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Guadalupe Island

Guadalupe Island

Overview
Guadalupe Island, or Isla Guadalupe (29°02′06"N 118°16′37"W) is a volcanic island located 241 kilometers (150 statute miles) off the west coast of Mexico
Mexico
The United Mexican States , commonly known as Mexico , is a federal constitutional republic in North America. It is bordered on the north by the United States; on the south and west by the Pacific Ocean; on the southeast by Guatemala, Belize, and the Caribbean Sea; and on the east by the Gulf of...

's Baja California peninsula
Baja California Peninsula
The Baja California peninsula , is a peninsula in northwestern Mexico. Its land mass separates the Pacific Ocean from the Gulf of California. The Peninsula extends from Mexicali, Baja California in the north to Cabo San Lucas, Baja California Sur in the south.The total area of the Baja California...

 and some 400 kilometers (250 statute miles) southwest of the city of Ensenada
Ensenada, Baja California
Ensenada is a coastal city in Mexico and the third-largest city in Baja California. It is located south of San Diego on the Baja California Peninsula. The city is locally referred to as La Cenicienta del Pacífico, or, The Cinderella of the Pacific...

 in Baja California
Baja California
Baja California officially Estado Libre y Soberano de Baja California is one of the 31 states which, with the Federal District, comprise the 32 Federal Entities of Mexico. It is both the northernmost and westernmost state of Mexico. Before becoming a state in 1953, the area was known as the North...

 state, in the Pacific Ocean
Pacific Ocean
The Pacific Ocean is the largest of the Earth's oceanic divisions. It extends from the Arctic in the north to the Southern Ocean in the south, bounded by Asia and Australia in the west, and the Americas in the east.At 165.2 million square kilometres in area, this largest division of the World...

. The two other Mexican island groups in the Pacific Ocean that are not on the continental shelf
Continental shelf
The continental shelf is the extended perimeter of each continent and associated coastal plain. Much of the shelf was exposed during glacial periods, but is now submerged under relatively shallow seas and gulfs, and was similarly submerged during other interglacial periods. The continental margin,...

 are Revillagigedo Islands
Revillagigedo Islands
The Revillagigedo Islands or Revillagigedo Archipelago are a group of four volcanic islands in the Pacific Ocean, known for their unique ecosystem...

 and Rocas Alijos
Rocas Alijos
Rocas Alijos are a group of tiny, steep and barren volcanic islets or above-water rocks in the Pacific Ocean at . They are part of Comondú municipality of the Mexican state of Baja California Sur, and situated about 300 km west of the mainland. The total surface area is less than...

.

The 2008 census
Census
A census is the procedure of systematically acquiring and recording information about the members of a given population. It is a regularly occurring and official count of a particular population. The term is used mostly in connection with national population and housing censuses; other common...

 recorded a population of 15 persons on the island.
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Unanswered Questions
Encyclopedia
Guadalupe Island, or Isla Guadalupe (29°02′06"N 118°16′37"W) is a volcanic island located 241 kilometers (150 statute miles) off the west coast of Mexico
Mexico
The United Mexican States , commonly known as Mexico , is a federal constitutional republic in North America. It is bordered on the north by the United States; on the south and west by the Pacific Ocean; on the southeast by Guatemala, Belize, and the Caribbean Sea; and on the east by the Gulf of...

's Baja California peninsula
Baja California Peninsula
The Baja California peninsula , is a peninsula in northwestern Mexico. Its land mass separates the Pacific Ocean from the Gulf of California. The Peninsula extends from Mexicali, Baja California in the north to Cabo San Lucas, Baja California Sur in the south.The total area of the Baja California...

 and some 400 kilometers (250 statute miles) southwest of the city of Ensenada
Ensenada, Baja California
Ensenada is a coastal city in Mexico and the third-largest city in Baja California. It is located south of San Diego on the Baja California Peninsula. The city is locally referred to as La Cenicienta del Pacífico, or, The Cinderella of the Pacific...

 in Baja California
Baja California
Baja California officially Estado Libre y Soberano de Baja California is one of the 31 states which, with the Federal District, comprise the 32 Federal Entities of Mexico. It is both the northernmost and westernmost state of Mexico. Before becoming a state in 1953, the area was known as the North...

 state, in the Pacific Ocean
Pacific Ocean
The Pacific Ocean is the largest of the Earth's oceanic divisions. It extends from the Arctic in the north to the Southern Ocean in the south, bounded by Asia and Australia in the west, and the Americas in the east.At 165.2 million square kilometres in area, this largest division of the World...

. The two other Mexican island groups in the Pacific Ocean that are not on the continental shelf
Continental shelf
The continental shelf is the extended perimeter of each continent and associated coastal plain. Much of the shelf was exposed during glacial periods, but is now submerged under relatively shallow seas and gulfs, and was similarly submerged during other interglacial periods. The continental margin,...

 are Revillagigedo Islands
Revillagigedo Islands
The Revillagigedo Islands or Revillagigedo Archipelago are a group of four volcanic islands in the Pacific Ocean, known for their unique ecosystem...

 and Rocas Alijos
Rocas Alijos
Rocas Alijos are a group of tiny, steep and barren volcanic islets or above-water rocks in the Pacific Ocean at . They are part of Comondú municipality of the Mexican state of Baja California Sur, and situated about 300 km west of the mainland. The total surface area is less than...

.

Administration and population


The 2008 census
Census
A census is the procedure of systematically acquiring and recording information about the members of a given population. It is a regularly occurring and official count of a particular population. The term is used mostly in connection with national population and housing censuses; other common...

 recorded a population of 15 persons on the island. Guadalupe is part of Ensenada delegación, one of the 24 delegaciones or subdivisions of Ensenada
Ensenada (municipality)
The municipality of Ensenada, with a land area of , takes up the majority of the state of Baja California. It is the largest in Mexico by area and the Americas. It contains all of Baja California apart from a strip at the north and, at the northeast extremity of the state, the municipality of...

 municipality
Municipalities of Baja California
The Mexican state of Baja California is divided into five municipalities :Each municipality is subdivided into boroughs....

 of the Mexican
Mexico
The United Mexican States , commonly known as Mexico , is a federal constitutional republic in North America. It is bordered on the north by the United States; on the south and west by the Pacific Ocean; on the southeast by Guatemala, Belize, and the Caribbean Sea; and on the east by the Gulf of...

 state
States of Mexico
The United Mexican States is a federal republic formed by 32 federal entities .According to the Constitution of 1917, the states of the federation are free and sovereign. Each state has their own congress and constitution, while the Federal District has only limited autonomy with a local Congress...

 of Baja California
Baja California
Baja California officially Estado Libre y Soberano de Baja California is one of the 31 states which, with the Federal District, comprise the 32 Federal Entities of Mexico. It is both the northernmost and westernmost state of Mexico. Before becoming a state in 1953, the area was known as the North...

. Ensenada delegación and Chapultepec delegación together form the city of Ensenada
Ensenada, Baja California
Ensenada is a coastal city in Mexico and the third-largest city in Baja California. It is located south of San Diego on the Baja California Peninsula. The city is locally referred to as La Cenicienta del Pacífico, or, The Cinderella of the Pacific...

, the municipal seat of the namesake municipality. The postal code
Postal code
A postal code is a series of letters and/or digits appended to a postal address for the purpose of sorting mail. Once postal codes were introduced, other applications became possible.In February 2005, 117 of the 190 member countries of the Universal Postal Union had postal code systems...

 of Guadalupe Island is 22997.

Campo Oeste ("West Camp", also called Campo Tepeyác, with 15 buildings) is a small community of abalone
Abalone
Abalone , from aulón, are small to very large-sized edible sea snails, marine gastropod molluscs in the family Haliotidae and the genus Haliotis...

 and lobster
Lobster
Clawed lobsters comprise a family of large marine crustaceans. Highly prized as seafood, lobsters are economically important, and are often one of the most profitable commodities in coastal areas they populate.Though several groups of crustaceans are known as lobsters, the clawed lobsters are most...

 fishermen, located on the western coast, specifically on the north side of West Anchorage, a bay that provides protection from the strong winds and swells that whip the islands during winter. Generators provide electricity, and a military vessel brings 30,000 liters of fresh water. The number of fishermen varies annually depending on the fishing season. Ten months of the year the 30 families of the fishing cooperative "Abuloneros and Langosteros of Guadalupe Island" are present. http://www.ine.gob.mx/dgoece/con_eco/conhc/isla_guadalupe.html

Additional temporary fishing camps are Campo Norte ("North Camp", four buildings), Campo Lima (Campo Corrals) (one building) and Arroyitos (four buildings). http://ine.gob.mx/ueajei/publicaciones/libros/2/iguad.html

An abandoned fishing community, Campo Este ("East Camp"), is located near a cove on the eastern shore.

At the southern tip, on Melpómene Cove, there is a weather station staffed by a detachment from the Mexican Ministry of the Navy. The site is called Campamento Sur ("South Encampment").

Campo Bosque was established as a temporary camp in 1999 in the cypress
Cypress
Cypress is the name applied to many plants in the cypress family Cupressaceae, which is a conifer of northern temperate regions. Most cypress species are trees, while a few are shrubs...

 forest in the north. The camp houses members of the Cooperative Farming Society "Francisco Javier Maytorena, S.C. of R.L." and removes goats from the island and sells them in the State of Sonora
Sonora
Sonora officially Estado Libre y Soberano de Sonora is one of the 31 states which, with the Federal District, comprise the 32 Federal Entities of Mexico. It is divided into 72 municipalities; the capital city is Hermosillo....

, with permission of SEMARNAT and the support of the Secretariat of the Navy.

Campo Pista is located at the small airport, near the center of the island (29°01′24.04"N 118°16′21.75"W, elevation:592 m, direction:05/23).http://www.cofemermir.gob.mx/uploadtests/5049.59.59.5.Decreto%20RB%20Isla%20Guadalupe-VF.doc At the end of the runway near threshold 5 is the wreckage of a Lockheed L-18 Lodestar http://www.panoramio.com/photo/7350086(29°01′09.85"N 118°16′41.03"W), which overshot the runway during landing. At one point a former bomber North American B-25J-30/32 Mitchell, BMM-3501 (c/n 44-86712) was also wrecked on the opposite end of the runway, after suffering serious damage in trying to take-off overloaded (29°01′36.10"N 118°16′2.98"W). This B-25 wreckage was removed from the island in late 2005 or early 2006.

Airport Isla Guadalupe (IATA Code GUD, ICAO Code MMGD) has a 1200 meter long runway.

Geography



Guadalupe has a rugged landscape. It consists of two ancient overlapping shield volcano
Shield volcano
A shield volcano is a type of volcano usually built almost entirely of fluid lava flows. They are named for their large size and low profile, resembling a warrior's shield. This is caused by the highly fluid lava they erupt, which travels farther than lava erupted from more explosive volcanoes...

es, of which the northern and higher volcano is the younger. The island measures 35 km north-south and up to 9.5 km east-west, with a total area of 243.988 km² (94.2 sq mi). It features a chain of high volcanic mountain ridges which rises to a height of 1,298 meters (4,257 ft) at its northern end (Mount Augusta). Its smaller counterpart on the southern end is the 975 m (3,199 ft) El Picacho. The southern part of the island is barren, but there are fertile valleys and trees in the northern part. The coast generally consists of rocky bluffs with detached rocks fronting some of them. Two high and prominent islets are within 3 km of the southwestern end of the island, separated from one another by a gap called Tuna Alley:
  • Islote Afuera (Outer Islet, also Islote Zapato), 28°51′53"N 118°17′41"W, 0.015 km2, the most distant, steep with almost vertical walls above and below water
  • Islote Adentro (Inner Islet, also El Toro), 28°52′18"N 118°17′34"W, 0.393 km2, with two smaller islets nearby:
    • Church Rock
    • Roca del Skip


Elsewhere, the other islets are very small and close to the shore, all less than one kilometer away:
  • Islote Negro, 28°54′23"N 118°17′18"W, 0.088 km2, to the southwest
  • Roca Hundida, 28°55′00"N 118°18′00"W, 0.003 km2, to the southwest
  • Islote Bernal, 28°56′04"N 118°17′53"W, 0.011 km2, to the southwest
  • unnamed islet, 28°56′49"N 118°17′42"W, 0.005 km2, 2 km north of Islote Bernal
  • unnamed islet, 28°56′59"N 118°17′48"W, 0.002 km2, 4 km north of Islote Bernal
  • Steamboat Rock, 0.003 km2, to the west
  • Roca Elefante, 0.001 km2, to the northwest (the westernmost)

Climate


The island has two major climate zones: a very arid, semi-hot climate between 0 and 800 meters elevation, with mean annual temperature between 18-22°C, (64-71°F) and a very arid, temperate climate above 800 meters elevation with temperatures over 22°C (71°F) in the hottest month of the year.

Most precipitation
Precipitation (meteorology)
In meteorology, precipitation In meteorology, precipitation In meteorology, precipitation (also known as one of the classes of hydrometeors, which are atmospheric water phenomena is any product of the condensation of atmospheric water vapor that falls under gravity. The main forms of precipitation...

 occurs over the winter months with strong influence of northwestern winds and cyclone
Cyclone
In meteorology, a cyclone is an area of closed, circular fluid motion rotating in the same direction as the Earth. This is usually characterized by inward spiraling winds that rotate anticlockwise in the Northern Hemisphere and clockwise in the Southern Hemisphere of the Earth. Most large-scale...

s.

Rainfall averages 133 mm (5.24 inches) near sea level at the south end but appears to be much more at the high north end. An estimate for the rainfall in the northern highlands is possible by way of taking Pinus radiata as an indicator, which is native to that area of the island. Other places where Pinus radiata is native, it grows best with about 750 mm (29.53 inches) of rainfall but under some conditions can survive with as little as half that much. The effective moisture, of course, is much greater because of fog drip
Fog drip
Fog drip is a type of precipitation that forms when fog droplets condense on the needles or leaves of trees or other objects, and drips to the ground....

.

Geology


Guadalupe Island is composed of oceanic
Oceanic crust
Oceanic crust is the part of Earth's lithosphere that surfaces in the ocean basins. Oceanic crust is primarily composed of mafic rocks, or sima, which is rich in iron and magnesium...

 shield volcano
Shield volcano
A shield volcano is a type of volcano usually built almost entirely of fluid lava flows. They are named for their large size and low profile, resembling a warrior's shield. This is caused by the highly fluid lava they erupt, which travels farther than lava erupted from more explosive volcanoes...

es which formed on a now extinct mid-oceanic ridge. The volcanic rock
Volcanic rock
Volcanic rock is a rock formed from magma erupted from a volcano. In other words, it is an igneous rock of volcanic origin...

s of the island consist of olivine basalt and trachyte
Trachyte
Trachyte is an igneous volcanic rock with an aphanitic to porphyritic texture. The mineral assemblage consists of essential alkali feldspar; relatively minor plagioclase and quartz or a feldspathoid such as nepheline may also be present....

.

Ecology




Guadalupe Island was a major destination for Russia
Russia
Russia or , officially known as both Russia and the Russian Federation , is a country in northern Eurasia. It is a federal semi-presidential republic, comprising 83 federal subjects...

n and America
United States
The United States of America is a federal constitutional republic comprising fifty states and a federal district...

n fur hunters seeking the Guadalupe fur seal
Guadalupe Fur Seal
The Guadalupe fur seal is one of six members of the fur seal genus Arctocephalus. Sealers reduced the population to just a few dozen by the late 19th century, but the species had recovered to 10,000 in number by the late 1990s...

 (Arctocephalus townsendi) in the eighteenth and nineteen centuries, until they were nearly extirpated by 1844. Captain Auguste Duhaut-Cilly reported in 1827 that a Sandwich Islands
Sandwich Islands
Sandwich Islands was the name given to the Hawaiian Islands by James Cook on one of his voyages in the 1770s. James Cook named the islands after John Montagu, 4th Earl of Sandwich, a supporter of Cook's voyages...

 (Hawaiian Islands) brig "had spent several months there and collected three thousand sealskins". The Northern elephant seal
Northern Elephant Seal
The northern elephant seal is one of two species of elephant seal . It is a member of the family Phocidae . Elephant seals derive their name from their great size and from the male's large proboscis, which is used in making extraordinarily loud roaring noises, especially during the mating...

 (Mirounga angustirostris) was also ruthlessly hunted for the oil in its blubber. They were thought to be extinct in 1884 until a remnant population of eight individuals was discovered on Guadalupe Island in 1892 by a Smithsonian
Smithsonian Institution
The Smithsonian Institution is an educational and research institute and associated museum complex, administered and funded by the government of the United States and by funds from its endowment, contributions, and profits from its retail operations, concessions, licensing activities, and magazines...

 expedition, who promptly killed seven of them for their collections. The elephant seals managed to survive, and were finally protected by the Mexican government in 1922. All surviving Northern elephant seals share the same male ancestor.

Guadalupe shares the California chaparral and woodlands
California chaparral and woodlands
The California chaparral and woodlands is a terrestrial ecoregion of lower northern, central, and southern California and northwestern Baja California , located on the west coast of North America...

 ecoregion
Ecoregion
An ecoregion , sometimes called a bioregion, is an ecologically and geographically defined area that is smaller than an ecozone and larger than an ecosystem. Ecoregions cover relatively large areas of land or water, and contain characteristic, geographically distinct assemblages of natural...

 with the Channel Islands of California
Channel Islands of California
The Channel Islands of California are a chain of eight islands located in the Pacific Ocean off the coast of Southern California along the Santa Barbara Channel in the United States of America...

 in the United States
United States
The United States of America is a federal constitutional republic comprising fifty states and a federal district...

, but the island was at one time practically denuded of all plants higher than a few centimeters by the up to 100,000 feral goat
Goat
The domestic goat is a subspecies of goat domesticated from the wild goat of southwest Asia and Eastern Europe. The goat is a member of the Bovidae family and is closely related to the sheep as both are in the goat-antelope subfamily Caprinae. There are over three hundred distinct breeds of...

s.

Originally brought there in the early 19th century by primarily Russia
Russia
Russia or , officially known as both Russia and the Russian Federation , is a country in northern Eurasia. It is a federal semi-presidential republic, comprising 83 federal subjects...

n whalers and sealers for provisions when stopping over, the population eventually eliminated most vegetation; the number of goats declined to a few thousand. The main impact of the goat population was before this collapse, about the turn of the 19th/20th century. Naturalist A.W. Anthony wrote in 1901:
"It is directly due to the despised Billy-goat that many interesting species of plants formerly abundant are now extinct, and also that one or more of the birds peculiar to the island has disappeared, and others are following rapidly."


After the crash, the goat population once again grew, this time more slowly, until it had reached the new, lower carrying capacity
Carrying capacity
The carrying capacity of a biological species in an environment is the maximum population size of the species that the environment can sustain indefinitely, given the food, habitat, water and other necessities available in the environment...

 at maybe 10,000–20,000 in modern times. The island had been a nature conservancy area since August 16, 1928, making it one of the oldest reserves in Mexico. Eradication of the goats was long envisioned, but logistical difficulties such as island size and lack of suitable spots for landing and encamping hunters and material prevented this. As of June 2005, after many years of false starts, the Mexican government has almost completed a round-up and evacuation of the remaining goat population and Guadalupe has been designated a biosphere
Biosphere
The biosphere is the global sum of all ecosystems. It can also be called the zone of life on Earth, a closed and self-regulating system...

 reserve
Nature reserve
A nature reserve is a protected area of importance for wildlife, flora, fauna or features of geological or other special interest, which is reserved and managed for conservation and to provide special opportunities for study or research...

.

French sea captain Auguste Duhaut-Cilly remarked on the tall trees on the north of Guadalupe Island as he sailed past on January 2, 1827. Of the large tree species on Guadalupe Island (Guadalupe Palm, Guadalupe Cypress, Island Oak
Island Oak
Quercus tomentella, the Island Oak, also the Island Live Oak or Channel Islands Oak, is an oak in the section Protobalanus.-Distribution:...

, and Guadalupe Pine), there were only old individuals left; California Juniper had entirely disappeared. As the goats ate any seedlings that managed to germinate, no regeneration of trees was possible. Water, formerly plentiful as the common fogs condensed in the forests of the northern end of the island, today only occurs in a few scattered pools and springs. Because the springs were a critical emergency water supply for the human inhabitants, protective measures including goat fences were installed beginning in 2000, allowing new seedlings of many species to survive for the first time in 150 years. Seacology
Seacology
Seacology is a nonprofit 501 charitable organization headquartered in Berkeley, California that focuses on preserving island ecosystems and cultures around the globe. Founded in 1991, it began with the work of ethnobotanist Paul Alan Cox, who researched tropical plants and their medicinal value in...

, a non-profit environmental group located in Berkeley, CA, provided funding to the Island Conservation & Ecology Group for the construction of ten fenced exclosures to keep goats out of the most sensitive areas of Guadalupe Island.

Many island or marine
Marine (ocean)
Marine is an umbrella term. As an adjective it is usually applicable to things relating to the sea or ocean, such as marine biology, marine ecology and marine geology...

 species
Species
In biology, a species is one of the basic units of biological classification and a taxonomic rank. A species is often defined as a group of organisms capable of interbreeding and producing fertile offspring. While in many cases this definition is adequate, more precise or differing measures are...

 that reside on or near Guadalupe also frequent the Channel Islands, and vice-versa. In stark contrast to the rampant extinction of terrestrial life that happened at the same time, Guadalupe was the last refuge for the Northern Elephant Seal
Northern Elephant Seal
The northern elephant seal is one of two species of elephant seal . It is a member of the family Phocidae . Elephant seals derive their name from their great size and from the male's large proboscis, which is used in making extraordinarily loud roaring noises, especially during the mating...

 (Mirounga angustirostris) and the Guadalupe Fur Seal
Guadalupe Fur Seal
The Guadalupe fur seal is one of six members of the fur seal genus Arctocephalus. Sealers reduced the population to just a few dozen by the late 19th century, but the species had recovered to 10,000 in number by the late 1990s...

 (Arctocephalus townsendi) in the 1890s. The island has been a pinniped
Pinniped
Pinnipeds or fin-footed mammals are a widely distributed and diverse group of semiaquatic marine mammals comprising the families Odobenidae , Otariidae , and Phocidae .-Overview: Pinnipeds are typically sleek-bodied and barrel-shaped...

 sanctuary since 1975.

Guadalupe is considered one of the best spots in the world for sightings of the Great White Shark
Great white shark
The great white shark, scientific name Carcharodon carcharias, also known as the great white, white pointer, white shark, or white death, is a large lamniform shark found in coastal surface waters in all major oceans. It is known for its size, with the largest individuals known to have approached...

, possibly because of its large population of pinnipeds.

Habitat types


Before the removal of goats, surveys found eight major land habitat
Habitat
* Habitat , a place where a species lives and grows*Human habitat, a place where humans live, work or play** Space habitat, a space station intended as a permanent settlement...

s on Guadalupe:



  1. Flora of the coastal lowlands and rocky cliffs: mainly up to 200 m above mean sea level
    Above mean sea level
    The term above mean sea level refers to the elevation or altitude of any object, relative to the average sea level datum. AMSL is used extensively in radio by engineers to determine the coverage area a station will be able to reach...

     (ASL), but higher on the steep cliffs. Largely unresearched due to difficult access, the cliffs might even harbor remnant specimens of the presumably extinct plants.
  2. Succulent perennial herb
    Herb
    Except in botanical usage, an herb is "any plant with leaves, seeds, or flowers used for flavoring, food, medicine, or perfume" or "a part of such a plant as used in cooking"...

    s: 200–400 m ASL, chiefly on the southern end and on the offshore islets, and in less steep areas towards sea level. Here, the highest number of endemic plants exist. Baeriopsis guadalupensis, Cistanthe guadalupensis, Dudleya guadalupensis, Hemizonia greeneana ssp. greeneana, H. palmeri, Perityle incana and Stephanomeria guadalupensis are dominant endemics, and Giant Coreopsis (Coreopsis gigantea), a non-endemic native species, is also abundant.
  3. Arid
    Arid
    A region is said to be arid when it is characterized by a severe lack of available water, to the extent of hindering or even preventing the growth and development of plant and animal life...

     maritime
    Oceanic climate
    An oceanic climate, also called marine west coast climate, maritime climate, Cascadian climate and British climate for Köppen climate classification Cfb and subtropical highland for Köppen Cfb or Cwb, is a type of climate typically found along the west coasts at the middle latitudes of some of the...

     shrubland
    Shrubland
    Shrubland, scrubland, scrub or brush is a plant community characterized by vegetation dominated by shrubs, often also including grasses, herbs, and geophytes. Shrubland may either occur naturally or be the result of human activity...

    : 400–600 m ASL. Mainly in the southern portion around El Picacho. Native species occurring here include Ambrosia camphorata, Atriplex barclayana, Cylindropuntia prolifera
    Cylindropuntia prolifera
    Cylindropuntia prolifera, known by the common name Coastal cholla, is a species of cactus.-Description:Cylindropuntia prolifera is a mostly erect, treelike cactus which can approach 3 meters in maximum height. The gray-green segments are narrow and cylindrical, surfaced in fleshy tubercles bearing...

    and California Boxthorn (Lycium californicum); none of these is endemic.
  4. Herbland dominated by introduced plants: 600-800m ASL, mainly on the central plateau. This habitat is almost entirely a consequence of overgrazing; hardly anything of the original ecosystem remains. Dominant introduced plants are Avena barbata
    Avena barbata
    Avena barbata is a species of wild oat known by the common name slender wild oat. It has edible seeds. It is native to central Asia and the Mediterranean Basin. It is also known in North America as an introduced species and noxious weed. It is widespread in California, where it has displaced native...

    , Bromus berteroanus, Great Brome (B. diandrus), Soft Brome (B. hordeaceus sspp. hordaceus and mollis), Red Brome (B. madritensis ssp. rubens), tocalote (Centaurea melitensis), Nettle-leaved Goosefoot (Chenopodium murale), Filago californica, Wall Barley (Hordeum murinum sspp. glaucum and leporinum), Crystalline Iceplant (Mesembryanthemum crystallinum), M. nodiflorum
    Mesembryanthemum nodiflorum
    Mesembryanthemum nodiflorum is a species of succulent plant in the ice plant family known by the common name slenderleaf ice plant. It is native to southern Africa, but it is known in many other places as an introduced species and sometimes an invasive weed, including several regions of Australia,...

    , Polypogon monspeliensis
    Polypogon monspeliensis
    Polypogon monspeliensis, commonly known as annual beard grass or annual rabbitsfoot grass, is a species of grass. It is native to southern Europe, but it can be found today throughout the world as an introduced species and sometimes a noxious weed. It is an annual grass growing to heights between 5...

    and Sisymbrium orientale
    Sisymbrium orientale
    Sisymbrium orientale is a species of flowering plant in the mustard family known by the common names Indian hedgemustard and eastern rocket. It is native to Europe, Asia, and North Africa, and it can be found throughout much of the temperate world as an introduced species and in some areas a common...

    . The non-endemic natives Dwarf Coastweed (Amblyopappus pusillus), Island False Bindweed (Calystegia macrostegia ssp. macrostegia), Cryptantha maritima var. maritima, Filago arizonica, Gilia nevinii
    Gilia nevinii
    Gilia nevinii is an uncommon species of flowering plant in the phlox family known by the common name Nevin's gilia. It is known only from the Channel Islands of California and Guadalupe Island off Baja California, where it grows in seaside canyons and flats. This is an erect herb with a hairy stem...

    , California Goldfields (Lasthenia californica), Pectocarya palmeri and Perityle emoryi
    Perityle emoryi
    Perityle emoryi is a species of flowering plant in the aster family known by the common name Emory's rockdaisy. It is native to the Southwestern United States, Southern California, Northwest Mexico, and the Baja California Peninsula...

    as well as the endemics Cryptantha foliosa and Sphaeralcea palmeri can be found here also; some still are numerous. This probably was a mesic
    Mesic
    Mesic may refer to:* Mesic, North Carolina, a town in the United States* Mesic habitat, a type of habitat...

     shrub/herbland before the goats destroyed the upland forest, upsetting the water supply. Native plants still found on Guadalupe, like Crossosoma californicum
    Crossosoma californicum
    Crossosoma californicum is one of only a few species in the flowering plant family Crossosomataceae. It is known by the common name California rockflower and it is native to San Clemente and Santa Catalina Islands, two of the Channel Islands of California, as well as Guadalupe Island off the coast...

    , Laurel Sumac (Malosma laurina) and the endemic Camissonia guadalupensis ssp. guadalupensis, presumably thrived here in former times, as would have such taxa as the native Hoary-leaved Ceanothus (Ceanothus crassifolius), Wedge-leaved Ceanothus (C. cuneatus) – and possibly also Felt-leaved Ceanothus (C. arboreus), which was found in 2001-2003 surveys –, Cammisonia robusta, Red-flowering Currant (Ribes sanguineum) and the endemic Hesperalea palmeri, which have now disappeared from the island.
  5. Guadalupe Palm groves: 400–900 m ASL on the NW side of the island. There are hundreds of palm trees remaining, mainly in a single patch of this habitat. At least one other major palm forest, at the W coast, existed; it was still present in 1906 As reproduction is presumably still ongoing, the species will likely recover in due time.
  6. Guadalupe Cypress forest: 800–1000 m ASL. Presently some 4000 of old trees, essentially limited to the central northern part. Other cypress forest
    Cypress forest
    A Cypress forest is a western USA plant association typically dominated by one or more cypress species. Example species comprising the canopy include Cupressus macrocarpa. In some cases these forests have been severely damaged by goats, cattle and other grazing animals...

    s, such as a major stand NE of the present patch which was still extant in 1906, have been destroyed by the goats early in the 20th century. There is still reproduction, but the water table appears to have declined to below the level required by the cypresses, and mortality of the old trees is high and can be expected to continue even after removal of the goats.
  7. Guadalupe Palm - Island Oak
    Island Oak
    Quercus tomentella, the Island Oak, also the Island Live Oak or Channel Islands Oak, is an oak in the section Protobalanus.-Distribution:...

     - Guadalupe Pine woodland: 900–1000 m ASL. This habitat has all but disappeared during the 20th century, due to the decline in numbers of the oaks and pines.
  8. Guadalupe Pine cloud forest
    Cloud forest
    A cloud forest, also called a fog forest, is a generally tropical or subtropical evergreen montane moist forest characterized by a persistent, frequent or seasonal low-level cloud cover, usually at the canopy level. Cloud forests often exhibit an abundance of mosses covering the ground and...

     with some Island Oak: restricted to above 1000 m ASL on the N-NE point of the island. The population of the pine has declined by about two-thirds during the last 35 years; it presently stands at about 130 old trees in the main population and about the same number scattered elsewhere. Reproduction is ongoing, with several hundred seedlings having successfully established themselves since 2000, and with the elimination of goat browsing, the pines will likely make a full recovery. The situation of the oak is more dire; there are only 20 trees or so remaining (by about 1950, there were 100) and they appear past reproductive age. Not being restricted to Guadalupe, seedlings could be imported from elsewhere.


A ninth habitat type, California Juniper woodland and extending on the central plateau below the cypress forest, was entirely gone by 1906. What other endemic lifeforms underwent coextinction
Coextinction
Coextinction of a species is the loss of a species as a consequence of the extinction of another. The term was originally used in the context of the extinction of parasitic insects following the loss of their specific hosts...

 with it will forever remain unknown.

Endemism


Animals:
  • Guadalupe Fur Seal
    Guadalupe Fur Seal
    The Guadalupe fur seal is one of six members of the fur seal genus Arctocephalus. Sealers reduced the population to just a few dozen by the late 19th century, but the species had recovered to 10,000 in number by the late 1990s...

     (Arctocephalus townsendi) - only major breeding site
  • Guadalupe Rock Wren
    Rock Wren
    The Rock Wren is a small songbird of the wren family. It is the only species in the genus Salpinctes.The 12 cm long adults have grey-brown upperparts with small black and white spots and pale grey underparts with a light brown rump...

     (Salpinctes obsoletus guadalupensis) - endemic
  • Guadalupe House Finch
    House Finch
    The House Finch is a bird in the finch family Fringillidae, which is found in North America. This species and the other "American rosefinches" are usually placed in the rosefinch genus Carpodacus...

     (Carpodacus mexicanus amplus) - endemic
  • Guadalupe Junco
    Guadalupe Junco
    The Guadalupe Junco, Junco hyemalis insularis, is a bird endemic to Guadalupe Island off Pacific Mexico. It is often considered a subspecies of the Dark-eyed Junco, for example by the IUCN which lumps these taxa in the 2008 IUCN Red List...

     (Junco hyemalis insularis) - endemic
  • Endemic spider
    Spider
    Spiders are air-breathing arthropods that have eight legs, and chelicerae with fangs that inject venom. They are the largest order of arachnids and rank seventh in total species diversity among all other groups of organisms...

    s:
    • Habronattus gigas
    • Herpyllus giganteus
    • Kibramoa isolata
    • Sergiolus guadalupensis


Plants:
  • Baeriopsis guadalupensis - near-endemic
  • Brahea edulis (Guadalupe Palm) - effectively endemic
  • Camissonia guadalupensis ssp. guadalupensis - endemic
  • Castilleja fruticosa - endemic
  • Cistanthe guadalupensis - endemic
  • Cupressus guadalupensis var. guadalupensis (Guadalupe Cypress) - endemic
  • Cryptantha foliosa - endemic
  • Deinandra frutescens - endemic
  • Deinandra greeneana ssp. greeneana - endemic
  • Deinandra palmeri - endemic
  • Dudleya guadalupensis - endemic
  • Dudleya virens ssp. extima
    Dudleya virens
    Dudleya virens, the Green liveforever or Bright green dudleya, is an uncommon species of perennial, succulent plant in the family Crassulaceae, native to California and Baja California, growing in Los Angeles County, the Channel Islands, and Guadalupe Island .-Description:The Dudleya virens leaves...

     - endemic
  • Eriogonum zapatoense - endemic
  • Erysimum moranii - endemic
  • Eschscholzia elegans
    Eschscholzia elegans
    Eschscholzia elegans is a relative of the California poppy that occurs on Guadalupe and Cedros islands, off the coast of the Baja California peninsula....

    - near-endemic
  • Eschscholzia palmeri
    Eschscholzia palmeri
    Eschscholzia palmeri is a species of poppy native from Guadalupe Island in Mexico. It is a low growing woody perennial with a narrow taproot and yellow flowers.-External links:**...

    - endemic
  • Galium angulosum - endemic
  • Githopsis diffusa var. guadalupensis
    Githopsis diffusa
    Githopsis diffusa is a species of flowering plant in the bellflower family known by the common name San Gabriel bluecup. It is native to California and Baja California, where it grows in open habitat on the slopes of foothills and mountains. This is an annual herb forming a small clump at ground...

     - endemic
  • Hemizonia frutescens - endemic
  • Hemizonia greeneana ssp. greeneana - endemic
  • Hemizonia palmeri - endemic
  • Heteromeles arbutifolia var. macrocarpa - probably endemic
  • Lavatera lindsayi - endemic
  • Lupinus niveus - endemic
  • Marah guadalupensis - near-endemic or endemic
  • Perityle incana - endemic
  • Phacelia phyllomanica - endemic
  • Pinus radiata var. binata (Guadalupe Island Monterey Pine
    Monterey Pine
    The Monterey Pine, Pinus radiata, family Pinaceae, also known as the Insignis Pine or Radiata Pine is a species of pine native to the Central Coast of California....

    ) - near-endemic or endemic
  • Satureja palmeri - endemic; rediscovered in 2001-2003 surveys
  • Senecio palmeri - endemic
  • Sphaeralcea palmeri - endemic
  • Sphaeralcea sulphurea - endemic
  • Stephanomeria guadalupensis - endemic
  • Triteleia guadalupensis - endemic

Extinctions



Numerous taxa have gone extinct due to the habitat destruction by the goats, which in turn rendered the endemic fauna vulnerable to predation by introduced cats and to adverse weather by depriving them of shelter.

There have been 5-6 extinctions of birds:
  • Guadalupe Bewick's Wren
    Bewick's Wren
    The Bewick's Wren is a wren native to North America. At about 14 cm long, it is grey-brown above, white below, with a long white eyebrow. While similar in appearance to the Carolina Wren, it has a long tail that is tipped in white. The song is loud and melodious, much like the song of other...

     (Thryomanes bewickii brevicauda), late 1890s? A date of 1903 is often given, but this seems to be in error.
  • Guadalupe Spotted Towhee
    Spotted Towhee
    The Spotted Towhee is a large New World sparrow. The taxonomy of the towhees has been debated in recent decades, and formerly this bird and the Eastern Towhee were considered a single species, the Rufous-sided Towhee...

     (Pipilo maculatus consobrinus), late 1890s
  • The Guadalupe Caracara
    Guadalupe Caracara
    The Guadalupe Caracara, Caracara lutosa, is an extinct bird of prey belonging to the falcon family . It was, together with the closely related Crested and Southern Caracara, formerly placed in the genus Polyborus. It was also known as the Quelili or the Calalie.This species inhabited Mexico's...

     (Polyborus lutosus) was intentionally made extinct by humans around 1901, ironically because it occasionally preyed on young goats.
  • Guadalupe Flicker (Colaptes cafer rufipileus), c.1910 - the island was later recolonized by individuals of the nominate subspecies
  • Guadalupe Storm Petrel (Oceanodroma macrodactyla), 1910s
  • The Guadalupe Ruby-crowned Kinglet (Regulus calendula obscurus) is close to extinction, if it indeed still exists. It was not observed in 2000 despite thorough searches.


Globally extinct plant taxa from Guadalupe Island are:
  • Castilleja guadalupensis
  • Hesperelaea palmeri
  • Pogogyne tenuiflora

and one species of plant incertae sedis
Incertae sedis
, is a term used to define a taxonomic group where its broader relationships are unknown or undefined. Uncertainty at specific taxonomic levels is attributed by , , and similar terms.-Examples:*The fossil plant Paradinandra suecica could not be assigned to any...


External links