Guangzhou Uprising

Guangzhou Uprising

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{{Unreferenced stub|auto=yes|date=December 2009}} {{For|the Guangzhou Uprisings that occured during the late Qing Dynasty|First Guangzhou Uprising|Second Guangzhou Uprising}} The '''Guangzhou Uprising''' ({{Zh|s=广州起义 |t=廣州起義 |p=Gǔangzhōu Qǐyì}}) of 1927 was a failed [[communist]] uprising in the city of [[Guangzhou]] in southern [[China]]. On December 11 1927, [[Red Guards (China)|red guard]] citizens, directed by communist political leaders, took over [[Guangzhou]] (then known as Canton in English). The uprising occurred despite the strong objections of communist military commanders such as [[Ye Ting]], [[Ye Jianying]] and [[Xu Xiangqian]]. Using the element of surprise, the uprising took over most of the city within hours, despite a huge numerical and technical disadvantage by opposing forces. The communist leaders officially renamed the city's political structure as "Guangzhou Soviet". However, the uprising was quickly answered by warlord forces. [[Zhang Tailei]], the leading red guard organizer, was killed in an ambush as he returned from a meeting. The take-over was dispelled by the early morning of December 13 1927. In the resulting purges, many young communists lost their lives, and the [[Guangzhou]] Soviet became known as the ''"Guangzhou Commune"'' or ''"Paris Commune of the East"''; it lasted only a short while at the cost of more than 5,000 Communists' lives, and an equal number missing. As a scapegoat, [[Ye Ting]], the military commander was purged and blamed for the failure, despite the fact that the obvious disadvantage of the Communist force was the main cause, and Ye Ting and other military commanders had correctly pointed out the problem. Enraged by his unjustified treatment, Ye Ting left [[China]] and went into exile in [[Europe]], and did not return until nearly a decade later. Despite being the third failed uprising of 1927, it encouraged further uprisings across China. ==Literature== * Setting the East Ablaze: on Secret Service in Bolshevik Asia By Peter Hopkirk * Кантонская коммуна. Сб. статей и материалов, М. — Л., 1929; (in Russian) * Кантонская коммуна (К 40-летию восстания в Гуанчжоу), М., 1967. (in Russian) {{Chinese Civil War}} {{Coord missing}}