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Grand Mufti of Jerusalem

Grand Mufti of Jerusalem

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The Grand Mufti of Jerusalem is the Sunni Muslim
Muslim
A Muslim, also spelled Moslem, is an adherent of Islam, a monotheistic, Abrahamic religion based on the Quran, which Muslims consider the verbatim word of God as revealed to prophet Muhammad. "Muslim" is the Arabic term for "submitter" .Muslims believe that God is one and incomparable...

 cleric
Ulema
Ulama , also spelt ulema, refers to the educated class of Muslim legal scholars engaged in the several fields of Islamic studies. They are best known as the arbiters of shari‘a law...

 in charge of Jerusalem's Islam
Islam
Islam . The most common are and .   : Arabic pronunciation varies regionally. The first vowel ranges from ~~. The second vowel ranges from ~~~...

ic holy places, including the Al-Aqsa Mosque
Al-Aqsa Mosque
Al-Aqsa Mosque also known as al-Aqsa, is the third holiest site in Sunni Islam and is located in the Old City of Jerusalem...

.

Ottoman era


The first Qadi, Mohammed Tahir al-Husayni
Mohammed Tahir al-Husayni
Mohammed Tahir Mustafa Tahir al-Husayni was the Qadi of the Sharia courts of Jerusalem and was the father of Kamil al-Husayni and Mohammad Amin al-Husayni, both of whom held the equivalent position in the British mandated period of Grand Mufti of Jerusalem.Born in Jerusalem to the al-Husayni...

, was appointed by the Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
The Ottoman EmpireIt was usually referred to as the "Ottoman Empire", the "Turkish Empire", the "Ottoman Caliphate" or more commonly "Turkey" by its contemporaries...

, which ruled the Middle East, including the territory known as Palestine
Palestine
Palestine is a conventional name, among others, used to describe the geographic region between the Mediterranean Sea and the Jordan River, and various adjoining lands....

, from the 16th century to the early 20th century.

When Tahir al-Husayni died in 1908, his son Kamil al-Husayni
Kamil al-Husayni
Kamil al-Husayni was a Sunni Muslim religious leader of the Palestinian people and was the Grand Mufti of Jerusalem from 1908 until his death....

 succeeded him and served with approval of the British authorities once the British conquered Jerusalem in December 1917. However, during World War I
World War I
World War I , which was predominantly called the World War or the Great War from its occurrence until 1939, and the First World War or World War I thereafter, was a major war centred in Europe that began on 28 July 1914 and lasted until 11 November 1918...

, the Ottoman Empire claimed that al-Husayni was a British stooge
Stooge
A stooge is a person who is under the control of another. Being called a stooge is an insult. Stooge can also sometimes be used to mean "idiot".* Stooge , a member of a comedy double act who feeds lines to the other comedian...

 and that As'ad Shuqeiri-who was appointed by the Ottoman Empire as the Grand Mufti of Jerusalem 1914-1918-was the rightful Grand Mufti. Shuqeiri was the father of Ahmad Shukeiri
Ahmad Shukeiri
Ahmad al-Shukeiri also transcribed al-Shuqayri, Shuqeiri, Shukeiry, etc.), was the first Chairman of the Palestine Liberation Organization, serving in 1964–67....

 (1908–1980), the first leader of the Palestine Liberation Organisation.

British Mandate


When Palestine was under British occupation, the Grand Mufti of Jerusalem was a position appointed by the British Mandate authorities.

When Kamil al-Husayni
Kamil al-Husayni
Kamil al-Husayni was a Sunni Muslim religious leader of the Palestinian people and was the Grand Mufti of Jerusalem from 1908 until his death....

 died in 1921, the British High Commissioner
High Commissioner
High Commissioner is the title of various high-ranking, special executive positions held by a commission of appointment.The English term is also used to render various equivalent titles in other languages.-Bilateral diplomacy:...

 Herbert Samuel
Herbert Samuel, 1st Viscount Samuel
Herbert Louis Samuel, 1st Viscount Samuel GCB OM GBE PC was a British politician and diplomat.-Early years:...

 appointed his half-brother Mohammad Amin al-Husayni
Mohammad Amin al-Husayni
Haj Mohammed Effendi Amin el-Husseini was a Palestinian Arab nationalist and Muslim leader in the British Mandate of Palestine. From as early as 1920, in order to secure the independence of Palestine as an Arab state he actively opposed Zionism, and was implicated as a leader of a violent riot...

 to the position. Amin al-Husayni, a member of the al-Husayni clan of Jerusalem, was an Arab nationalist and Muslim leader in the British Mandate of Palestine. As Grand Mufti, as well as the other influential positions that he held during this period, al-Husayni played a key role in violent opposition to Zionism
Zionism
Zionism is a Jewish political movement that, in its broadest sense, has supported the self-determination of the Jewish people in a sovereign Jewish national homeland. Since the establishment of the State of Israel, the Zionist movement continues primarily to advocate on behalf of the Jewish state...

.
In 1948, after Jordan
Jordan
Jordan , officially the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan , Al-Mamlaka al-Urduniyya al-Hashemiyya) is a kingdom on the East Bank of the River Jordan. The country borders Saudi Arabia to the east and south-east, Iraq to the north-east, Syria to the north and the West Bank and Israel to the west, sharing...

 occupied Jerusalem, Abdullah I of Jordan
Abdullah I of Jordan
Abdullah I bin al-Hussein, King of Jordan [‘Abd Allāh ibn al-Husayn] عبد الله الأول بن الحسين born in Mecca, Second Saudi State, was the second of three sons of Sherif Hussein bin Ali, Sharif and Emir of Mecca and his first wife Abdiyya bint Abdullah...

 officially removed al-Husayni from the post, banned him from entering Jerusalem, and appointed Hussam Al-din Jarallah as Grand Mufti. When Jarallah died in 1954, no Grand Mufti was appointed until 1993.

Palestinian Authority


In 1993, with the transfer of increased control of Muslim holy sites in Jerusalem from Israel
Israel
The State of Israel is a parliamentary republic located in the Middle East, along the eastern shore of the Mediterranean Sea...

 to the Palestinians, Palestine Liberation Organization
Palestine Liberation Organization
The Palestine Liberation Organization is a political and paramilitary organization which was created in 1964. It is recognized as the "sole legitimate representative of the Palestinian people" by the United Nations and over 100 states with which it holds diplomatic relations, and has enjoyed...

 chairman Yasser Arafat
Yasser Arafat
Mohammed Yasser Abdel Rahman Abdel Raouf Arafat al-Qudwa al-Husseini , popularly known as Yasser Arafat or by his kunya Abu Ammar , was a Palestinian leader and a Laureate of the Nobel Prize. He was Chairman of the Palestine Liberation Organization , President of the Palestinian National Authority...

 appointed Sulaiman Ja'abari
Sulaiman Ja'abari
Sulaiman Ja'abari was a Sunni Muslim religious leader of the Palestinian people and the fifth Grand Mufti of Jerusalem. When he became Grand Mufti in 1993, he was the first person to hold the position in nearly 40 years....

 as Grand Mufti. When he died in 1994, Arafat appointed Ekrima Sa'id Sabri
Ekrima Sa'id Sabri
Sheikh Ekrima Sa'id Sabri was the Grand Mufti of Jerusalem and Palestine from October 1994 to July 1, 2006. He was appointed by Yasser Arafat.He has a doctorate from Al Azhar University in Egypt on the “Islamic Endowment Between Theory and Practice”....

. Sabri was removed in 2006 by Palestinian National Authority
Palestinian National Authority
The Palestinian Authority is the administrative organization established to govern parts of the West Bank and Gaza Strip...

 president
President of the Palestinian National Authority
The President of the Palestinian National Authority is the highest-ranking political position in the Palestinian National Authority ....

 Mahmoud Abbas
Mahmoud Abbas
Mahmoud Abbas , also known by the kunya Abu Mazen , has been the Chairman of the Palestine Liberation Organisation since 11 November 2004 and became President of the Palestinian National Authority on 15 January 2005 on the Fatah ticket.Elected to serve until 9 January 2009, he unilaterally...

, who was concerned that Sabri was involved too heavily in political matters. Abbas appointed Muhammad Ahmad Hussein
Muhammad Ahmad Hussein
Muhammad Ahmad Hussein has been the Grand Mufti of Jerusalem since July 2006, when he was appointed by Mahmoud Abbas, the President of the Palestinian National Authority. Hussein replaced Ekrima Sa'id Sabri, who was fired by Abbas for involving himself too heavily in political affairs...

, who was perceived as a political moderate. However, shortly after his appointment, Hussein made comments which suggested that suicide bombing was an acceptable tactic for Palestinians to use against Israel.

List of Qadi and Mufti of Jerusalem

  • Shihab ad-Din Abulabbas al-Omawi al-Masri ? to 1440
  • Shaikh Najm al-Din, late 17th century
  • 'Ali ibn Habib Allah ibn Abi '1-Lutf, d. 1731
  • Muhammad ibn 'Abd al-Rahim Jarallah (Abu '1-Lutf), d. 1728
  • Muhammad al-Khalili, d. 1734
  • Ahmad ibn Muhammad al-Muwaqqit, d. 1757
  • Najm al-Din al-Khairi, d. 1759
  • Muhammd al-Tafilati, d. 1778
  • Sheikh Ḥasan b. ‘Abd al-Laṭīf al-Ḥusayni (1781-1806/7)
  • Muhammad Salih al-Imam, d. 1828
  • Muḥammad Fadil Jārallāh d. 1856
  • Mohammed Tahir al-Husayni
    Mohammed Tahir al-Husayni
    Mohammed Tahir Mustafa Tahir al-Husayni was the Qadi of the Sharia courts of Jerusalem and was the father of Kamil al-Husayni and Mohammad Amin al-Husayni, both of whom held the equivalent position in the British mandated period of Grand Mufti of Jerusalem.Born in Jerusalem to the al-Husayni...

     from the 1860s to 1908
  • Muḥammad Ṭāhir al-Ḥusayni 1813
  • Kamil al-Husayni
    Kamil al-Husayni
    Kamil al-Husayni was a Sunni Muslim religious leader of the Palestinian people and was the Grand Mufti of Jerusalem from 1908 until his death....

     from 1908 to 1921
  • During World War I
    World War I
    World War I , which was predominantly called the World War or the Great War from its occurrence until 1939, and the First World War or World War I thereafter, was a major war centred in Europe that began on 28 July 1914 and lasted until 11 November 1918...

     (1914–1918), the Ottoman Empire
    Ottoman Empire
    The Ottoman EmpireIt was usually referred to as the "Ottoman Empire", the "Turkish Empire", the "Ottoman Caliphate" or more commonly "Turkey" by its contemporaries...

     claimed that As'ad Shuqeiri was the Grand Mufti.
  • Mohammad Amin al-Husayni
    Mohammad Amin al-Husayni
    Haj Mohammed Effendi Amin el-Husseini was a Palestinian Arab nationalist and Muslim leader in the British Mandate of Palestine. From as early as 1920, in order to secure the independence of Palestine as an Arab state he actively opposed Zionism, and was implicated as a leader of a violent riot...

     from 1921 to 1936 dismissed by the British, but kept the title in the Arab world until 1948
  • Hussam Al-din Jarallah from 1948 to 1954
    Vacant – 1954 to 1993
  • Sulaiman Ja'abari
    Sulaiman Ja'abari
    Sulaiman Ja'abari was a Sunni Muslim religious leader of the Palestinian people and the fifth Grand Mufti of Jerusalem. When he became Grand Mufti in 1993, he was the first person to hold the position in nearly 40 years....

     from 1993 to 1994
  • Ekrima Sa'id Sabri
    Ekrima Sa'id Sabri
    Sheikh Ekrima Sa'id Sabri was the Grand Mufti of Jerusalem and Palestine from October 1994 to July 1, 2006. He was appointed by Yasser Arafat.He has a doctorate from Al Azhar University in Egypt on the “Islamic Endowment Between Theory and Practice”....

     from October 1994 to July 2006
  • Muhammad Ahmad Hussein
    Muhammad Ahmad Hussein
    Muhammad Ahmad Hussein has been the Grand Mufti of Jerusalem since July 2006, when he was appointed by Mahmoud Abbas, the President of the Palestinian National Authority. Hussein replaced Ekrima Sa'id Sabri, who was fired by Abbas for involving himself too heavily in political affairs...

     from July 2006 to the present

See also


  • Jerusalem in Islam
    Jerusalem in Islam
    Jerusalem in Islam refers to the status of Jerusalem in the Muslim religious tradition. The al-Aqsa masjid in Jerusalem is built on the site of the second place of worship built by man, after the Masjid al-Haram in Makkah...

  • Grand Mufti
    Grand Mufti
    The title of Grand Mufti refers to the highest official of religious law in a Sunni or Ibadi Muslim country. The Grand Mufti issues legal opinions and edicts, fatwā, on interpretations of Islamic law for private clients or to assist judges in deciding cases...

  • Custodian of the Two Holy Mosques
    Custodian of the Two Holy Mosques
    Custodian of the Two Holy Mosques , a historical term, was a pious title taken by the Ayyubids, the Mamluk Sultans of Egypt, and the Ottoman Sultans; it has been revived by modern Saudi kings.-Saudi monarchy:...