascribed to the Hindu sage Valmiki and forms an important part of the Hindu canon , considered to be itihāsa. The Ramayana is one of the two great epics of India and Nepal, the other being the Mahabharata...

, it is described that a war was fought among demons and gods.Gurjars fought against demons under the leadership of King Dasharatha. There is also references of gurjar widows in Yoga Vasistha
Yoga Vasistha
Yoga Vasistha is a Hindu spiritual text traditionally attributed to Valmiki. It recounts a discourse of the sage Vasistha to a young Prince Rama, during a period when the latter is in a dejected state...

, whose husbands laid down their lives in the battlefield, having their heads tonsured as a mark of their bravement. In Mahabharata
Mahabharata
The Mahabharata is one of the two major Sanskrit epics of ancient India and Nepal, the other being the Ramayana. The epic is part of itihasa....

 war also Gurjars fought and later on along with lord Krishna
Krishna
Krishna is a central figure of Hinduism and is traditionally attributed the authorship of the Bhagavad Gita. He is the supreme Being and considered in some monotheistic traditions as an Avatar of Vishnu...

 migrated from Mathura to Dwarka, Gujarat.

The Gurjar clan appeared in northern India about the time of the Huna invasions of northern India. Some scholars, such as V. A. Smith, believed that the Gurjars were foreign immigrants, possibly a branch of Hephthalite
Hephthalite
The Hephthalites or Hephthalite is a pre-Islamic Greek term for local Abdali Afghans, who's famous ruler was Nazak Abdali . Hephthalites were a Central Asian nomadic confederation of the AD 5th-6th centuries whose precise origins and composition remain obscure...

s ("White Huns"). Mr. Devadatta Ramakrishna Bhandarkar (D. B. Bhandarkar) (1875–1950) believed that Gurjars came into India with the Hunas, and their name "Gujar" was sanskrit
Sanskrit
Sanskrit , is a historical Indo-Aryan language and the primary liturgical language of Hinduism, Jainism and Buddhism.Buddhism: besides Pali, see Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit Today, it is listed as one of the 22 scheduled languages of India and is an official language of the state of Uttarakhand...

ized to "Gurjara" or "Gūrjara". He also believed that several places in Central Asia
Central Asia
Central Asia is a core region of the Asian continent from the Caspian Sea in the west, China in the east, Afghanistan in the south, and Russia in the north...

, such as "Gurjistan", are named after the Gujars and that the reminiscences of Gujar migration is preserved in these names. General Cunningham identified the Gurjars with Yuezhi
Yuezhi
The Yuezhi, or Rouzhi , also known as the Da Yuezhi or Da Rouzhi , were an ancient Central Asian people....

 or Tocharians
Tocharians
The Tocharians were the Tocharian-speaking inhabitants of the Tarim Basin, making them the easternmost speakers of Indo-European languages in antiquity. They were known as, or at least closely related to, the Yuezhi of Chinese sources...

.

General Cunningham and A. H. Bingley consider the Gurjars as descendants of Kushan
Kushan Empire
The Kushan Empire originally formed in the early 1st century AD under Kujula Kadphises in the territories of ancient Bactria on either side of the middle course of the Oxus in what is now northern Afghanistan, Pakistan, and southern Tajikistan and Uzbekistan.During the 1st and early 2nd centuries...

/Yueh-chi
Yuezhi
The Yuezhi, or Rouzhi , also known as the Da Yuezhi or Da Rouzhi , were an ancient Central Asian people....

 or Tocharians
Tocharians
The Tocharians were the Tocharian-speaking inhabitants of the Tarim Basin, making them the easternmost speakers of Indo-European languages in antiquity. They were known as, or at least closely related to, the Yuezhi of Chinese sources...

 of Indo-Scythian stock. In the past, Gurjars have also been hypothesized to be descended from the nomadic Khazar
Khazars
The Khazars were semi-nomadic Turkic people who established one of the largest polities of medieval Eurasia, with the capital of Atil and territory comprising much of modern-day European Russia, western Kazakhstan, eastern Ukraine, Azerbaijan, large portions of the northern Caucasus , parts of...

 tribes, although the history of Khazars shows an entirely different politico-cultural ethos In Gazetteer of Bombay Presidency, the British civil servant James M. Campbell identified Gujars with Khazars. Scott Cameron Levi, in his The Indian Diaspora in Central Asia and its Trade, 1550-1900, mentions Kazar (Khazar, could also refer to Kassar
Kassar
Kassar or Mughal Kassar Kassar or Mughal Kassar Kassar or Mughal Kassar (Urdu: ( کسر / مغل قصر ) are a Mughal tribe and one of the three major land-owning tribes in the Dhani country of Chakwal District in Punjab province, Pakistan. They occupy the northern part of Dhani, called Babial and Chaupeda...

) and Kujar (Gujar) as two different tribes with links to Central Asia.

Some others claim that the Gurjar caste is related to the Chechens
Chechen people
Chechens constitute the largest native ethnic group originating in the North Caucasus region. They refer to themselves as Noxçi . Also known as Sadiks , Gargareans, Malkhs...

 and the Georgians
Georgians
The Georgians are an ethnic group that have originated in Georgia, where they constitute a majority of the population. Large Georgian communities are also present throughout Russia, European Union, United States, and South America....

, and argue that Georgia
Georgia (country)
Georgia is a sovereign state in the Caucasus region of Eurasia. Located at the crossroads of Western Asia and Eastern Europe, it is bounded to the west by the Black Sea, to the north by Russia, to the southwest by Turkey, to the south by Armenia, and to the southeast by Azerbaijan. The capital of...

 was traditionally called "Gujaristan" (actually Gorjestan). However, there is little evidence for such claims. The word "Georgia" derived from the Arabic and Persian word Gurj, and not Gujjar or Gurjar.

A 2009 study conducted by Tribal Research and Cultural Foundation
Tribal Research and Cultural Foundation
Tribal Research and Cultural Foundation , a National Organisation was set up in 1998 with the objective to promote Socio-Economic and Cultural aspects of Tribals residing in India.As an independent agency on Research and Culture the organisation is a specialized body working on Tribal Research...

, under the supervision of Gujjar scholar Dr.Javaid Rahi
Javaid Rahi
Dr. Javaid Rahi alternate spellings Dr.Javed Rahi is an Indian researcher and prolific scholar...

, claimed that the word "Gujar" has a Central Asian Turkic
Turkic peoples
The Turkic peoples are peoples residing in northern, central and western Asia, southern Siberia and northwestern China and parts of eastern Europe. They speak languages belonging to the Turkic language family. They share, to varying degrees, certain cultural traits and historical backgrounds...

 origin, written in romanized Turkish as Göçer. Study claimed that according to the new research, the Gurjar race "remained one of the most vibrant identity of Central Asia in BC era and later ruled over many princely states in northern India for hundred of years".

According to Scholars such as Baij Nath Puri
Baij Nath Puri
Baij Nath Puri is a historian from India. He is vice-president and member of the International Board of Editors for the history of Civilizations in Central Asia at the UNESCO.He has also been Professor and Head of the Department of Ancient Indian History nad Culture at the National Academy of...

, Mount Abu (ancient Arbuda Mountain) region of present day Rajasthan
Rajasthan
Rājasthān the land of Rajasthanis, , is the largest state of the Republic of India by area. It is located in the northwest of India. It encompasses most of the area of the large, inhospitable Great Indian Desert , which has an edge paralleling the Sutlej-Indus river valley along its border with...

 had been abode of the Gurjars during medieval period. The association of the Gurjars with the mountain is noticed in many inscriptions and epigraphs including Tilakamanjari of Dhanpala. These Gurjars migrated from Arbuda mountain region and as eatly as sixth century A.D, they set up one or more principalities in Rajasthan
Rajasthan
Rājasthān the land of Rajasthanis, , is the largest state of the Republic of India by area. It is located in the northwest of India. It encompasses most of the area of the large, inhospitable Great Indian Desert , which has an edge paralleling the Sutlej-Indus river valley along its border with...

 and Gujarat.Whole or a larger part of Rajasthan
Rajasthan
Rājasthān the land of Rajasthanis, , is the largest state of the Republic of India by area. It is located in the northwest of India. It encompasses most of the area of the large, inhospitable Great Indian Desert , which has an edge paralleling the Sutlej-Indus river valley along its border with...

 and Gujarat had been long known as Gurjaratra (country ruled or protected by the Gurjars) or Gurjarabhumi (land of the Gurjars) for centuries prior to Mughal period.

The sociologist G. S. Ghurye believes that the name Gujjar is derived from the principal profession followed by the tribe: cattle-breeding (the Sanskrit
Sanskrit
Sanskrit , is a historical Indo-Aryan language and the primary liturgical language of Hinduism, Jainism and Buddhism.Buddhism: besides Pali, see Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit Today, it is listed as one of the 22 scheduled languages of India and is an official language of the state of Uttarakhand...

 word for cow is gau and the old Hindi
Hindi
Standard Hindi, or more precisely Modern Standard Hindi, also known as Manak Hindi , High Hindi, Nagari Hindi, and Literary Hindi, is a standardized and sanskritized register of the Hindustani language derived from the Khariboli dialect of Delhi...

 word for sheep is gadar)., though "Gujjar" has come from "Gurjar" which is a sanskrit word which according to Sanskrit Dictionary (Shakabada1181), has been explained thus:
Gur+jar; 'Gur' means 'enemy' and 'jar' means 'destroyer'. The word means "Destroyer of the enemy" . The word "Gurjar" predicts the qualities of a warrior community.

Gurjar rulers



According to some historical accounts, the kingdom with capital at Bhinmal
Bhinmal
Bhinmal is a town in the Jalore District of Rajasthan, India. It is 72 km south of Jalore town. The name Bhinmal is derived from the word Shrimal.Bhinmal was old capital of the kingdom of the Gurjars during medieval period....

 (or Srimal) was established by the Gurjars. A minor kingdom of Bharuch was the offshoot of this Kingdom. In 640-41 CE, the Chinese traveller Xuanzang
Xuanzang
Xuanzang was a famous Chinese Buddhist monk, scholar, traveler, and translator who described the interaction between China and India in the early Tang period...

 (Hieun Tsang) described the kingdoms of Su-la-cha (identified with Saurashtra) and Kiu-che-lo (identified with Gurjara) in his writings. He stated that the Gurjaras ruled a rich and populous kingdom with capital at Bhinmal
Bhinmal
Bhinmal is a town in the Jalore District of Rajasthan, India. It is 72 km south of Jalore town. The name Bhinmal is derived from the word Shrimal.Bhinmal was old capital of the kingdom of the Gurjars during medieval period....

 (Pilo-mo-lo). According to his expositor, M. Vivien de St. Martin, Su-la-cha represents the modern Gujarat, and Kiu-che-lo (Gurjjara), "the country of the Gujars", represents the region between Anhilwara and the Indus River
Indus River
The Indus River is a major river which flows through Pakistan. It also has courses through China and India.Originating in the Tibetan plateau of western China in the vicinity of Lake Mansarovar in Tibet Autonomous Region, the river runs a course through the Ladakh district of Jammu and Kashmir and...

, i.e. Sindh
Sindh
Sindh historically referred to as Ba'ab-ul-Islam , is one of the four provinces of Pakistan and historically is home to the Sindhi people. It is also locally known as the "Mehran". Though Muslims form the largest religious group in Sindh, a good number of Christians, Zoroastrians and Hindus can...

 region.

Vincent Smith believed that the Pratihara
Pratihara
The Gurjara Pratihara , often simply called Pratihara Empire, was an imperial Indian dynasty that ruled much of Northern India from the 6th to the 11th centuries. At its peak of prosperity and power , the Gurajara-Pratihara Empire rivaled or even exceeded the Gupta Empire in the extent of its...

 dynasty, which ruled a large kingdom in northern India from the 6th to the 11th centuries, and has been mentioned as "Gurjara-Pratiharas" in an inscription, was certainly of Gurjara origin. Smith also stated that there is possibility of other Agnikula Kshatriya
Kshatriya
*For the Bollywood film of the same name see Kshatriya Kshatriya or Kashtriya, meaning warrior, is one of the four varnas in Hinduism...

 clans being of same origin. Dr. K. Jamanadas also states that the Pratihara
Pratihara
The Gurjara Pratihara , often simply called Pratihara Empire, was an imperial Indian dynasty that ruled much of Northern India from the 6th to the 11th centuries. At its peak of prosperity and power , the Gurajara-Pratihara Empire rivaled or even exceeded the Gupta Empire in the extent of its...

 clan descended from the Gurjars, and this "raises a strong presumption that the other Rajput clans also are the descendants from the Gurjaras or the allied foreign immigrants". D. B. Bhandarkar also believed that Pratihara
Pratihara
The Gurjara Pratihara , often simply called Pratihara Empire, was an imperial Indian dynasty that ruled much of Northern India from the 6th to the 11th centuries. At its peak of prosperity and power , the Gurajara-Pratihara Empire rivaled or even exceeded the Gupta Empire in the extent of its...

s were a clan of Gurjars. In his book The Glory that was Gujardesh (1943), Gurjar writer K. M. Munshi
K. M. Munshi
Kanaiyalal Maneklal Munshi was an Indian independence movement activist, politician, writer and educationist from Gujarat state. A lawyer by profession, he later turned to literature and politics. He was a well known name in Gujarati literature...

 stated that the Pratihara
Pratihara
The Gurjara Pratihara , often simply called Pratihara Empire, was an imperial Indian dynasty that ruled much of Northern India from the 6th to the 11th centuries. At its peak of prosperity and power , the Gurajara-Pratihara Empire rivaled or even exceeded the Gupta Empire in the extent of its...

s, the Paramara
Paramara
Paramara is a Maratha, Gurjar,& Rajput clan of India.The Paramara clan belongs to the Agnivansha of Rajputs ancient Kshatriyas...

s and the Solanki
Solanki
The Solanki was a royal Hindu Indian dynasty that ruled parts of western and central India between the 10th to 13th centuries. A number of scholars including V. A. Smith assign them Gurjar origin....

s were imperial Gujjars.

According a number of scholars Chauhan
Chauhan
Chauhan, Chouhan or Chohan , , - is a clan who ruled parts of northern India in the Middle Ages. The clan is most famous for Rajput King Maharaja Prithviraj Chauhan...

 was a prominent clan of Gurjars.

H. A. Rose and Denzil Ibbetson
Denzil Ibbetson
Sir Denzil Charles Jelf Ibbetson KCSI was an administrator in British India and an author. He served as governor of the Central Provinces and Berar from 1900 to 1902....

 stated that there is no conclusive proof that the Agnikula Rajput clans are of Gurjara origin; they believed that there is possibility of the indigenous tribes adopting Gurjara names, when their founders were enfiefed
Fiefdom
A fee was the central element of feudalism and consisted of heritable lands granted under one of several varieties of feudal tenure by an overlord to a vassal who held it in fealty in return for a form of feudal allegiance and service, usually given by the...

 by Gurjara rulers.
Some other historians believe that although some sections of the Pratiharas (e.g. the one to which Mathanadeva belonged) were Gurjars by caste, the Pratiharas of Kannauj
Kannauj
Kannauj , also spelt Kanauj, is a city, administrative headquarters and a municipal board or Nagar Palika Parishad in Kannauj district in the Indian state of Uttar Pradesh. The city's name is traditionally derived from the term Kanyakubja . Kannauj is an ancient city, in earlier times the capital...

 were not Gurjars and there was no Gurjara empire in Northern India in 8th and 9th century., though from the work of other historians it has been known that Kannauj
Kannauj
Kannauj , also spelt Kanauj, is a city, administrative headquarters and a municipal board or Nagar Palika Parishad in Kannauj district in the Indian state of Uttar Pradesh. The city's name is traditionally derived from the term Kanyakubja . Kannauj is an ancient city, in earlier times the capital...

 was capital of Gurjara-Pratihara.

Historian Sir Jervoise Athelstane Baines also stated Gurjars as forefathers of Sisodiyas, chauhan
Chauhan
Chauhan, Chouhan or Chohan , , - is a clan who ruled parts of northern India in the Middle Ages. The clan is most famous for Rajput King Maharaja Prithviraj Chauhan...

, Parmar, Parihar
Parihar
Parihar is a clan which is part of many communities including Rajputs, Gurjars and Jats. According to the Handbook on Rajputs by famous British historian A. H...

 and Chalukya
Chalukya dynasty
The Chalukya dynasty was an Indian royal dynasty that ruled large parts of southern and central India between the 6th and the 12th centuries. During this period, they ruled as three related yet individual dynasties. The earliest dynasty, known as the "Badami Chalukyas", ruled from Vatapi from the...

.

Chavdas, also known as Gurjar Chapas was also one of the ruling clans of Gurjars, who extended the power of the race in the south.
The pratiharas belonged to the same clan that of Gurjaras was proved by the "Rajor inscription".From the phrase "Gurjara Pratiharanvayah" inscribed in the "Rajor inscription".
It is known that the Pratiharas belonged to the Gurjara clan.The Rashtrakuta records and the Arabian chronicles also identify the Pariharas with Gurjaras.

Over the years, the Gurjars were assimilated mainly into the castes of Kshatriya
Kshatriya
*For the Bollywood film of the same name see Kshatriya Kshatriya or Kashtriya, meaning warrior, is one of the four varnas in Hinduism...

 varna, although some Gurjar groups (such as Gaur Gurjars of central India) are classified as Brahmin
Brahmin
Brahmin Brahman, Brahma and Brahmin.Brahman, Brahmin and Brahma have different meanings. Brahman refers to the Supreme Self...

s.During the Muslim rule
Muslim conquest in the Indian subcontinent
Muslim conquest in South Asia mainly took place from the 13th to the 16th centuries, though earlier Muslim conquests made limited inroads into the region, beginning during the period of the ascendancy of the Rajput Kingdoms in North India, from the 7th century onwards.However, the Himalayan...

, many of the Gurjars converted to Islam
Islam
Islam . The most common are and .   : Arabic pronunciation varies regionally. The first vowel ranges from ~~. The second vowel ranges from ~~~...

.
With the rise of Islam, Muslim Gujjars no longer adhered to their Kshatriya
Kshatriya
*For the Bollywood film of the same name see Kshatriya Kshatriya or Kashtriya, meaning warrior, is one of the four varnas in Hinduism...

 or Brahmin classification but retained clan names as a form of tribal recognition.Places such as Gujranwala
Gujranwala
Gujranwala is a industrial city in the north-east of the Punjab province. It is the sixth largest city in Pakistan with a population of approximately 2,661,360 as on 24 June 2011...

, Gujar Khan
Gujar Khan
Gujar Khan is a city in Rawalpindi District, Punjab, Pakistan. It is the headquarters of Gujar Khan Tehsil, the largest tehsil of Punjab. It is approximately 55 kilometres southeast of Islamabad, the capital of Pakistan and 220 km to the north west of Lahore, capital of Punjab...

, Gujar Kot, Gujrat
Gujrat
Gujrat is a city in Pakistan. It is the capital of Gujrat District and the Gujrat Tehsil subdivision in the Punjab Province. People living in Gujrat refer to themselves as Gujratis, which sometimes leads to confusion with people from the Indian state of Gujarat which adjoins Pakistan...

 in Pakistan
Pakistan
Pakistan , officially the Islamic Republic of Pakistan is a sovereign state in South Asia. It has a coastline along the Arabian Sea and the Gulf of Oman in the south and is bordered by Afghanistan and Iran in the west, India in the east and China in the far northeast. In the north, Tajikistan...

 and the state of Gujarat in India
India
India , officially the Republic of India , is a country in South Asia. It is the seventh-largest country by geographical area, the second-most populous country with over 1.2 billion people, and the most populous democracy in the world...

 are a testament to the Gurjar influence in the past.

Military dress and Equipment of early Medieval period Gurjars



The military code of Gurjaras are mentioned in the Kathakosaprakarana, Yasastilaka champu and the Tilakamanjari.Author S. R. Bakshi states that the description for Gurjar soldiers of Medieval period in the Yasastilaka champu is given as follows:

1. They had dhoti
Dhoti
The dhoti or pancha is the traditional men's garment in the in India, Bangladesh and Sri Lanka. A similar garment is worn in some rural areas of Punjab province in Pakistan, but the use is fast declining...

s coming up to knees.

2. Their loins were girt with daggers mounted on the handles of buffalo horns.

3. The close and dense growth of hair that covering their bodies constituted as it were as armour for their entire body.

4. They appeared to be three-headed on account of quivers on both the right and left sides of their heads.

5. They surpassed even Krpa
Kripa
Not to be confused with "Kripa" , a female given name.Kripa , also known as Kripacharya or Krupacharya is an important character in the Mahābhārata, one of the seven Chiranjivin .He was the son of Shardwan and Janapadi, born in a particularly extraordinary manner Not to be confused with "Kripa" , a...

, Krpadharma, Karna
Karna
Karna or Radheya is one of the central characters in the epic Mahābhārata, from ancient India. He was the King of Anga...

, Arjuna
Arjuna
Arjuna in Indian mythology is the greatest warrior on earth and is one of the Pandavas, the heroes of the Hindu epic Mahābhārata. Arjuna, whose name means 'bright', 'shining', 'white' or 'silver' Arjuna (Devanagari: अर्जुन, Thai: อรชุน, Orachun, Tamil: Arjunan, Indonesian and Javanese: Harjuna,...

, Drona
Drona
In the epic Mahābhārata, Drona or Dronacharya was the royal guru to Kauravas and Pandavas. He was a master of advanced military arts, including the Devastras. Arjuna was his favorite student. Dronas love for Arjuna was second only to his love for his son Ashwatthama...

, Drupada
Drupada
Drupada , also known as Yajnasena, is a character in the Mahābhārata. He is king of the land of Panchala.In his youth he studies with, and becomes a friend of Drona. Drupada makes him promise to share all his fortunes with him. Later, when Drupada becomes king of Panchaladesa, Drona reminds him...

, Bhaga and Bhargava
Parashurama
Parashurama , is the sixth avatar of Vishnu and belongs to the treta yuga, and is the son of a Brahmin father Jamadagni and mother Renuka. He is considered one of the seven immortal human. He received an axe after undertaking a terrible penance to please Shiva, from whom he learned the methods of...

 in shooting swiftly, vigorously and accurately even distand objects.

British rule


In the eighteenth century, several Gurjar chieftains and small kings were in power. During the reign of Rohilla
Rohilla
The Rohilla are a community of Hindi-speaking Pashtun also known as Pathan, historically found in the state of Uttar Pradesh, in North India. Most are now also found in Pakistan where they are now part of the Mohajir community. At one time, they form one of the largest Pashtun diaspora community...

 Nawab
Nawab
A Nawab or Nawaab is an honorific title given to Muslim rulers of princely states in South Asia. It is the Muslim equivalent of the term "maharaja" that was granted to Hindu rulers....

 Najib-ul-Daula
Najib-ul-Daula
Najib-ud-daula, also known as Najib Khan, was a noted Rohilla tribal chief in 18th century Rohilkhand, who in the 1740s founded the city of Najibabad in Bijnor district, India, and succeeded Safdar Jang as Nawab Wazir of the Mughal Empire...

, Dargahi Singh, the Gurjar chieftain of Dadri
Dadri
Dadri is a city and a municipal board in Gautam Buddha Nagar District in the state of Uttar Pradesh, India.-Geography:Dadri is located at . It has an average elevation of 216 metres .It has world largest power project.-Demographics:...

 possessed 133 villages at a fixed revenue of Rs. 29,000. A fort at Parlchhatgarh in Meerut District
Meerut District
Meerut district , is one of the districts of Uttar Pradesh state of India, and Meerut is the district headquarters. Meerut district is a part of Meerut division.-Demographics:...

, also known as Qila Parikishatgarh, is ascribed to a Gurjar Raja Nain Singh
Raja Nain Singh
Raja Nain Singh was a Gurjar king of Meerut in 18th century.According to a legend, the fort Parikshitgarh was built by Parikshit and restored by Nain Singh in the 18th century. The fort was dismantled in 1857, to be used as a police station....

. According to a legend, the fort was built by Parikshit and restored by Nain Singh in the eighteenth century. The fort was dismantled in 1857, to be used as a police station.

The Imperial Gazetteer of India
The Imperial Gazetteer of India
The Imperial Gazetteer of India was a gazetteer of the British Indian Empire, and is now a historical reference work. It was first published in 1881...

 states that throughout the Indian Rebellion of 1857
Indian Rebellion of 1857
The Indian Rebellion of 1857 began as a mutiny of sepoys of the British East India Company's army on 10 May 1857, in the town of Meerut, and soon escalated into other mutinies and civilian rebellions largely in the upper Gangetic plain and central India, with the major hostilities confined to...

, the Gujars and Musalman (Muslim) Rajputs proved the "most irreconcilable enemies" of the British in the Bulandshahr area. A band of rebellious Gurjars ransacked Bulandshahr after a revolt by the 9th Native Infantry on May 21, 1857. The British officers initially left for Meerut but later sent a small force to retake the town. The British forces were able to retake the town with the help of Dehra
Dehradun
- Geography :The Dehradun district has various types of physical geography from Himalayan mountains to Plains. Raiwala is the lowest point at 315 meters above sea level, and the highest points are within the Tiuni hills, rising to 3700 m above sea level...

 Gurkha
Gurkha
Gurkha are people from Nepal who take their name from the Gorkha District. Gurkhas are best known for their history in the Indian Army's Gorkha regiments, the British Army's Brigade of Gurkhas and the Nepalese Army. Gurkha units are closely associated with the kukri, a forward-curving Nepalese knife...

s, but the Gujars rose again after the Gurkhas marched off to assist General Wilson's column
Column (formation)
A military column is a formation of soldiers marching together in one or more files in which the file is significantly longer than the width of ranks in the formation...

 in another area. Under the leadership of Walidad Khan of Malagarh, the British garrison was driven out the district. Walidad Khan held Bulandshahr from July to September, until he was expelled after an engagement with Colonel Greathed's flying column
Flying column
A flying column is a small, independent, military land unit capable of rapid mobility and usually composed of all arms. It is often an ad hoc unit, formed during the course of operations....

. On October 4, the Bulandshahr District was regularly occupied by the British Colonel Farquhar and measures of repression were adopted against the armed Gujars.

During the revolt of 1857, the Muslim Gujars in the villages of the Ludhiana District
Ludhiana District
-Rainfall:The rainfall in the district increases from the southwest toward the northeast. About 70% of the rainfall is received during the period of July through September...

 showed dissent to the British authorities. The British interests in Gangoh
Gangoh
Gangoh is a town and a municipal board in Saharanpur district in the state of Uttar Pradesh, India.-Geography:Gangoh is located at . It has an average elevation of 292 metres .-Demographics:...

 city of Saharanpur District
Saharanpur District
Saharanpur district is the northernmost of the districts of Uttar Pradesh state, India. Bordering the states of Haryana and Uttarakhand, and close to the foothills of Shivalik range, it lies in the northern part of the Doab region...

 were threatened by the rebel Gujars under the self-styled Raja Fathua. These Gujars rebels were defeated by the British forces under H. D. Robertson and Lieutenant Boisragon, in June 1857. The Gujars of Chundrowli rose against the British, under the leadership of Damar Ram. The Gujars of Shunkuri village, numbering around three thousand, joined the rebel sepoy
Sepoy
A sepoy was formerly the designation given to an Indian soldier in the service of a European power. In the modern Indian Army, Pakistan Army and Bangladesh Army it remains in use for the rank of private soldier.-Etymology and Historical usage:...

s. According to British records, the Gurjars plundered gunpowder and ammunition from the British and their allies. In Delhi
Delhi
Delhi , officially National Capital Territory of Delhi , is the largest metropolis by area and the second-largest by population in India, next to Mumbai. It is the eighth largest metropolis in the world by population with 16,753,265 inhabitants in the Territory at the 2011 Census...

, the Metcalfe
Sir Thomas Theophilus Metcalfe, 4th Baronet
Sir Thomas Theophilus Metcalfe, 4th Baronet was an East India Company servant and agent of Governor General of India at the imperial court of the Mughal Emperor Bahadur Shah II. He was invested with the Order of the Bath....

 House
was sacked by the Gurjar villagers from whom the land was taken to erect the building. The British records claim that the Gujars carried out several robberies. Twenty Gujars were reported to have been beheaded by Rao Tula Ram
Rao Tula Ram
Rao Tula Ram was one of the key leaders of the Indian rebellion of 1857, in Haryana, where he is considered a state hero....

 for committing dacoities in July 1857. In September 1857, the British were able to enliist the support of many Gujars at Meerut.The colonial authors always used the code word "turbulent" for the castes who were generally hostile to Brritish rule.They cited proverbs that appear to evaluate the caste in an unfavorable light.British author Crook described that Gurjars seriously impeded the operations of the British army before Delhi. Reporter Meena Radhakrishna believe that the British classified the Gurjars along with others as "criminal tribes" because of their active participation in the revolt of 1857, and also because, they considered these tribes to be prone to criminality in the absence of legitimate means of livelihood . The Imperial Gazetteer of India
The Imperial Gazetteer of India
The Imperial Gazetteer of India was a gazetteer of the British Indian Empire, and is now a historical reference work. It was first published in 1881...

 stated that the Gujars were impoverished due to their "lawlessness in the Mutiny
Indian Rebellion of 1857
The Indian Rebellion of 1857 began as a mutiny of sepoys of the British East India Company's army on 10 May 1857, in the town of Meerut, and soon escalated into other mutinies and civilian rebellions largely in the upper Gangetic plain and central India, with the major hostilities confined to...

". . During the World War II
World War II
World War II, or the Second World War , was a global conflict lasting from 1939 to 1945, involving most of the world's nations—including all of the great powers—eventually forming two opposing military alliances: the Allies and the Axis...

, several Gurjars served in the British Indian army. Kamal Ram
Kamal Ram
Sepoy Kamal Ram VC was an Indian recipient of the Victoria Cross, the highest and most prestigious award for gallantry in the face of the enemy that can be awarded to British and Commonwealth forces.-Details:...

, a Gurjar sepoy
Sepoy
A sepoy was formerly the designation given to an Indian soldier in the service of a European power. In the modern Indian Army, Pakistan Army and Bangladesh Army it remains in use for the rank of private soldier.-Etymology and Historical usage:...

, was awarded the Victoria Cross
Victoria Cross
The Victoria Cross is the highest military decoration awarded for valour "in the face of the enemy" to members of the armed forces of various Commonwealth countries, and previous British Empire territories....

 for gallantry.

Demographics



Gurjars are mainly concentrated in the Indo-Gangetic plains, the Himalayan region, and eastern parts of Afghanistan
Afghanistan
Afghanistan , officially the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan, is a landlocked country located in the centre of Asia, forming South Asia, Central Asia and the Middle East. With a population of about 29 million, it has an area of , making it the 42nd most populous and 41st largest nation in the world...

, although the Gurjar diaspora is found in other places as well. A majority of Gurjars follow Hinduism
Hinduism
Hinduism is the predominant and indigenous religious tradition of the Indian Subcontinent. Hinduism is known to its followers as , amongst many other expressions...

 and Islam
Islam
Islam . The most common are and .   : Arabic pronunciation varies regionally. The first vowel ranges from ~~. The second vowel ranges from ~~~...

, though small Gurjar communities following other religions exist.

India


In India, Gurjar populations are found mainly in Rajasthan
Rajasthan
Rājasthān the land of Rajasthanis, , is the largest state of the Republic of India by area. It is located in the northwest of India. It encompasses most of the area of the large, inhospitable Great Indian Desert , which has an edge paralleling the Sutlej-Indus river valley along its border with...

, Gujarat, Delhi
Delhi
Delhi , officially National Capital Territory of Delhi , is the largest metropolis by area and the second-largest by population in India, next to Mumbai. It is the eighth largest metropolis in the world by population with 16,753,265 inhabitants in the Territory at the 2011 Census...

, Haryana
Haryana
Haryana is a state in India. Historically, it has been a part of the Kuru region in North India. The name Haryana is found mentioned in the 12th century AD by the apabhramsha writer Vibudh Shridhar . It is bordered by Punjab and Himachal Pradesh to the north, and by Rajasthan to the west and south...

, Punjab
Punjab (India)
Punjab ) is a state in the northwest of the Republic of India, forming part of the larger Punjab region. The state is bordered by the Indian states of Himachal Pradesh to the east, Haryana to the south and southeast and Rajasthan to the southwest as well as the Pakistani province of Punjab to the...

, western Uttar Pradesh
Uttar Pradesh
Uttar Pradesh abbreviation U.P. , is a state located in the northern part of India. With a population of over 200 million people, it is India's most populous state, as well as the world's most populous sub-national entity...

, Uttarakhand
Uttarakhand
Uttarakhand , formerly Uttaranchal, is a state in the northern part of India. It is often referred to as the Land of Gods due to the many holy Hindu temples and cities found throughout the state, some of which are among Hinduism's most spiritual and auspicious places of pilgrimage and worship...

, northern Madhya Pradesh
Madhya Pradesh
Madhya Pradesh , often called the Heart of India, is a state in central India. Its capital is Bhopal and Indore is the largest city....

, Himachal Pradesh
Himachal Pradesh
Himachal Pradesh is a state in Northern India. It is spread over , and is bordered by the Indian states of Jammu and Kashmir on the north, Punjab on the west and south-west, Haryana and Uttar Pradesh on the south, Uttarakhand on the south-east and by the Tibet Autonomous Region on the east...

 and Maharashtra
Maharashtra
Maharashtra is a state located in India. It is the second most populous after Uttar Pradesh and third largest state by area in India...

. The semi-nomadic Muslim Gujjar groups are found in the states of Jammu and Kashmir
Jammu and Kashmir
Jammu and Kashmir is the northernmost state of India. It is situated mostly in the Himalayan mountains. Jammu and Kashmir shares a border with the states of Himachal Pradesh and Punjab to the south and internationally with the People's Republic of China to the north and east and the...

, Himachal Pradesh
Himachal Pradesh
Himachal Pradesh is a state in Northern India. It is spread over , and is bordered by the Indian states of Jammu and Kashmir on the north, Punjab on the west and south-west, Haryana and Uttar Pradesh on the south, Uttarakhand on the south-east and by the Tibet Autonomous Region on the east...

, and north-western Uttar Pradesh
Uttar Pradesh
Uttar Pradesh abbreviation U.P. , is a state located in the northern part of India. With a population of over 200 million people, it is India's most populous state, as well as the world's most populous sub-national entity...

. The name for the state of Gujarat  has derived from "Gurjar".

Gujari (or Gojri), classified under Rajasthani
Rajasthani language
Rajasthani Rajasthani Rajasthani (Devanagari: , Perso-Arabic: is a language of the Indo-Aryan languages family. It is spoken by 50 million people in Rajasthan and other states of India and in some areas of Pakistan. The number of speakers may be up to 80 million worldwide...

, has traditionally been the primary language of the Gurjaras. But, Gurjars living in different areas speak several other languages including Hindi
Hindi
Standard Hindi, or more precisely Modern Standard Hindi, also known as Manak Hindi , High Hindi, Nagari Hindi, and Literary Hindi, is a standardized and sanskritized register of the Hindustani language derived from the Khariboli dialect of Delhi...

, Rajasthani
Rajasthani language
Rajasthani Rajasthani Rajasthani (Devanagari: , Perso-Arabic: is a language of the Indo-Aryan languages family. It is spoken by 50 million people in Rajasthan and other states of India and in some areas of Pakistan. The number of speakers may be up to 80 million worldwide...

 etc.

Gurjars in North India are now considered as a vote bank by some political parties. Rajesh Pilot
Rajesh Pilot
Rajesh Pilot was an Indian politician and a minister in the Government of India. He belonged to the Indian National Congress party and represented the Dausa constituency in Lok Sabha....

 was a major Gurjar leader in North India.The Gurjars of Rajasthan
Rajasthan
Rājasthān the land of Rajasthanis, , is the largest state of the Republic of India by area. It is located in the northwest of India. It encompasses most of the area of the large, inhospitable Great Indian Desert , which has an edge paralleling the Sutlej-Indus river valley along its border with...

, Haryana
Haryana
Haryana is a state in India. Historically, it has been a part of the Kuru region in North India. The name Haryana is found mentioned in the 12th century AD by the apabhramsha writer Vibudh Shridhar . It is bordered by Punjab and Himachal Pradesh to the north, and by Rajasthan to the west and south...

, Madhya Pradesh
Madhya Pradesh
Madhya Pradesh , often called the Heart of India, is a state in central India. Its capital is Bhopal and Indore is the largest city....

 & Uttar Pradesh
Uttar Pradesh
Uttar Pradesh abbreviation U.P. , is a state located in the northern part of India. With a population of over 200 million people, it is India's most populous state, as well as the world's most populous sub-national entity...

 are classified as Other Backward Class.The Nomadic Muslim Gujjars of Himachal Pradesh
Himachal Pradesh
Himachal Pradesh is a state in Northern India. It is spread over , and is bordered by the Indian states of Jammu and Kashmir on the north, Punjab on the west and south-west, Haryana and Uttar Pradesh on the south, Uttarakhand on the south-east and by the Tibet Autonomous Region on the east...

 and Jammu & Kashmir were classified as a Scheduled Tribe.

Delhi


There are near about 70 Gurjar dominated villages in Delhi, most of them concentrated in South and East Delhi. The main Gurjar gotra
Gotra
In the Hindu society, the term Gotra broadly refers to people who are descendants in an unbroken male line from a common male ancestor. Panini defines gotra for grammatical purposes as apatyam pautraprabhrti gotram , which means "the word gotra denotes the progeny beginning with the son's son"...

s in Delhi are:
  • Lohmod
    Lohmod
    Lohmod is one of the many clans of the Gurjars.They are branch of Gurjar panwars.They had been one of the ruling clans of the Gurjars.They are also known as Lohia.-Etymology:...

    : (about 3 - 4 village in South delhi i.e. Aayanagar, Ghitorni & Nathupur)
  • Dedha
    Dedhar
    Dedhar or Dedha is one of the ruling clans of the Gurjars.According to the Gurjar Bhaats , Dedhars were branch of the Gurjar Pratihars...

    : (about 24 villages in East Delhi)
  • Baisoya
    Baisoya
    The Baisoya are a Gujar clan in India. Alwar, Rajasthan was under the rule of Gurjar king Karna Singh in 972 CE.- Etymology :Baisoya is a Sanskrit word, a portmanteau of bai and soya...

     :(6 villages mainly in the central zone—Pilanji, Aliganj, Khairpur, Joodbagh, Purani Pilanji, Garhi-Jhariya Marhiya)
  • Chaprana: 1 village Julaina which was established by Haryana's village Mewla's Gurjars since 150 years ago
  • Basista/Bosatta: 2 villages in Delhi - Sarai Kale Khan
    Sarai Kale Khan
    Sarai Kale Khan is a historic locality and a Gujjar village of Basista / Bosatta Gotra , migrated from Khanpur village situated in South Delhi in 16th - 17th Century . During past, it was known as Moocho waali Sarai because every male have had long moustaches, which was a symbol of manliness...

     and Khanpur
  • Tanwar/Tomar: 7 villages in Delhi namely Chandan Hola, Asola, Fathpur Beri, Mandi, Dera, Choti Bhati and Bhati Mines or Baas
  • Bidhuri: 5-6 villages in Delhi such as Tughlaqabad, Madanpur Khadar and Jasola.
  • Khari: 5-6 villages in Delhi such as Sultanpur, Rampura, Chandrawal and Wazirpur
  • Rankne: 2 villages in Dellhi Aali and badarpur.
  • Bainsla: Kotla Mubarak Pur one village in Delhi.
  • Naagar: Hasanpur Nagla in East Delhi.
  • Daak: 1 village tamur nagar.
  • Maavi
    Mavi (Gurjar clan)
    Mavi is a clan or Gotra among Gurjars.Mawana is named after Mavi clan of Gurjars.Mavi means the Respective and Strong gautra in Gurjars....

    : 1 village Tekhand
  • Koli: 1 village Zamrudpur

Haryana


Haryana
Haryana
Haryana is a state in India. Historically, it has been a part of the Kuru region in North India. The name Haryana is found mentioned in the 12th century AD by the apabhramsha writer Vibudh Shridhar . It is bordered by Punjab and Himachal Pradesh to the north, and by Rajasthan to the west and south...

 has a big population of Gurjars, most of whom are engaged in farming. The main gotra
Gotra
In the Hindu society, the term Gotra broadly refers to people who are descendants in an unbroken male line from a common male ancestor. Panini defines gotra for grammatical purposes as apatyam pautraprabhrti gotram , which means "the word gotra denotes the progeny beginning with the son's son"...

s of Gurjars of Haryana
Haryana
Haryana is a state in India. Historically, it has been a part of the Kuru region in North India. The name Haryana is found mentioned in the 12th century AD by the apabhramsha writer Vibudh Shridhar . It is bordered by Punjab and Himachal Pradesh to the north, and by Rajasthan to the west and south...

 are: Ambavata(1 village in Gurgaon Ullawass and 2nd is Jonapur in Delhi), Chaprana (1 Village Mevla-Maharajpur), Basista/Bosatta (2 villages- Siha & Khatela), Bhadana (14 villages), Tanwar ( villages- Karna, Rampur), Kasana, Mavi (10 Village), Nagar (84 villages), Khatana
Khatana
Khatana is a Gotra among the Gurjars. It was one of the ruling clans of the Gurjars.-History:According to Bhats of Gurjars, the area beyond Kabul in earlier period was called as Khattan in India. The Gurjar kings serving as fuedatories of Gurjar Empire there were called the Rana of Khattan and...

 (village Rithauz and 11 more), Dhakar (7 Village), Baisla
Baisla
Baisla is one of the many clans of the Gurjars.They are also known as Bainsle, Baisla, Besle, Bansla, Bainsla and Baisle.-Etymology:During 8th century, there was one ruler under Gurjar Pratihars named Vishal Dev Chauhan from Ajmer...

 (26 village), Phagna (1 Village) and Poswal (3 village), Chhokar (24 village in samalkha,Panipat and 12 village in saharanpur UP) Rawal (27 village, samalkha panipat),Panwar(84 villages in saharanpur, UP),Devdhar,Rawat in yamunanagar,ambala disst., Chandila (5 villages)n chechi
Chechi
Chechi or Chechhi is a gotra among the Gurjars. According to Ajmer patels they are Lor Gurjars . The Chechis are spread all over the world specially Central Asia. Some Chechis live in Northern California.According to Rajputana Gazetteer Pushkar was held by Chechis until about 700 years ago....

(25 villages), Chauhan
Chauhan
Chauhan, Chouhan or Chohan , , - is a clan who ruled parts of northern India in the Middle Ages. The clan is most famous for Rajput King Maharaja Prithviraj Chauhan...

s (near Hissar).

The Gurjar community in Haryana has set elaborate guidelines for solemnizing marriages and holding other functions. They also highly concentrated in Yamunanagar, Ambala, Krukshetra, Karnal, Panipat, Gurgaon, Kaithal, Hissar, and in many other cities. In a mahapanchayat ("the great panchayat"), the Gurjar community decided that those who sought dowry would be excommunicated from the society. Dasrath Bhadana, a Commando is now an officer in Indian Navy from Village Mandori near Mandkola awarded Saurya Chakra in Kashmir Valley.

Rajasthan


There is close connection between Pushkar
Pushkar
Pushkar is a town in the Ajmer district in the state of Rajasthan, India. It is situated at 14 km North West from Ajmer at an average elevation of 510 metres , and is one of the five sacred dhams...

 and Gurjar community.Pushkar
Pushkar
Pushkar is a town in the Ajmer district in the state of Rajasthan, India. It is situated at 14 km North West from Ajmer at an average elevation of 510 metres , and is one of the five sacred dhams...

 is considered one of the holiest place to visit.According to Rajputana Gazetteer Pushkar
Pushkar
Pushkar is a town in the Ajmer district in the state of Rajasthan, India. It is situated at 14 km North West from Ajmer at an average elevation of 510 metres , and is one of the five sacred dhams...

 was held by Chechi
Chechi
Chechi or Chechhi is a gotra among the Gurjars. According to Ajmer patels they are Lor Gurjars . The Chechis are spread all over the world specially Central Asia. Some Chechis live in Northern California.According to Rajputana Gazetteer Pushkar was held by Chechis until about 700 years ago....

 Gurjars till about 700 years ago. According to a legend consort of Brahma, Goddess Gayatri
Gayatri
Gayatri is the feminine form of , a Sanskrit word for a song or a hymn. Gayatri is a consort of Brahma and the goddess of learning. Brahma married her when there was a need for a companion during a yajna. Brahma had to start the yajna along with his wife...

, belonged to Chechi
Chechi
Chechi or Chechhi is a gotra among the Gurjars. According to Ajmer patels they are Lor Gurjars . The Chechis are spread all over the world specially Central Asia. Some Chechis live in Northern California.According to Rajputana Gazetteer Pushkar was held by Chechis until about 700 years ago....

 clan of the Gurjars. There are still priests from Gurjar community in Pushkar
Pushkar
Pushkar is a town in the Ajmer district in the state of Rajasthan, India. It is situated at 14 km North West from Ajmer at an average elevation of 510 metres , and is one of the five sacred dhams...

 temple known as Bhopas.

Songs pertaining to lord Krishna and Gurjars are well famous in Gurjar inhibited areas as Nand Mihir, the foster father of Lord Krishna
Krishna
Krishna is a central figure of Hinduism and is traditionally attributed the authorship of the Bhagavad Gita. He is the supreme Being and considered in some monotheistic traditions as an Avatar of Vishnu...

, is said to belong to the Gurjars. and Radha
Radha
Radha , also called Radhika, Radharani and Radhikarani, is the childhood friend and lover of Krishna in the Bhagavata Purana, and the Gita Govinda of the Vaisnava traditions of Hinduism...

, the consort of Lord Krishna was also a Gurjari, belonging to village Barsana
Barsana
Barsana or Varsana is a town and a nagar panchayat in the Mathura district of the state of Uttar Pradesh, India.-History:...

, near Mathura.

The Rajasthani Gurjars worship the Sun God, God Devnarayan
Devnarayan
Shri Devnarayan , an ancient Gurjar warrior from Rajasthan who is believed to have been an incarnation of Lord Vishnu, is worshipped as a folk deity, mostly in Rajasthan and north-western Madhya Pradesh.According to tradition, he was born to Sri Savai Bhoj and Sadu mata Gurjari on the seventh day...

, Lord Vishnu
Vishnu
Vishnu is the Supreme god in the Vaishnavite tradition of Hinduism. Smarta followers of Adi Shankara, among others, venerate Vishnu as one of the five primary forms of God....

, Lord Shiva
Shiva
Shiva is a major Hindu deity, and is the destroyer god or transformer among the Trimurti, the Hindu Trinity of the primary aspects of the divine. God Shiva is a yogi who has notice of everything that happens in the world and is the main aspect of life. Yet one with great power lives a life of a...

 and Goddess Bhavani
Durga
For the 1985 Hindi Film of Rajesh Khanna see DurgaaIn Hinduism, Durga ; ; meaning "the inaccessible" or "the invincible"; , durga) or Maa Durga "one who can redeem in situations of utmost distress" is a form of Devi, the supremely radiant goddess, depicted as having eighteen arms, riding a lion...

. Major focus is given to worship lord Devnarayan
Devnarayan
Shri Devnarayan , an ancient Gurjar warrior from Rajasthan who is believed to have been an incarnation of Lord Vishnu, is worshipped as a folk deity, mostly in Rajasthan and north-western Madhya Pradesh.According to tradition, he was born to Sri Savai Bhoj and Sadu mata Gurjari on the seventh day...

 as incarnation of lord Vishnu.

The Gurjars form two divisions here.They are Laur Gurjars, who claim to be descendant from Lava
Lava (Ramayana)
Lava or Luv and his twin brother Kusha, were the children of the Lord Rama and his wife Sita, whose story is recounted in the Ramayana. Per that text, he is known as the founder of Lavapuri,that is, the modern day city of Lahore,...

, son of lord Ramchandra
Rama
Rama or full name Ramachandra is considered to be the seventh avatar of Vishnu in Hinduism, and a king of Ayodhya in ancient Indian...

 and Khari Gurjars, who claim to be descendant from Kush
Kusha (Ramayana)
Kusha , in Hindu mythology, was one of the twin sons of Lord Rama and Sita . Born in the Forest after Sita had been banished from Ayodhya, they were educated and trained in military skills and were under the care of Sage Valmiki....

, other son of lord Ramchandra
Rama
Rama or full name Ramachandra is considered to be the seventh avatar of Vishnu in Hinduism, and a king of Ayodhya in ancient Indian...

.Lor Gurjars usually don't intermarry with Khari Gurjars, though both enjoy same social status.

Gurjars form one of the major communities in Rajashtan, and are seen as a vote bank by political parties. The Gurjars of Rajasthan are predominantly rural, pastoral and agriculturist community. They keep cows, buffalo, goats and sheep for milk products.The Gujars lead a technologically simple life in close harmony with its natural environment.
In Rajasthan
Rajasthan
Rājasthān the land of Rajasthanis, , is the largest state of the Republic of India by area. It is located in the northwest of India. It encompasses most of the area of the large, inhospitable Great Indian Desert , which has an edge paralleling the Sutlej-Indus river valley along its border with...

, some members of the Gurjar community resorted to violent protests over the issue of reservation
Reservation in India
Reservation in India is a form of affirmative action designed to improve the well being of socially backward and underrepresented communities of citizens in India. There are laws in place, wherein a certain percentage of total available slots in Jobs and Education are set aside for people from...

 in 2006 and 2007. The more powerful and more influential Jat community
Jat people
The Jat people are a community of traditionally non-elite tillers and herders in Northern India and Pakistan. Originally pastoralists in the lower Indus river-valley of Sindh, Jats migrated north into the Punjab region in late medieval times, and subsequently into the Delhi Territory,...

 had been included under the Other Backward Classes (OBC) category, which prompted the Gurjars to demand Scheduled Tribe (ST) status. During the 2003 election to the Rajasthan
Rajasthan
Rājasthān the land of Rajasthanis, , is the largest state of the Republic of India by area. It is located in the northwest of India. It encompasses most of the area of the large, inhospitable Great Indian Desert , which has an edge paralleling the Sutlej-Indus river valley along its border with...

 assembly, the Bharatiya Janata Party
Bharatiya Janata Party
The Bharatiya Janata Party ,; translation: Indian People's Party) is one of the two major political parties in India, the other being the Indian National Congress. Established in 1980, it is India's second largest political party in terms of representation in the parliament...

 (BJP) promised them ST status. However, the party failed to keep its promise after coming to the power, resulting in protests by the Gurjars in September 2006.

In May 2007, during violent protests over the reservation issue, the members of the Gurjar community clashed with the police twenty six people (including two policemen). Subsequently, the Gurjars protested violently, under various groups including the Gurjar Sangarsh Samiti, Gurjar Mahasabha and the Gurjar Action Committee The protestors blocked roads and set fire to two police stations and some vehicles. Presently, the Gurjars in Rajasthan are classified as Other Backward Classes (OBCs).

On June 5, 2007 the Gurjar rioted over their desire to be added to the governments of India list of tribes who are given preference in India government job selection as well as placement in the schools sponsored by the states of India. This preference is given under a system designed to help India's poor and disadvantaged citizens. However, other tribes on the list oppose this request as it would make it harder to obtain the few positions already set aside.

In December 2007, the Akhil Bhartiya Gurjar Mahasabha ("All-India Gurjar Council") stated that the community would boycott BJP, which is in power in Rajasthan. But now in 2009 all Gurjars were supporting BJP so that they can be politically benefitted.Kirori Singh Bainsla
Kirori Singh Bainsla
Kirori Singh Bainsla is a retired Lieutenant Colonel of the Indian Army and was the leader of an Indian caste protest movement that was demanding reservation in government jobs for the Gurjar community in Rajasthan, India. Protest marches organized by the movement have at times led to violent...

 fought and lost at BJP ticket.
In early 2000s, the Gurjar community in Rajasthan was also in news for the falling sex ratio
Sex ratio
Sex ratio is the ratio of males to females in a population. The primary sex ratio is the ratio at the time of conception, secondary sex ratio is the ratio at time of birth, and tertiary sex ratio is the ratio of mature organisms....

, unavailability of brides and the resulting polyandry
Polyandry
Polyandry refers to a form of marriage in which a woman has two or more husbands at the same time. The form of polyandry in which a woman is married to two or more brothers is known as "fraternal polyandry", and it is believed by many anthropologists to be the most frequently encountered...

.

In Rajasthan
Rajasthan
Rājasthān the land of Rajasthanis, , is the largest state of the Republic of India by area. It is located in the northwest of India. It encompasses most of the area of the large, inhospitable Great Indian Desert , which has an edge paralleling the Sutlej-Indus river valley along its border with...

, a guest, even if he is total stranger, is treated with great courtesy and looked after with much warmth which is specially characteristic of rural people.

Uttar Pradesh



In Uttar Pradesh
Uttar Pradesh
Uttar Pradesh abbreviation U.P. , is a state located in the northern part of India. With a population of over 200 million people, it is India's most populous state, as well as the world's most populous sub-national entity...

, the Gurjar populations are found mainly in the western U.P. region. This includes Saharanpur
Saharanpur
Saharanpur is a city and a Municipal Corporation in the state of Uttar Pradesh in northern India. It is the administrative headquarters of Saharanpur District as well as Saharanpur Division...

, Muzaffarnagar
Muzaffarnagar
Muzaffarnagar is a major city and a municipal board in the Indian state of Uttar Pradesh. The city was established in Mughal period by a Sayyid Jagirdar, Munawar Lashkar Ali, and so named in honour of his father, Muzaffar Ali Khan. It is the headquarters of the Muzaffarnagar district. It is a...

, Meerut, Bijnor
Bijnor
Bijnor variously spelt as Bijnaur and Bijnour, is a city and a municipal board in Bijnor district in the state of Uttar Pradesh, India...

, Moradabad
Moradabad
Moradabad is a city and a municipal corporation in Moradabad district in the Indian state of Uttar Pradesh. It was established in 1600 by prince Murad, the son of the Mughal Emperor Shah Jahan; as a result the city came to be known as Moradabad. It is the administrative headquarters of...

, Ghaziabad, Noida
Noida
Noida , short for the New Okhla Industrial Development Area, is an area in India under the management of the New Okhla Industrial Development Authority . Noida came into administrative existence on 17 April 1976 and celebrates 17 April as "Noida Day". It was set up as part of an urbanization...

, Bulandshahar
Bulandshahar
Bulandshahr is a city and a municipal board in Bulandshahr district in the state of Uttar Pradesh, India. It is the administrative headquarters of Bulandshahr District...

, Pilibhit
Pilibhit
Pilibhit |Hafizabad]]) is a city and a municipal board in the Pilibhit district in the Indian state of Uttar Pradesh. Pilibhit is the north-eastern most district of Bareilly division, situated in the Rohilkhand region of the sub-Himalayan Plateau belt on the boundary of Nepal, known for the origin...

 and Bareilly
Bareilly
Bareilly is a prominent city in Bareilly district in the northern Indian state of Uttar Pradesh. Standing on the Ramganga river, it is the capital of the Bareilly division and the geographical region Rohilkhand...

. In Noida to a lesser extent, they are also found in Rampur
Rampur, Uttar Pradesh
Rampur is a city and a municipality located in Rampur District in the Indian state of Uttar Pradesh. Rampur district is located at Longitude 78-0-54 to 69-0-28 East and Latitude 28-25 to 29-10 North and spans an area of 2,367 km².It also gave its name to a former princely state of British...

, Agra
Agra
Agra a.k.a. Akbarabad is a city on the banks of the river Yamuna in the northern state of Uttar Pradesh, India, west of state capital, Lucknow and south from national capital New Delhi. With a population of 1,686,976 , it is one of the most populous cities in Uttar Pradesh and the 19th most...

 and Bundelkhand
Bundelkhand
Bundelkhand anciently known as Chedi Kingdom is a geographic region of central India...

 (Baghpat).

Generally, the Gurjars in Western U.P. and N.C.R.
National Capital Region (India)
The National Capital Region in India is a name for the conurbation or metropolitan area which encompasses the entire National Capital Territory of Delhi as well as urban areas ringing it in neighbouring states of Haryana, Uttarakhand, Uttar Pradesh and Rajasthan...

 are well-off; their economy depends on agriculture, milk trade and production, and to a minor extent, real estate. Recently, the current generation boys & girls have started doing well in the field of education as well. Villages like Bhagout, Bhaidapur, Shaklpura, Dagarpur & Jawli have started progressing mainly because they are granting good education to their children.

Madhya Pradesh


According to the British records, the Gurjar population in Central India was around 56,000 in 1911. Most of these Gurjars were concentrated in the Nimar
Nimar
Nimar is the southwestern region of Madhya Pradesh state in west-central India.The region lies south of the Vindhya Range, and consists of two portions of the Narmada and Tapti river valleys, separated by a section of the Satpura Range, about 15 miles in breadth...

 and Hoshangabad
Hoshangabad
Hoshangabad is a city and a municipality in Hoshangabad district in the Indian state of Madhya Pradesh. It is a city in the central india region, located on the south bank of the Narmada River, and is the administrative center of Hoshangabad District.-History:mohammed bharmal & abdeali batawalaThe...

 regions of the Narmada vallery. Most of these were migrants from the Gwalior region, Bhind Dist. in Gurjar Villages Kanathar, Kairora, Kaimokhari, Dandaraoa (famous Hanuman Temple), Katarol, Etayada, Bagarai, Habipura, Kadhuma, Karaua, like samething 50-60 villages in Bhind dist. in Madhya Pradesh
Madhya Pradesh
Madhya Pradesh , often called the Heart of India, is a state in central India. Its capital is Bhopal and Indore is the largest city....

. While some of the Gurjars in Nimar area were immigrants from Gujarat. Presently, the Gurjars in Madhya Pradesh
Madhya Pradesh
Madhya Pradesh , often called the Heart of India, is a state in central India. Its capital is Bhopal and Indore is the largest city....

 are classified as Other Backward Classes (OBCs).

Gujarat and Maharashtra


A few scholars believe that the Leva
Leva Patil
The Leva Patil is a community found in India.- Leva :Leva Patel/Kambi/ Patils claim Suryavanshi origin from Lava , the son of Rama in the Hindu epic Ramayana....

 Kunbi
Kunbi
Kunbi is a generic term applied to castes of traditionally non-elite tillers in Western India. These include the Dhonoje, Ghatole, Hindre, Jadav, Jhare, Khaire, Lewa , Lonari and Tirole communities of Vidharbha. The communities are largely found in the state of Maharashtra but also exist in the...

s (or Kambis) of Gujarat, a section of the Patidar
Patidar
The Patidar are a Hindu ethnic group found primarily in the state of Gujarat and Madhya Pradesh in India.Patidars are also known as Patel, a common surname with in the community.D. F...

s, are possibly of Gurjar origin. However, several others state that the Patidars are Kurmi
Kurmi
The Kurmi are a Hindu agricultural Jāti in India.The group has been associated with the Kunbi, though scholars differ as to whether the terms are synonymous. In 2006, the Indian government announced that Kurmi was considered synonymous with the Kunbi and Yellam castes in Maharashtra...

s or Kunbi
Kunbi
Kunbi is a generic term applied to castes of traditionally non-elite tillers in Western India. These include the Dhonoje, Ghatole, Hindre, Jadav, Jhare, Khaire, Lewa , Lonari and Tirole communities of Vidharbha. The communities are largely found in the state of Maharashtra but also exist in the...

s (Kanbis); the National Commission for Backward Classes of India lists Leva Patidars (or Lewa Petidars) as a sub-caste of Kunbis/Kurmis. Dode Gujars and Dore Gujars are listed as separate caste in Maharastra and Gurjars are included in OBC list in Gujarat but Patidars are not. Most of Patidar associations clearly mention in their history that they are the
part of Kurmi
Kurmi
The Kurmi are a Hindu agricultural Jāti in India.The group has been associated with the Kunbi, though scholars differ as to whether the terms are synonymous. In 2006, the Indian government announced that Kurmi was considered synonymous with the Kunbi and Yellam castes in Maharashtra...

 Samaj.

Among Maratha
Maratha
The Maratha are an Indian caste, predominantly in the state of Maharashtra. The term Marāthā has three related usages: within the Marathi speaking region it describes the dominant Maratha caste; outside Maharashtra it can refer to the entire regional population of Marathi-speaking people;...

s, one of the major clans is called "Bargujar". Prataprao Gujar
Prataprao Gujar
Prataprao gujar, born Kudtoji gujar, was the third royal Sarnaubat of Shivaji's army, which was probably the most successful guerilla force in 17th century India...

 was the third royal Sarnaubat (Commander-in-chief) of Maratha ruler Shivaji's army. Sidhoji Bargujar was a notable admiral in Shivaji's navy. The Khandesh
Khandesh
Khandesh is a region of central India, which forms the northwestern portion of Maharashtra state.Khandesh was the terminal territorial part under the rule of Mughals. The Start of Deccan region demarcated by the boundary of Khandesh....

 region in Maharashtra has a sizable Gujar population, the major sub-castes being Dode Gujar, Leva Gujar, Bargujar etc.

A community using Gurjar and Gurjarpadhye as their surnames resides in the coastal Konkan
Konkan
The Konkan also called the Konkan Coast or Karavali is a rugged section of the western coastline of India from Raigad to Mangalore...

 region of Maharashtra
Maharashtra
Maharashtra is a state located in India. It is the second most populous after Uttar Pradesh and third largest state by area in India...

, inhabiting Pangre, Hasol, and other villages in Ratnagiri District
Ratnagiri District
Ratnagiri district is one of the 35 districts of Maharashtra state in western India. Ratnagiri is the district headquarters of the district. The district is 11.33% urban. The district is bounded by the Arabian Sea to the west, Sindhudurg district to the south, Raigad district to the north and...

. Originally bearing the name "Gurjarpadhye", many now prefer to call themselves Gurjar. The community may have been living in the Konkan region for at least three centuries, although this estimate may be inaccurate. The community is a sub-caste of the larger Karhade Brahmin
Karhade Brahmin
Karhade Brahmins are a predominantly Pancha Dravida Brahmins Marathi and Konkani speaking Hindu community in India.-Etymology and Origin:*The name Karháda or Karáda, is the...

 group and speaks the Marathi
Marathi language
Marathi is an Indo-Aryan language spoken by the Marathi people of western and central India. It is the official language of the state of Maharashtra. There are over 68 million fluent speakers worldwide. Marathi has the fourth largest number of native speakers in India and is the fifteenth most...

 language. This community might be a part of the bigger Gujar community. However, it is difficult to explain how they settled down in the Konkan region and are Brahmins rather than Kshatriyas. Local pandits claim that the Gurjars are essentially a priestly community and that it is only the subcastes that assumed Kshatriya
Kshatriya
*For the Bollywood film of the same name see Kshatriya Kshatriya or Kashtriya, meaning warrior, is one of the four varnas in Hinduism...

 status in order to earn a livelihood in other more practical professions.

Gujar are also found in some clans of Kshtriya Dhangar
Dhangar
The Dhangar caste is primarily located in the Indian state of Maharashtra...

.Dode Gujar and Dore Gujar are listed as separate caste in Maharastra and are included in OBC list in Maharashtra.

Gujars of Nagpur
Nagpur
Nāgpur is a city and winter capital of the state of Maharashtra, the largest city in central India and third largest city in Maharashtra after Mumbai and Pune...

 form one of the leading clan of Satghare or Seven Houses.Last prince of Nagpur was from Gurjar clan.

There is also one another separate caste in Maharashtra called as "Reve Gujars". Dode Gujars and Reve Gujars speak a special kind of language called as "Gujari" or "Gujrau".

Jammu and Kashmir


In the Indian state of Jammu & Kashmir, the concentration of Muslim Gujjars is observed in the districts of Rajouri
Rajouri District
Rajouri is a district of Jammu province in the Indian-administered Kashmir. It is close to the control line and borders with Ponch to the north and Mirpur to the southwest, both of which are in Pakistan-administered Kashmir....

 and Poonch, followed by, Ananatnag
Anantnag District
Anantnag is a district in the state of Jammu and Kashmir in north-western India. It is one of eight districts which make up the Kashmir Valley. The district headquarter is Anantnag...

, Udhampur
Udhampur District
Udhampur is a district in Jammu and Kashmir. The town of Udhampur is the headquarters of this district.The 2001 census indicates the population of the district to be 743,509. There are 871 females for every 1000 males in the district. The overall literacy rate is 54.16%, with 66.43% for males and...

 and Doda
Doda District
Area11,691 km²Population525,000 Population density36/km2 Literacy18.5% Doda is a district of Jammu region in the state of Jammu and Kashmir, India...

 districts. It is believed that Gujjars migrated to Jammu and Kashmir from Gujarat (via Rajasthan) and Hazara district of NWFP. Another group called Bakarwal
Bakarwal
Bakarwal is a nomadic tribe based in the Pir Panjal and Himalayan mountains of South Asia. They are mainly goatherds and shepherds. They are called as Dhangar in rest of India.- Etymology :...

 (or Bakerwal) belongs to the same ethnic stock as the Gujjars, and inter-marriages freely take place among them.

The Gujjars and the Bakarwals in Jammu and Kashmir were notified as the Scheduled Tribes vide the Constitution (Scheduled Tribes) Order (Amendment) Act, 1991. According to the 2001 Census of India, Gujjar is the most populous scheduled tribe in J&K, having a population of 763,806. Around 99.3 per cent population of Gujjar and Bakarwal in J&K follow Islam. But according to local NGO namely Tribal Research And Cultural Foundation, Gujjars constitute more than 20% of total population of the State.

The Gujjars of Jammu and Kashmir in 2007 demanded to treat this tribal community as a linguistic minority in the State and provide constitutional safeguards to their language Gojri
Gojri
Gojri, also known as Gujari is a variety of Rajasthani spoken by the Gujjars of Northern-Pakistan, India and Afghanistan.Rajasthani, Marwari and Gujarati are evolved from Gujari. The language was known as Gujjar bhakha or Gurjar Apabhramsha lately. It was used as literary language as early as 12th...

. They also impressed upon the state government to take up the matter with Delhi
Delhi
Delhi , officially National Capital Territory of Delhi , is the largest metropolis by area and the second-largest by population in India, next to Mumbai. It is the eighth largest metropolis in the world by population with 16,753,265 inhabitants in the Territory at the 2011 Census...

 for inclusion of Gojri
Gojri
Gojri, also known as Gujari is a variety of Rajasthani spoken by the Gujjars of Northern-Pakistan, India and Afghanistan.Rajasthani, Marwari and Gujarati are evolved from Gujari. The language was known as Gujjar bhakha or Gurjar Apabhramsha lately. It was used as literary language as early as 12th...

 in the list of official languages of India.

In 2002, some Gujjars and Bakarwals in J&K demanded a separate state (Gujaristan) for Gujjar and Bakerwal communities, under the banner of All India Gujjar Parishad.

Van Gujjars


The Van Gujjars
Muslim Gujjar (Uttar Pradesh)
The Muslim Gujjar of Uttar Pradesh are a Muslim community found in the state of Uttar Pradesh in India. They are Muslim converts of the wider Gujjar community of South Asia. The Gujjar of Uttar Pradesh are, in fact, three distinct communities, those of the Doab region, those of Awadh and the...

("forest Gujjars") are found in the Shivalik hills area of North India. The Van Gujjars follow Islam, and they have their own clans, similar to the Hindu gotra
Gotra
In the Hindu society, the term Gotra broadly refers to people who are descendants in an unbroken male line from a common male ancestor. Panini defines gotra for grammatical purposes as apatyam pautraprabhrti gotram , which means "the word gotra denotes the progeny beginning with the son's son"...

s. They are a pastoral semi-nomadic community, practising transhumance
Transhumance
Transhumance is the seasonal movement of people with their livestock between fixed summer and winter pastures. In montane regions it implies movement between higher pastures in summer and to lower valleys in winter. Herders have a permanent home, typically in valleys. Only the herds travel, with...

. In the winter season, the Van Gujjars migrate with their herds to the Shiwalik foothills, and in summer, they migrate to pastures high up in the mountains. The Van Gujjars have had conflicts with the forest authorities, who prohibited human and livestock populations inside a reserved park, and blamed the Van Gujjar community for poaching and timber smuggling. After the creation of the Rajaji National Park
Rajaji National Park
Rajaji National Park is an Indian national park that encompasses the Shivaliks, near the foothills of the Himalayas. It is spread over 820 km²., and three districts of Uttarakhand: Haridwar, Dehradun and Pauri Garhwal. In 1983, three wildlife sanctuaries in the area namely, Chilla, Motichur...

 (RNP), the Van Gujjars
Muslim Gujjar (Uttar Pradesh)
The Muslim Gujjar of Uttar Pradesh are a Muslim community found in the state of Uttar Pradesh in India. They are Muslim converts of the wider Gujjar community of South Asia. The Gujjar of Uttar Pradesh are, in fact, three distinct communities, those of the Doab region, those of Awadh and the...

 in Deharadun were asked to shift to a resettlement colony at Pathari near Hardwar. In 1992, when the Van Gujjars returned to the foothills, the RNP authorities tried to block them from the park area. The community fought back and finally the forest authorities had to relent. Later, a community forest management (CFM) programme aiming to involve the Van Gujjars in forest management was launched.

Pakistan


The Muslim
Muslim
A Muslim, also spelled Moslem, is an adherent of Islam, a monotheistic, Abrahamic religion based on the Quran, which Muslims consider the verbatim word of God as revealed to prophet Muhammad. "Muslim" is the Arabic term for "submitter" .Muslims believe that God is one and incomparable...

 Gujjars are considered to be a major tribe in Pakistan
Pakistan
Pakistan , officially the Islamic Republic of Pakistan is a sovereign state in South Asia. It has a coastline along the Arabian Sea and the Gulf of Oman in the south and is bordered by Afghanistan and Iran in the west, India in the east and China in the far northeast. In the north, Tajikistan...

; in fact, they compromise as much as twenty percent of the country's entire populaion. Gujjars have given their names to several places in Pakistan, including Gujranwala
Gujranwala
Gujranwala is a industrial city in the north-east of the Punjab province. It is the sixth largest city in Pakistan with a population of approximately 2,661,360 as on 24 June 2011...

, Gujjar Nallah, Gujar Khan
Gujar Khan
Gujar Khan is a city in Rawalpindi District, Punjab, Pakistan. It is the headquarters of Gujar Khan Tehsil, the largest tehsil of Punjab. It is approximately 55 kilometres southeast of Islamabad, the capital of Pakistan and 220 km to the north west of Lahore, capital of Punjab...

, Gojra
Gojra
Gojra , the capital of Gojra Tehsil, is a city of Toba Tek Singh District in the Punjab province of Pakistan, it is located at 31°9'N 72°41'E and is located 30 miles from Faisalabad, 125 km from Burewala, 157 km from Vehari and north of Toba Tek Singh...

 and Gujrat
Gujrat
Gujrat is a city in Pakistan. It is the capital of Gujrat District and the Gujrat Tehsil subdivision in the Punjab Province. People living in Gujrat refer to themselves as Gujratis, which sometimes leads to confusion with people from the Indian state of Gujarat which adjoins Pakistan...

. The Gujjars have migrated and settled in many urban areas of Pakistan. Islamabad
Islamabad
Islamabad is the capital of Pakistan and the tenth largest city in the country. Located within the Islamabad Capital Territory , the population of the city has grown from 100,000 in 1951 to 1.7 million in 2011...

, Sialkot
Sialkot
Sialkot is a city in Pakistan situated in the north-east of the Punjab province at the foothills of snow-covered peaks of Kashmir near the Chenab river. It is the capital of Sialkot District. The city is about north-west of Lahore and only a few kilometers from Indian-controlled Jammu.The...

, Lahore
Lahore
Lahore is the capital of the Pakistani province of Punjab and the second largest city in the country. With a rich and fabulous history dating back to over a thousand years ago, Lahore is no doubt Pakistan's cultural capital. One of the most densely populated cities in the world, Lahore remains a...

, Faisalabad
Faisalabad
Faisalabad , formerly known as Lyallpur, is the third largest metropolis in Pakistan, the second largest in the province of Punjab after Lahore, and a major industrial center in the heart of Pakistan. Before the foundation of the city in 1880, the area was very thinly populated. The population has...

 and Karachi
Karachi
Karachi is the largest city, main seaport and the main financial centre of Pakistan, as well as the capital of the province of Sindh. The city has an estimated population of 13 to 15 million, while the total metropolitan area has a population of over 18 million...

 has now large Gujjar population. Some population is also present in urban and rural areas of Sindh
Sindh
Sindh historically referred to as Ba'ab-ul-Islam , is one of the four provinces of Pakistan and historically is home to the Sindhi people. It is also locally known as the "Mehran". Though Muslims form the largest religious group in Sindh, a good number of Christians, Zoroastrians and Hindus can...

 and Balochistan
Balochistan (Pakistan)
Balochistan is one of the four provinces or federating units of Pakistan. With an area of 134,051 mi2 or , it is the largest province of Pakistan, constituting approximately 44% of the total land mass of Pakistan. According to the 1998 population census, Balochistan had a population of...

. Male Gujjars are entitled to use the prefix Ch. (abbreviation for Chaudhury) in front of their first name. This acts as a courtesy title.

Pakistan Administered Kashmir


There are many prominent Gujjar families in the Pakistan Administered Kashmir , in the following places: Pramekot, Rahimkot, Riat, Dadyal
Dadyal
Dadyal or Dadyaal is a town situated in the Mirpur district of Azad Kashmir, Pakistan. The town consists of more than 70 smaller villages. Like much of the Mirpur District, Dadyal has descendants of inhabitants that emigrated to the United Kingdom between the 1950s and 1980s...

, Mirpur, Bhalot Chowk (Mirpur), Mandi Village (Ddayal),Sahalia (Dadyal) Saliah Village (Dayal), Kund (Dadyal), Kotli (Khoi Ratta
Khoi Ratta
Khui Ratta is a town in Kotli District, Azad Kashmir, Pakistan.-Location:Khuiratta lies 29 km southeast of Kotli and 165 km from Islamabad, to the east. Khoiratta is approximately 7 kilometres from the Line Of Control . It is the second largest town after Kotli City and has an elevation...

, Anderla Kothera, Shaheen Abad, Dakkhana, Phalini, Khor, Ghayeen, Kerjai, Barali Gala, Nidi Sohana
Nidi Sohana
Nidi Sohana is a union council in district Kotli Azad kashmir Pakistan. It lies 19 km from Khoiratta, and is a union council of Kotli Tehsil LA Kotli 5 situated at LOC and the end of Tehsil Kotli Nidi Sohana in the part of District Rajori. The highest point of Kotli district, "Muthrani...

. In the Nakiyal District, Kotli the Gujjars are majority, in population, business, education, and politics the majority of Gujjars families are settled in America, England, France, Canada and other European countries, the common Gujjars villages in Teh Nakiyal are Nirgal, Karaila, Lanjot, Mhandethar, Balmi, Narran ni Tarrar, Bhandi, Tharkundi, Palani, Jair, Mohrha sharief, Khandhar, Supply, Phanag, Sehnsa, Bagh (Haveli), Hajirah, Abbaspour Bura Jungle
Bura Jungle
Bura Jungle is a village located in northeast Punjab, Pakistan. It is located three miles west from a rapidly growing town of Dina City and six miles from Rohtas Fort....

, Muzaffarabad
Muzaffarabad
Muzaffarabad is the capital of Pakistan Occupied Kashmir, Pakistan. It is located in Muzaffarabad District on the banks of the Jhelum and Neelum rivers...

 and Neelum District
Neelum District
Neelum District is one of the eight districts of Azad Jammu and Kashmir, Pakistan. Until recently it was part of Muzaffarabad District. It is bound by the Gilgit to the North, with Kupwara, Baramulla and Bandipore Districts of Indian-administered Kashmir in India to the South and Southeast,...

.

Afghanistan


According to Asiatick Society (Calcutta, India), before the reign of Acbar, all the zamindaar (landlords) of Mandar Afghanistan were of the Gujar race. The Gujars of Afghanistan were described as brave, and mainly pastoral, and numerous in Hashtnagar district (now in Pakistan).
A significant number of Gujjars are also found in eastern Kunar province
Kunar Province
Kunar is one of the 34 provinces of Afghanistan, located in the northeastern part of the country. Its capital is Asadabad. It is one of the four "N2KL" provinces...

 of Afghanistan. They are mentioned by name in the national anthem of Afghanistan in the list of the names of the people.
The Gujjars of Afghanistan speak Pashto as they have settled in Pashtuns dominated areas and have adopted their language.

See also

  • List of Gurjars
  • List of Gurjar clans
  • Gurjara Pratihara, Gurjar pratihars ruled much of Northern India from the 6th to the 11th centuries.
  • Devnarayan
    Devnarayan
    Shri Devnarayan , an ancient Gurjar warrior from Rajasthan who is believed to have been an incarnation of Lord Vishnu, is worshipped as a folk deity, mostly in Rajasthan and north-western Madhya Pradesh.According to tradition, he was born to Sri Savai Bhoj and Sadu mata Gurjari on the seventh day...

    , a folk deity worshiped as incarnation of Lord Vishnu
    Vishnu
    Vishnu is the Supreme god in the Vaishnavite tradition of Hinduism. Smarta followers of Adi Shankara, among others, venerate Vishnu as one of the five primary forms of God....

     mostly in Rajasthan
    Rajasthan
    Rājasthān the land of Rajasthanis, , is the largest state of the Republic of India by area. It is located in the northwest of India. It encompasses most of the area of the large, inhospitable Great Indian Desert , which has an edge paralleling the Sutlej-Indus river valley along its border with...

     and Madhya Pradesh
    Madhya Pradesh
    Madhya Pradesh , often called the Heart of India, is a state in central India. Its capital is Bhopal and Indore is the largest city....

    .
  • Devnarayan Ki Phad
    Devnarayan Ki Phad
    Devnarayan Ki Par or Devnarayan Ki Phad are cloth paintings which depict the legend of Devnarayan, a medieval hero venerated as a folk-deity. Traditionally, they are used to accompany a ritual in which the heroic deeds of Devnarayan are sung or recited by priests...

    , Cloth paintings which depicts the legend of Shri Devnarayan
    Devnarayan
    Shri Devnarayan , an ancient Gurjar warrior from Rajasthan who is believed to have been an incarnation of Lord Vishnu, is worshipped as a folk deity, mostly in Rajasthan and north-western Madhya Pradesh.According to tradition, he was born to Sri Savai Bhoj and Sadu mata Gurjari on the seventh day...

    .
  • Gujari, Traditional language of the Gurjars.
  • Rajasthani people
    Rajasthani people
    Rajasthani people are the native inhabitants of Rajasthan region of India. They form an ethnic group which is a result of assimilation of Scytho-Dravidian, Aryo-Dravidian, Indo-Aryan, Indo-Scythian, Indo-Greeks, Indo-Iranians and Austro-Asiatic ancestries...


External links



Further reading