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Governor of Bermuda

Governor of Bermuda

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The Governor of Bermuda is the representative of the British monarch in the British overseas territory of Bermuda
Bermuda
Bermuda is a British overseas territory in the North Atlantic Ocean. Located off the east coast of the United States, its nearest landmass is Cape Hatteras, North Carolina, about to the west-northwest. It is about south of Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada, and northeast of Miami, Florida...

. The Governor is appointed by the monarch on the advice of the British government. The role of the Governor is to act as the de facto head of state
Head of State
A head of state is the individual that serves as the chief public representative of a monarchy, republic, federation, commonwealth or other kind of state. His or her role generally includes legitimizing the state and exercising the political powers, functions, and duties granted to the head of...

, and he or she is responsible for appointing the Premier and the 11 members of the Senate
Senate of Bermuda
The Senate is one of two parts of the Parliament of Bermuda, the other being the House of Assembly. Both are overseen by the Governor. The Senate is the Upper House of the Parliament, and serves as a House of Review....

 (the upper house of Bermuda's Parliament
Parliament of Bermuda
Parliament has two chambers. Originally, there was only one, the House of Assembly, which held its first session in 1620, making Bermuda's Parliament amongst the World's oldest legislatures. An appointed Privy Council originally performed roles similar to that of an upper house, and of a cabinet...

).

The current Governor is Sir Richard Gozney
Richard Gozney
Sir Richard Hugh Turton Gozney KCMG CVO KStJ is a British career diplomat. He has been Governor and Commander in Chief of Bermuda since 12 December 2007.-Background and education:...

; he was sworn-in on 12 December 2007.

The Governor has his own flag in Bermuda, a Union Flag
Union Flag
The Union Flag, also known as the Union Jack, is the flag of the United Kingdom. It retains an official or semi-official status in some Commonwealth Realms; for example, it is known as the Royal Union Flag in Canada. It is also used as an official flag in some of the smaller British overseas...

 defaced with the territory's coat of arms
Coat of arms of Bermuda
The coat of arms of Bermuda depicts a red lion holding a shield that has a depiction of a wrecked ship upon it. The red lion is a symbol of England and alludes to Bermuda’s relationship with that country. The wrecked ship is the Sea Venture, the flagship of the Virginia Company...

.

History


Bermuda's settlement began in 1609, with the wrecking of the flagship of the Virginia Company
London Company
The London Company was an English joint stock company established by royal charter by James I of England on April 10, 1606 with the purpose of establishing colonial settlements in North America.The territory granted to the London Company included the coast of North America from the 34th parallel ...

, the Sea Venture
Sea Venture
The Sea Venture was a 17th-century English sailing ship, the wrecking of which in Bermuda is widely thought to have been the inspiration for Shakespeare's The Tempest...

. Although most of the passengers and crew ultimately completed their voyage to Virginia
Virginia
The Commonwealth of Virginia , is a U.S. state on the Atlantic Coast of the Southern United States. Virginia is nicknamed the "Old Dominion" and sometimes the "Mother of Presidents" after the eight U.S. presidents born there...

, the archipelago was permanently settled from that point, and left in the hands of the Virginia Company. The first intentional settlers arrived in 1612, under the colony's first Governor, Richard Moore. A carpenter by trade, Moore ensured the long-term survival of the colony by concentrating on building fortifications, including the first stone forts in the English New World, and developing St. George's Town
St. George's, Bermuda
St. George's , located on the island and within the parish of the same names, was the first permanent settlement on the islands of Bermuda, and is often described as the third successful English settlement in the Americas, after St. John's, Newfoundland, and Jamestown, Virginia. However, St...

.

Bermuda was the second permanent English colony established (as an extension of the first, Jamestown, Virginia
Jamestown, Virginia
Jamestown was a settlement in the Colony of Virginia. Established by the Virginia Company of London as "James Fort" on May 14, 1607 , it was the first permanent English settlement in what is now the United States, following several earlier failed attempts, including the Lost Colony of Roanoke...

). Bermuda was administered by the Virginia Company, and its successor, the Somers Isles Company
Somers Isles Company
The Somers Isles Company was formed in 1615 to operate the English colony of the Somers Isles, also known as Bermuda, as a commercial venture. It held a royal charter for Bermuda until 1684, when it was dissolved, and the Crown assumed responsibility for the administration of Bermuda as a royal...

, until 1684. The companies appointed the colony's governors until the Crown took over administration. The Crown maintained the system of government established under the company; an elected parliament and a privy council under a governor. The Privy Council was also known as the Governor's Council. The last company-appointed Governor was reappointed by the Crown. In 1707 the British State was created by the union of the Kingdom of England
Kingdom of England
The Kingdom of England was, from 927 to 1707, a sovereign state to the northwest of continental Europe. At its height, the Kingdom of England spanned the southern two-thirds of the island of Great Britain and several smaller outlying islands; what today comprises the legal jurisdiction of England...

 with the Kingdom of Scotland
Kingdom of Scotland
The Kingdom of Scotland was a Sovereign state in North-West Europe that existed from 843 until 1707. It occupied the northern third of the island of Great Britain and shared a land border to the south with the Kingdom of England...

, and Bermuda thereby became a British colony. Since the 1783 independence of Virginia, it has been the Britain's oldest colony. Following US independence, Bermuda became an important Royal Navy
Royal Navy
The Royal Navy is the naval warfare service branch of the British Armed Forces. Founded in the 16th century, it is the oldest service branch and is known as the Senior Service...

 base, with a large military garrison to guard it. As such, the policy of the government until the closure of the Royal Naval dockyard in 1953 had been to appoint retiring Generals or Admirals as Bermuda's Governor and Commander-in-Chief. On the rare occasions when a civilian was appointed to the role, it was only as Governor – the role of Commander-in-Chief being filled by a serving General or Admiral in Bermuda or Newfoundland. Since the 1950s, those appointed Governor and Commander-in-Chief have tended to be prominent career-politicians at the ends of their political lives.

Prior to the creation of the Parliament of Bermuda
Parliament of Bermuda
Parliament has two chambers. Originally, there was only one, the House of Assembly, which held its first session in 1620, making Bermuda's Parliament amongst the World's oldest legislatures. An appointed Privy Council originally performed roles similar to that of an upper house, and of a cabinet...

, the House of Assembly
House of Assembly of Bermuda
The House of Assembly is the lower house of the Parliament of Bermuda. The house has 36 members, each elected for a five year term in a single seat constituencies....

, in 1620, the Governors ruled supreme, and were often draconian. Governor Daniel Tucker, formerly of Virginia, who arrived in 1616, was notorious for his harshness, having many islanders hanged, maimed, or whipped on the slightest provocation. One Bermudian, John Wood, was hanged for airing his views on the Governor in church. Governor Tucker's personal boat was reportedly stolen by five islanders, one named Saunders, who left a note saying they were on their way to England, or Davy Jones' Locker, either place being preferable to Bermuda under Tucker's rule. On reaching England, they complained about the harshness of Tucker's rule, though their complaints fell on deaf ears. Governor Tucker also, reportedly, used his oversight of the surveying of Bermuda to enrich himself and future generations of Bermudian Tuckers with prime real estate.

For the remainder of the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, the real political power in Bermuda lay in the elected parliament and the appointed Council, both dominated by members of Bermuda's wealthy commercial class. Governors who were too high-handed or injudicious in the exercise of their office occasionally fell foul of the local political institutions. Governor Isaac Richier, who arrived in 1691, quickly made himself unpopular with his carousing and criminal behaviour. Bermudian complaints saw him placed in jail, and replaced by Governor Goddard. When Goddard proved worse than Richier, attorney general Samuel Trott had him jailed alongside Richier. The two governors were to be tried before a pair of prominent Bermudians, John Trimmingham and William Butterfield. After Trott called the amateur judges bush lawyers, however, he found himself in St. George's jail along side the governors. After they confided in him their plan for escape, Trott informed the judges. Richier and Goddard were sent back to England for trial.

At the written request of George Washington
George Washington
George Washington was the dominant military and political leader of the new United States of America from 1775 to 1799. He led the American victory over Great Britain in the American Revolutionary War as commander-in-chief of the Continental Army from 1775 to 1783, and presided over the writing of...

, during the course of the American War of Independence, 100 barrels of gunpowder were stolen from a magazine in St. George's and provided to the American rebels. No one was ever prosecuted in relation to this act of treason. The theft had been the result of a conspiracy involving powerful Bermudians, who were motivated as much by Bermuda's desperate plight, denied her primary trading partner and source of food, as by any favourable sentiments they may have had in regard to either the American colonists or their cause. Following this, Bermudians and their political institutions were looked at suspiciously by the British Government.

With the build up of the naval and military bases on the island following American independence, the position of the Governor was enhanced. Despite this, the Governors – appointed by the Crown – remained largely dependant on the Bermudian parliament to pass laws and to provide funds. This fact often found Governors pleading in vain for the required acts of parliament or money to carry out policies determined at Government House, or in London. This was particularly noticeable in the Bermudian Parliament's neglect to maintain militia, which (other than during the course of the American War of 1812
War of 1812
The War of 1812 was a military conflict fought between the forces of the United States of America and those of the British Empire. The Americans declared war in 1812 for several reasons, including trade restrictions because of Britain's ongoing war with France, impressment of American merchant...

), it allowed to become moribund after the build-up of the naval and military base began in 1795.

Attempts to raise militias directly under the control of the Governor, without acts of the local parliament, ultimately failed because the parliament did not provide funds. In the 1860s, it became the policy of the British Government to reduce the costly professional military garrison in Bermuda. As it was not wished to leave the colony, seen more as a naval base, unguarded, this could only be done if the professional soldiers were replaced with part-time Volunteer
Volunteer Force (Great Britain)
The Volunteer Force was a citizen army of part-time rifle, artillery and engineer corps, created as a popular movement in 1859. Originally highly autonomous, the units of volunteers became increasingly integrated with the British Army after the Childers Reforms in 1881, before forming part of the...

 units. Successive governors were set the task of convincing the Bermudian parliament to raise the required units, but, concerned of being saddled with the cost of maintaining the entire garrison, as well as with the possibility for social disruption that could be caused by raising either racially-segregated or integrated units, the Bermudian Parliamentarians simply refused. This state of affairs continued until the Secretary of State for War found a lever to blackmail the Bermuda Parliament with in 1892, when it finally passed acts for the creation of volunteer forces (although the units would be entirely funded by the British Government).

On 10 March 1973, the 121st Governor, Richard Sharples
Richard Sharples
Major Sir Richard Christopher Sharples KCMG OBE MC , St. George, Bermuda) was a British politician and Governor of Bermuda from late 1972 to 10 March 1973 when he was shot dead by assassins linked to the militant Black Beret Cadre, a small Bermudian Black Power group.-Career:Sharples passed out...

, and his aide-de-camp Captain Hugh Sayers, were assassinated in a racist attack by a Bermudian black activist named Buck Burrows and an accomplice, Larry Tacklin, who were members of the Black Beret Cadres. Under Bermudian law at the time, premeditated murder was a capital offence, and death sentences were often handed out, though routinely commuted. No death sentence had been carried out since the 1940s. After much debate due to the controversial moral issues raised, the sentence stood despite a 6,000-strong petition from Bermudians to the Queen. Both men were hanged in 1977 for the killings and other murders, sparking riots throughout Bermuda. Buck Burrows explained in his confession that he had killed the Governor to prove that he was not untouchable and that white-dominated politics was fallible. He was also found guilty of murdering the police commissioner, George Duckett, six months earlier on 9 September 1972, and of killing the co-owner and bookkeeper of a supermarket called the Shopping Centre, Victor Rego and Mark Doe in April 1973.

List of Governors of Bermuda


  1. 1612–1616 Richard Moore
  2. 1616–1619 Daniel Tucker
  3. 1619–1622 Nathaniel Butler
    Nathaniel Butler
    Nathaniel Butler was an English privateer who later served as the colonial governor of Bermuda during the early 17th century. He had built many structures still seen in Bermuda today including many of the island's coastal fortresses and the State House, in St...

  4. 1622–1623 Capt. John Bernard
  5. 1623–1626 Capt. Henry Woodhouse
  6. 1626–1629 Capt. Philip Bell
  7. 1629–1637 Capt. Roger Wood
  8. 1637–1641 Capt. Thomas Chaddock
  9. 1641–1642 Capt. William Sayer
  10. 1642–1643 Capt. Josias Forster
  11. 1643–1644 Capt. William Sayer
  12. 1644–1645 A Triumvirate: William Sayer
  13. 1645 Capt. Josias Forster
  14. 1645–1647 The Triumvirate
  15. 1647–1649 Capt. Thomas Turner
  16. 1649–1650 John Trimingham (Elected by the People)
  17. 1650–1659 Capt. Josias Forster
  18. 1659–1663 Capt. William Sayer
  19. 1663–1668 Capt. F. Seymour
  20. 1668–1669 S. Whalley
  21. 1669–1681 Sir John Heydon
  22. 1681–1682 Capt. F. Seymour
  23. 1682-1683 Henry Durham (Act. Gov.)
  24. 1683–1687 Col. Richard Coney
  25. 1687–1690 Sir Richard Robinson
  26. 1691–1693 Isaac Richier
  27. 1693–1698 Capt. John Goddard
  28. 1698–1700 Samuel Day
  29. 1701–1713 Capt. Benjamin Bennett
  30. 1713–1718 Henry Pulleine
  31. 1718–1722 Capt. Benjamin Bennett
  32. 1722–1727 Sir John Hope
  33. 1727–1728 John Trimingham
  34. 1728–1737 Capt. John Pitt
    John Pitt (soldier)
    John Pitt was a British politician, soldier and colonial administrator. Pitt was the youngest son of Governor Thomas "Diamond" Pitt who made a fortune while in India and returned to Britain to found a political dynasty. John attended Eton College, and went into the army. He rose to the rank of...

  35. 1737–1738 Andrew Auchinleck
  36. 1738–1744 Alured Popple
  37. 1744–1747 Francis Jones
  38. 1747–1751 William Popple
  39. 1751–1755 Francis Jones
  40. 1755–1763 William Popple
  41. 1763–1764 Francis Jones
  42. 1764–1780 George James Bruere
    George James Bruere
    George James Bruere was the British Governor of Bermuda from 1764 until his death.Of all Bermuda's governors since 1612, his term of office was the longest....

  43. 1780 Thomas Jones
  44. 1780–1781 George Bruere the younger
  45. 1782–1788 William Browne
  46. 1788–1794 Henry Hamilton (Lt. Gov.)
  47. 1794–1796 James Crawford
  48. 1796 Henry Tucker
  49. 1796 William Campbell
  50. 1796–1798 Henry Tucker
  51. 1798–1803 George Beckwith
    George Beckwith (British Army officer)
    General Sir George Beckwith KB was a British Army officer.-Military career:Beckwith was commissioned into the 37th Regiment of Foot in 1771. He distinguished himself as a regimental officer in the American Revolutionary War, where he was assistant to Major Oliver Delancey responsible for British...

  52. 1803–1805 Henry Tucker
  53. 1805–1806 Francis Gore
    Francis Gore
    Francis Gore, was a British officer and British colonial administrator.Gore was commissioned into the 44th Foot in 1787, but transferred to the 54th Foot in 1794 and the 17th Light Dragoons in 1795. He retired with the rank of major and then became Lieutenant-Governor of Upper Canada from 1806 to...

     (Lt. Gov.)
  54. 1806 Henry Tucker
  55. 1806–1810 John Hodgson
  56. 1810–1811 Samuel Trott
  57. 1811–1812 Sir James Cockburn
    Sir James Cockburn, 9th Baronet
    Sir James Cockburn, 9th Baronet was British Governor of Bermuda from 1811 to 1819.He was the eldest son of Sir James Cockburn, 8th Baronet and his second wife Augusta Anne Ayscough...

  58. 1812 William Smith
  59. 1812–1816 George Horsford (Lt. Gov.)
  60. 1814–1816 Sir James Cockburn
    Sir James Cockburn, 9th Baronet
    Sir James Cockburn, 9th Baronet was British Governor of Bermuda from 1811 to 1819.He was the eldest son of Sir James Cockburn, 8th Baronet and his second wife Augusta Anne Ayscough...

  61. 1816–1817 William Smith
  62. 1817–1819 Sir James Cockburn
  63. 1819 William Smith
  64. 1819–1822 Sir William Lumley
    William Lumley
    General Sir William Lumley, GCB was a senior British Army officer and courtier during the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries. The son of the Earl of Scarborough, Lumley enjoyed a rapid rise through the ranks aided by a reputation for bravery and professionalism established on campaign...

  65. 1822–1823 William Smith
  66. 1823–1825 Sir William Lumley
  67. 1825–1826 William Smith
  68. 1826–1829 Sir Hilgrove Turner
  69. 1829 Robert Kennedy (Act. Gov.)
  70. 1829–1830 Sir Hilgrove Turner
  71. 1830 Robert Kennedy (Act. Gov.)
  72. 1830–1832 Sir Hilgrove Turner
  73. 1832–1835 Sir R.S. Chapman
  74. 1835 Henry G. Hunt (Act. Gov.)
  75. 1835–1836 Robert Kennedy
  76. 1836–1839 Sir R.S. Chapman
  77. 1839–1846 Lt. Col. William Reid
  78. 1846 W.N. Hutchinson
  79. 1846–1852 Sir Charles Elliot
    Charles Elliot
    Sir Charles Elliot, KCB , was a British naval officer, diplomat, and colonial administrator. He became the first administrator of Hong Kong in 1841 while serving as both Plenipotentiary and Chief Superintendent of British Trade in China...

  80. 1852–1853 W. Hassell Eden (Act. Gov.)
  81. 1853 George Philpots (Act. Gov.)
  82. 1853 Soulden Oakley (Act. Gov.)
  83. 1853 Thomas C. Robe (Act. Gov.)
  84. 1853 Soulden Oakley (Act. Gov.)
  85. 1853–1854 Sir Charles Elliot
    Charles Elliot
    Sir Charles Elliot, KCB , was a British naval officer, diplomat, and colonial administrator. He became the first administrator of Hong Kong in 1841 while serving as both Plenipotentiary and Chief Superintendent of British Trade in China...

  86. 1854 Montgomery Williams (Act. Gov.)
  87. 1854–1859 Col. Freeman Murray
  88. 1859 AT. Heniphill (Act. Gov.)
  89. 1859–1860 William Munroe
  90. 1860–1861 Col. Freeman Murray
  91. 1861–1864 Col. Harry St. George Ord
    Harry Ord
    Major-General Sir Harry St. George Ord GCMG, CB, RE, was born on 4 August 1819 in North Cray, Kent, England. He was the son of Henry Gough Ord and grandson of Craven Ord of Greenstead Hall, Essex, a prominent antiquarian.-Education and career:...

  92. 1864 William Munroe (Act. Gov.)
  93. 1864–1865 W.H. Hamley (Lt. Gov.)
  94. 1865–1866 Col. Harry St. George Ord
  95. 1866–1867 W.H. Hamley (Lt. Gov.)
  96. 1867 Arnold Thompson (Act. Gov.)
  97. 1867–1870 Sir F. E. Chapman
  98. 1870 W. F. Brett (Lt. Gov.)
  99. 1871–1877 Maj. Gen. Sir John Henry Lefroy
    John Henry Lefroy
    Sir John Henry Lefroy, KCMG, CB, FRS, was a British military man and later colonial administrator who also distinguished himself with his scientific studies of the Earth's magnetism.- Biography :...

  100. 1877–1882 Lt. Gen. Thomas L. J. Gaiwey
  101. 1888–1891 Lt. Gen. Edward Newdegate
    Edward Newdegate
    Sir Edward Newdigate Newdegate KCB was a member of the Newdigate family and a soldier. He was born at Astley, near Nuneaton, the second son of Francis Parker Newdigate and Barbara Maria Legge....

  102. 1892–1896 Lt. Gen. C. Lyons
  103. 1896–1901 Lt. Gen. Sir George Digby Barker
    George Digby Barker
    General Sir George Digby Barker GCB was a British soldier and colonial administrator.-Military career:...

  104. 1902–1904 Lt. Gen. Sir Henry LeGuay Geary
  105. 1904–1907 Lt. Gen. Sir Robert M. Steward
  106. 1907–1908 Lt. Gen. Sir Josceline Wodehouse
    Josceline Wodehouse
    General Sir Josceline Heneage Wodehouse GCB CMG was a senior British Army officer.-Military career:Born the elder son of Vice-Admiral George Wodehouse and educated at the Royal Military Academy, Woolwich, Wodehouse was commissioned into the Royal Artillery in 1873...

  107. 1908–1912 Lt. Gen. Sir Frederick Walter Kitchener
  108. 1912–1917 Lt. Gen. Sir George M. Bullock
  109. 1917–1922 Gen. Sir James Willcocks
    James Willcocks
    General Sir James Willcocks GCB GCMG KCSI DSO was a British Army officer who held high command during World War I....

  110. 1922–1927 Lt. Gen. Sir Lt. Gen. Sir J. J. Asser
    J. J. Asser
    Lt. Gen. Sir J. J. Asser was a British politician and Governor of Bermuda from 1922 to 1927....

  111. 1927–1931 Lt. Gen. Sir Louis Jean Bols
    Louis Bols
    Lieutenant-General Sir Louis Jean Bols KCB, KCMG, DSO was born in Cape Town and educated at Lancing College in England. He was a distinguished British military officer...

  112. 1931–1936 Lt. Gen. Sir Thomas Astley Cubitt
    Thomas Cubitt (British Army officer)
    General Sir Thomas Astley Cubitt KCB CMG DSO was a British Army officer of the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, who commanded a division in the First World War and in retirement served as Governor of Bermuda....

  113. 1936–1939 General Sir Reginald Hildyard
    Reginald Hildyard
    General Sir Reginald John Thoroton Hildyard KCB CMG DSO was a British Army general who saw active service in the Second Boer War and the First World War....

  114. 1939–1941 Lt. Gen. Sir Denis John Charles Kirwan Bernard
    Denis Bernard (British Army officer)
    Lieutenant General Sir Denis John Charles Kirwan Bernard KCB CMG DSO was a British Army officer who commanded 3rd Infantry Division.-Military career:Born the son of Percy Bernard MP, Hayes was commissioned into the Rifle Brigade in 1902...

  115. 1941–1943 The Rt. Hon. Viscount Knollys
  116. 1943–1945 Lord Burghley
    David Cecil, 6th Marquess of Exeter
    David George Brownlow Cecil, 6th Marquess of Exeter KCMG , styled Lord Burghley before 1956 and also known as David Burghley, was an English athlete, sports official and Conservative Party politician...

  117. 1946–1949 Admiral Sir Ralph Leatham
    Ralph Leatham
    Admiral Sir Ralph Leatham KCB was a Royal Navy officer who served as Commander-in-Chief, Plymouth during World War II.-Naval career:...

  118. 1949–1955 Lt. Gen. Sir Alexander Hood
  119. 1955–1959 Lt. Gen. Sir John Woodall
    John Woodall (British Army officer)
    Lieutenant General Sir John Woodall KCMG KBE CB MC was General Officer Commanding Northern Ireland District.-Military career:Woodall was commissioned into the Royal Artillery in 1915 during the latter phases of World War I...

  120. 1959–1964 Maj. Gen. Sir Julian Gascoigne
    Julian Gascoigne
    Major-General Sir Julian Gascoigne KCMG KCVO CB DSO was Major-General commanding the Household Brigade and General Officer Commanding London District.-Military career:Gascoigne was commissioned into the Grenadier Guards in 1923...

  121. 1964–1972 The Rt. Hon. Lord Martonmere
  122. 1972–1973 Sir Richard Sharples
    Richard Sharples
    Major Sir Richard Christopher Sharples KCMG OBE MC , St. George, Bermuda) was a British politician and Governor of Bermuda from late 1972 to 10 March 1973 when he was shot dead by assassins linked to the militant Black Beret Cadre, a small Bermudian Black Power group.-Career:Sharples passed out...

     (assassinated)
  123. 1973–1977 Sir Edwin Leather
    Edwin Leather
    Sir Edwin Hartley Cameron "Ted" Leather, KCMG, KCVO was a Conservative politician in the United Kingdom, and Governor of Bermuda.-Education:...

  124. 1977–1980 The Hon. Sir Peter Ramsbotham
    Peter Ramsbotham
    Peter Edward Ramsbotham, 3rd Viscount Soulbury, GCMG, GCVO, KStJ, DL was a British diplomat and colonial administrator....

  125. 1980–1983 Sir Richard Posnett
  126. 1983–1988 The Rt. Hon. Viscount Dunrossil
    John Morrison, 2nd Viscount Dunrossil
    Flight Lieutenant John William Morrison, 2nd Viscount Dunrossil CMG JP was a diplomat and British peer. He was present in the South African courtroom when Nelson Mandela was sentenced to 27 years' imprisonment and obtained study materials for Mandela to achieve a law degree from the University of...

  127. 1988–1992 Major-Gen Sir Desmond Langley
    Desmond Langley
    Major-General Sir Henry Desmond Allen Langley KCVO MBE was Major-General Commanding the Household Division and General Officer Commanding London District.-Military career:...

  128. 1992–1997 The Rt. Hon. Lord Waddington
    David Waddington, Baron Waddington
    David Charles Waddington, Baron Waddington, GCVO, DL, QC, PC , is a British politician. A member of the Conservative Party, he served as a Member of Parliament in the House of Commons from 1968 to 1990, and was then made a life peer...

  129. 1997–2002 Mr Thorold Masefield
  130. 2002–2007 Sir John Vereker
    John Vereker (governor)
    Sir John Michael Medlicott Vereker, KCB, KStJ, FRSA, CInstM is an independent member of the Board of XL Group plc, and of a number of its subsidiaries and Committees; and an independent Director of MWH Global...

  131. 2007 Mark Capes (Act. Gov.)
  132. 2007–present Sir Richard Gozney
    Richard Gozney
    Sir Richard Hugh Turton Gozney KCMG CVO KStJ is a British career diplomat. He has been Governor and Commander in Chief of Bermuda since 12 December 2007.-Background and education:...


Sources


Bermuda and Great Britain; Bermuda Online Portal

External links