Gospel of Luke

Gospel of Luke

Overview
The Gospel According to Luke , commonly shortened to the Gospel of Luke or simply Luke, is the third and longest of the four canonical Gospels. This synoptic gospel is an account of the life
New Testament view on Jesus' life
The four canonical gospels of the New Testament are the primary sources of information for the doctrinal Christian narrative of the life of Jesus. There is not a single New Testament "view" on the life of Jesus, the four Canonical gospels tell different but connected stories...

 and ministry
Ministry of Jesus
In the Christian gospels, the Ministry of Jesus begins with his Baptism in the countryside of Judea, near the River Jordan and ends in Jerusalem, following the Last Supper with his disciples. The Gospel of Luke states that Jesus was "about 30 years of age" at the start of his ministry...

 of Jesus of Nazareth. It details his story from the events of his birth to his Ascension.

The author is traditionally identified as Luke the Evangelist
Luke the Evangelist
Luke the Evangelist was an Early Christian writer whom Church Fathers such as Jerome and Eusebius said was the author of the Gospel of Luke and the Acts of the Apostles...

. Certain popular stories, such as the Prodigal Son and the Good Samaritan, are found only in this gospel .
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Encyclopedia
The Gospel According to Luke , commonly shortened to the Gospel of Luke or simply Luke, is the third and longest of the four canonical Gospels. This synoptic gospel is an account of the life
New Testament view on Jesus' life
The four canonical gospels of the New Testament are the primary sources of information for the doctrinal Christian narrative of the life of Jesus. There is not a single New Testament "view" on the life of Jesus, the four Canonical gospels tell different but connected stories...

 and ministry
Ministry of Jesus
In the Christian gospels, the Ministry of Jesus begins with his Baptism in the countryside of Judea, near the River Jordan and ends in Jerusalem, following the Last Supper with his disciples. The Gospel of Luke states that Jesus was "about 30 years of age" at the start of his ministry...

 of Jesus of Nazareth. It details his story from the events of his birth to his Ascension.

The author is traditionally identified as Luke the Evangelist
Luke the Evangelist
Luke the Evangelist was an Early Christian writer whom Church Fathers such as Jerome and Eusebius said was the author of the Gospel of Luke and the Acts of the Apostles...

. Certain popular stories, such as the Prodigal Son and the Good Samaritan, are found only in this gospel . This account also has a special emphasis on prayer, the activity of the Holy Spirit, women, and joyfulness. Luke presented Jesus as the Son of God, but turned his attention especially to the humanity of Jesus, featuring His compassion for the weak, the suffering and the outcast.

According to the preface the purpose of Luke is to write a historical account, while bringing out the theological significance of the history. The evangelist divides history into three stages: the first ends with John the Baptist
John the Baptist
John the Baptist was an itinerant preacher and a major religious figure mentioned in the Canonical gospels. He is described in the Gospel of Luke as a relative of Jesus, who led a movement of baptism at the Jordan River...

, the second consists of Jesus' earthly ministry, and the third is the life of the church after Jesus' resurrection. The author portrays Christianity
Christianity
Christianity is a monotheistic religion based on the life and teachings of Jesus as presented in canonical gospels and other New Testament writings...

 as divine, respectable, law-abiding, and international. Here, Jesus' compassion extends to all who are needy, women are important among his followers, the despised Samaritans are commended, and Gentiles are promised the opportunity to accept the gospel. While the gospel is written as a historical narrative, many of the facts portrayed therein are based on previous traditions of the recorded Gospel story and not on what some might consider to be historical record.

Most modern critical scholarship concludes that Luke
Luke the Evangelist
Luke the Evangelist was an Early Christian writer whom Church Fathers such as Jerome and Eusebius said was the author of the Gospel of Luke and the Acts of the Apostles...

 used the Gospel of Mark
Gospel of Mark
The Gospel According to Mark , commonly shortened to the Gospel of Mark or simply Mark, is the second book of the New Testament. This canonical account of the life of Jesus of Nazareth is one of the three synoptic gospels. It was thought to be an epitome, which accounts for its place as the second...

 for his chronology and a hypothetical sayings source Q document for many of Jesus' teachings. Luke may also have drawn from independent written records. Traditional Christian scholarship has dated the composition of the gospel to the early 60s, while higher criticism dates it to the later decades of the 1st century. While the traditional view that Paul's companion Luke authored the gospel is still often put forward, a number of possible contradictions between Acts and Paul's letters
Historical reliability of the Acts of the Apostles
The historical reliability of the Acts of the Apostles, the primary source for the Apostolic Age, is a major issue for biblical scholars and historians of Early Christianity. The historicity of Acts became hotly debated between 1895-1915...

 lead many scholars to dispute this account. According to Raymond E. Brown
Raymond E. Brown
The Reverend Raymond Edward Brown, S.S. , was an American Roman Catholic priest, a member of the Sulpician Fathers and a major Biblical scholar of his era...

, it is not impossible that Luke was the author. According to the majority view, the author is simply unknown.

Biblical Scholars are in wide agreement that the author of the Gospel of Luke also wrote the Acts of the Apostles
Acts of the Apostles
The Acts of the Apostles , usually referred to simply as Acts, is the fifth book of the New Testament; Acts outlines the history of the Apostolic Age...

. Many believe "the Gospel of Luke and the Acts of the Apostles originally constituted a two-volume work" , which scholars refer to as Luke-Acts
Luke-Acts
Luke-Acts is the name usually given by Biblical scholars to the hypothetical composite work of the Gospel of Luke and the Acts of the Apostles in the New Testament. Together they describe the Ministry of Jesus and the subsequent lives of the Apostles and the Apostolic Age.Both the books of Luke and...

.

Title


Early on, the anonymous gospel was given the title Gospel According to Luke . It is commonly called the Gospel of Luke or simply Luke. "Gospel" means "good news."

Composition


The date of the Gospel of Luke is traditionally fixed to some time before the end of the final events of Luke's second volume to Theophilus, Acts, so as early as 59 or 60. The author of the Gospel of Luke acknowledges familiarity with earlier gospels (1:1). Although semitisms exist throughout the Gospel of Luke, it was composed in Koine Greek
Koine Greek
Koine Greek is the universal dialect of the Greek language spoken throughout post-Classical antiquity , developing from the Attic dialect, with admixture of elements especially from Ionic....

. Like Mark (but unlike Matthew), the intended audience is the Greek-speaking populations of the region; it assures readers that Christianity is an international religion, not an exclusively Jewish sect.

Synoptic Gospels



The Gospels of Luke, Matthew and Mark (known as the Synoptic Gospels) include many of the same stories, often in the same sequence, and sometimes exactly the same wording. The most commonly accepted explanation for this similarity is the two-source hypothesis
Two-source hypothesis
The Two-Source Hypothesis is an explanation for the synoptic problem, the pattern of similarities and differences between the three Gospels of Matthew, Mark, and Luke. It posits that the Gospel of Matthew and the Gospel of Luke were based on the Gospel of Mark and a lost, hypothetical sayings...

. It hypothesizes that Matthew and Luke each borrowed from both Mark
Gospel of Mark
The Gospel According to Mark , commonly shortened to the Gospel of Mark or simply Mark, is the second book of the New Testament. This canonical account of the life of Jesus of Nazareth is one of the three synoptic gospels. It was thought to be an epitome, which accounts for its place as the second...

 and a hypothetical sayings collection, called Q. For most scholars, the Q collection accounts for what the gospels of Luke and Matthew share but are not found in Mark
Gospel of Mark
The Gospel According to Mark , commonly shortened to the Gospel of Mark or simply Mark, is the second book of the New Testament. This canonical account of the life of Jesus of Nazareth is one of the three synoptic gospels. It was thought to be an epitome, which accounts for its place as the second...

.

In The Four Gospels: A Study of Origins (1924), Burnett Hillman Streeter
Burnett Hillman Streeter
Burnett Hillman Streeter was a British biblical scholar and textual critic.-Life:He was educated at Queen's College, Oxford. Streeter was ordained in 1899 and was a member of the Archbishop’s Commission on Doctrine in the Church of England...

 argued that another source, referred to as L
L source
In historical-critical analysis, the L source is an inferred oral tradition that Luke used when composing his gospel. It includes the Christmas story and many of Jesus' best loved parables. Like Matthew's unique source, known as M-Source, the L source has important parables that may be authentic to...

 and also hypothetical, lies behind the material in Luke that has no parallel in Mark or Matthew. (See the Four Document Hypothesis )

Sources


The traditional view is that Luke, who was not an eye-witness of Jesus' ministry, wrote his gospel after gathering the best sources of information within his reach (Luke 1:1-4). Critical scholarship generally holds to the two-source hypothesis
Two-source hypothesis
The Two-Source Hypothesis is an explanation for the synoptic problem, the pattern of similarities and differences between the three Gospels of Matthew, Mark, and Luke. It posits that the Gospel of Matthew and the Gospel of Luke were based on the Gospel of Mark and a lost, hypothetical sayings...

 as most probable, which argues that the author used the Gospel of Mark
Gospel of Mark
The Gospel According to Mark , commonly shortened to the Gospel of Mark or simply Mark, is the second book of the New Testament. This canonical account of the life of Jesus of Nazareth is one of the three synoptic gospels. It was thought to be an epitome, which accounts for its place as the second...

 and the hypothetical Q document in addition to unique material, as sources for the gospel.

The Gospel of Mark



Most modern scholars agree that Luke used the Gospel of Mark as one of his sources. The understanding that Mark was the first of the synoptic gospels and that it served as a source for Matthew and Luke is foundational to modern critical scholarship.

Mark's gospel is quite short, and written in Koine Greek
Koine Greek
Koine Greek is the universal dialect of the Greek language spoken throughout post-Classical antiquity , developing from the Attic dialect, with admixture of elements especially from Ionic....

 (that is, common Greek). It provides a general chronology from Jesus' baptism to the empty tomb. Luke, however, sometimes presented events in a different order to more clearly support his emphases. For example, Mark has Jesus recruit his first disciples before he has performed any miracles, and Luke moves the recruitment scene to a point after Jesus' first miracles.

The sayings gospel Q


A majority of scholars believe that Luke used Q as his second source. Q (for "Quelle," German for "source") is a hypothetical collection of Jesus' sayings. In the "two-source hypothesis," Q explains where the authors of Matthew and Luke got the material that they have in common with each other but that is not found in Mark, such as the Lord's prayer. The existence of a highly treasured dominical sayings document in circulation going totally unmentioned by the Fathers of the Early Church, remains one of the great conundrums of Modern Biblical Scholarship.

The Gospel of Matthew


Martin Hengel
Martin Hengel
Martin Hengel was a German historian of religion, focusing on the "Second Temple Period" or "Hellenistic Period" of early Judaism.-Biography:...

 argued that Luke also made use of Matthew, the second synoptic gospel.

L source


Material unique to Luke is said to derive from the L source
L source
In historical-critical analysis, the L source is an inferred oral tradition that Luke used when composing his gospel. It includes the Christmas story and many of Jesus' best loved parables. Like Matthew's unique source, known as M-Source, the L source has important parables that may be authentic to...

, which is thought to derive from the oral tradition.

Luke apparently draws formal set pieces from the "teachings" of Christianity and incorporates into the gospel. The Magnificat
Magnificat
The Magnificat — also known as the Song of Mary or the Canticle of Mary — is a canticle frequently sung liturgically in Christian church services. It is one of the eight most ancient Christian hymns and perhaps the earliest Marian hymn...

, in which Mary praises God, is one such element.

The birth narratives in both Luke and Matthew seem to be the latest component of the Gospels. Luke may have originally begun with verses 3:1-7, a second prologue.

Comparisons have been made between the annunciation narrative in Luke's Gospel with the Dead Sea scrolls
Dead Sea scrolls
The Dead Sea Scrolls are a collection of 972 texts from the Hebrew Bible and extra-biblical documents found between 1947 and 1956 on the northwest shore of the Dead Sea, from which they derive their name...

 manuscript Q4Q246:

“He will be great, and will be called the Son of the Most High … The power of the Most High will overshadow you; therefore the child to be born will be called holy, the Son of God” (Luke 1:32, 35).



“[X] shall be great upon the earth. [O king, all (people) shall] make [peace], and all shall serve [him. He shall be called the son of] the [G]reat [God], and by his name shall he be hailed (as) the Son of God, and they shall call him Son of the Most High.” (Dead Sea scrolls manuscript Q4Q246)


The similarity in content has been described as such that "it is difficult to avoid the conclusion that Luke is dependent in some way, whether directly or indirectly, on this long lost text from Qumran".

Greek



The books of the New Testament were written in Greek. Luke's style is the most literary of all these books. Graham Stanton evaluates the opening of the Gospel of Luke as "the most finely composed sentence in the whole of post-Classical Greek literature."

Authorship



The writer of this anonymous gospel was probably a Gentile Christian. Whoever the author was, he was highly educated, well traveled, well connected, and extremely widely read. By the time he composed the Gospel, he must have been a highly practiced and competent author - able to compose in a wide variety of literary forms according to the demands of the moment.

The Gospel of Luke and the Acts of the Apostles
Acts of the Apostles
The Acts of the Apostles , usually referred to simply as Acts, is the fifth book of the New Testament; Acts outlines the history of the Apostolic Age...

 were both written by the same author. The most direct evidence comes from the prefaces of each book. Both prefaces were addressed to Theophilus
Theophilus (Biblical)
Theophilus is the name or honorary title of the person to whom the Gospel of Luke and the Acts of the Apostles are addressed...

, and the preface of Acts explicitly references "my former book" about the life of Jesus. Furthermore, there are linguistic and theological similarities between the two works, suggesting that they have a common author. Both books also contain common interests. Linguistic and theological agreements and cross-references between the books indicate that they are from the same author. Those biblical scholars who consider the two books a single, two-volume work often refer to both together as Luke-Acts
Luke-Acts
Luke-Acts is the name usually given by Biblical scholars to the hypothetical composite work of the Gospel of Luke and the Acts of the Apostles in the New Testament. Together they describe the Ministry of Jesus and the subsequent lives of the Apostles and the Apostolic Age.Both the books of Luke and...

.

The passages in Acts where the first person plural is used point to the author being a companion of Paul. Tradition holds that the text was written by Luke the companion of Paul
Luke the Evangelist
Luke the Evangelist was an Early Christian writer whom Church Fathers such as Jerome and Eusebius said was the author of the Gospel of Luke and the Acts of the Apostles...

 (named in Colossians ).

The Church Fathers
Church Fathers
The Church Fathers, Early Church Fathers, Christian Fathers, or Fathers of the Church were early and influential theologians, eminent Christian teachers and great bishops. Their scholarly works were used as a precedent for centuries to come...

, witnessed by the Muratorian Canon, Irenaeus (c. 170), Clement of Alexandria, Origen, and Tertullian, held that the Gospel of Luke was written by Luke
Luke the Evangelist
Luke the Evangelist was an Early Christian writer whom Church Fathers such as Jerome and Eusebius said was the author of the Gospel of Luke and the Acts of the Apostles...

. The oldest manuscript of the gospel P75
Papyrus 75
Papyrus 75 is an early Greek New Testament papyrus.- Description :Originally '[it] contained about 144 pages ... of which 102 have survived, either in whole or in part.' It 'contains about half the text of ... two Gospels' – Luke and John in Greek...

 (circa 200) carries the attribution “the Gospel according to Luke”. however another manuscript P4
Papyrus 4
Papyrus 4 is an early New Testament papyri of the Gospel of Luke in Greek. It is dated as being a late 2nd/early 3rd century manuscript.- Description :...

 from about the same time period has no such (surviving) attribution.

According to the majority view, the evidence against Luke being the author is strong enough that the author is unknown. The Book of Acts contradicts the letters of Paul on many points, such as Paul's second trip to Jerusalem for an apostolic council. Paul placed an emphasis on Jesus' death while the author of Luke instead emphasizes Jesus' suffering, and there are other differences regarding eschatology and the Law. Paul described Luke as “the beloved physician”, leading Hobart to claim in 1882 that the vocabulary used in Luke-Acts suggests its author may have had medical training. However, this assertion was contradicted by an influential study by Cadbury in 1926, and has since been abandoned; instead it is now believed this language reflects merely a common Greek education.

The traditional view on Lukan authorship, however, is held by many scholars, and according to Raymond Brown it is "not impossible" that they are right. Since Luke was not prominent there is no obvious reason that this gospel and Acts would have been attributed to him if he didn't write them. If Luke was only a sometime companion of Paul who idealized him long after his death, that could explain the differences between Acts and Paul's letter. Even though the evangelist as depicted in the New Testament doesn't match the patristic description of Luke, the traditional view is still argued today.

Date


Most critical scholars place the date c 80-90, although some argue for a date c. 60-65.

AD 75 to 100



Most contemporary scholars regard Mark
Gospel of Mark
The Gospel According to Mark , commonly shortened to the Gospel of Mark or simply Mark, is the second book of the New Testament. This canonical account of the life of Jesus of Nazareth is one of the three synoptic gospels. It was thought to be an epitome, which accounts for its place as the second...

 as a source used by Luke (see Markan Priority
Markan priority
Markan priority is the hypothesis that the Gospel of Mark was the first written of the three Synoptic Gospels, and that the two other synoptic evangelists, Matthew and Luke, used Mark's Gospel as one of their sources. The theory of Markan priority is today accepted by the majority of New Testament...

). If it is true that Mark was written around the destruction of the Temple of Jerusalem, around 70, they theorize that Luke would not have been written before 70. Some who take this view believe that Luke's prediction of the destruction of the temple could not be a result of Jesus predicting the future but with the benefit of hindsight regarding specific details. They believe that the discussion in Luke 21:5-30 is specific enough (more specific than Mark's or Matthew's) that a date after 70 seems necessary, if disputed. These scholars have suggested dates for Luke from 75 to 100. Support for a later date comes from a number of reasons. Differences of chronology, "style", and theology suggest that the author of Luke-Acts was not familiar with Paul's distinctive theology
Pauline Christianity
Pauline Christianity is a term used to refer to the Christianity associated with the beliefs and doctrines espoused by Paul of Tarsus through his writings. Most of orthodox Christianity relies heavily on these teachings and considers them to be amplifications and explanations of the teachings of...

 but instead was writing a decade or more after his death, by which point significant harmonization between different traditions within Early Christianity
Early Christianity
Early Christianity is generally considered as Christianity before 325. The New Testament's Book of Acts and Epistle to the Galatians records that the first Christian community was centered in Jerusalem and its leaders included James, Peter and John....

 had occurred. Furthermore, Luke-Acts has views on Jesus' divine nature
Christology
Christology is the field of study within Christian theology which is primarily concerned with the nature and person of Jesus Christ as recorded in the Canonical gospels and the letters of the New Testament. Primary considerations include the relationship of Jesus' nature and person with the nature...

, the end times
Eschatology
Eschatology is a part of theology, philosophy, and futurology concerned with what are believed to be the final events in history, or the ultimate destiny of humanity, commonly referred to as the end of the world or the World to Come...

, and salvation
Soteriology
The branch of Christian theology that deals with salvation and redemption is called Soteriology. It is derived from the Greek sōtērion + English -logy....

 that are similar to the those found in Pastoral epistles
Pastoral epistles
The three pastoral epistles are books of the canonical New Testament: the First Epistle to Timothy the Second Epistle to Timothy , and the Epistle to Titus. They are presented as letters from Paul of Tarsus...

, which are often seen as pseudonym
Pseudonym
A pseudonym is a name that a person assumes for a particular purpose and that differs from his or her original orthonym...

ous and of a later date than the undisputed
Authorship of the Pauline epistles
The Pauline epistles are the fourteen books in the New Testament traditionally attributed to Paul the Apostle, although many dispute the anonymous Epistle to the Hebrews as being a Pauline epistle....

 Pauline Epistles
Pauline epistles
The Pauline epistles, Epistles of Paul, or Letters of Paul, are the thirteen New Testament books which have the name Paul as the first word, hence claiming authorship by Paul the Apostle. Among these letters are some of the earliest extant Christian documents...

.

Some scholars from the Jesus Seminar
Jesus Seminar
The Jesus Seminar is a group of about 150 critical scholars and laymen founded in 1985 by Robert Funk under the auspices of the Westar Institute....

 argue that the birth narratives of Luke and Matthew are a late development in gospel writing about Jesus. In this view, Luke might have originally started at 3:1, with John the Baptist.

The terminus ad quem
Terminus post quem
Terminus post quem and terminus ante quem specify approximate dates for events...

, or latest possible date, for Luke is bound by the earliest papyri manuscripts
Biblical manuscript
A biblical manuscript is any handwritten copy of a portion of the text of the Bible. The word Bible comes from the Greek biblia ; manuscript comes from Latin manu and scriptum...

 that contains portions of Luke (late 2nd/early 3rd century) and the mid to late 2nd century writings that quote or reference Luke. The work is reflected in the Didache
Didache
The Didache or The Teaching of the Twelve Apostles is a brief early Christian treatise, dated by most scholars to the late first or early 2nd century...

, the Gnostic
Gnosticism
Gnosticism is a scholarly term for a set of religious beliefs and spiritual practices common to early Christianity, Hellenistic Judaism, Greco-Roman mystery religions, Zoroastrianism , and Neoplatonism.A common characteristic of some of these groups was the teaching that the realisation of Gnosis...

 writings of Basilides
Basilides
Basilides was an early Gnostic religious teacher in Alexandria, Egypt who taught from 117–138 AD, notes that to prove that the heretical sects were "later than the catholic Church," Clement of Alexandria assigns Christ's own teaching to the reigns of Augustus and Tiberius; that of the apostles,...

 and Valentinus
Valentinus (Gnostic)
Valentinus was the best known and for a time most successful early Christian gnostic theologian. He founded his school in Rome...

, the apologetics of the Church Father Justin Martyr
Justin Martyr
Justin Martyr, also known as just Saint Justin , was an early Christian apologist. Most of his works are lost, but two apologies and a dialogue survive. He is considered a saint by the Roman Catholic Church and the Eastern Orthodox Church....

, and was used by Marcion. Christian scholar Donald Guthrie
Donald Guthrie
Donald Guthrie was a British New Testament scholar. Guthrie was a graduate of the University of London . From 1949 until his retirement in 1982 Guthrie was lecturer in New Testament studies at London Bible College , and from 1978 until 1982 he served as vice-principal of the college.Guthrie wrote...

 claims that the Gospel was likely widely known before the end of the 1st century, and was fully recognized by the early part of the second, while Helmut Koester
Helmut Koester
Helmut Koester is a German-born American scholar of the New Testament and currently Morison Research Professor of Divinity and Winn Research Professor of Ecclesiastical History at Harvard Divinity School. He teaches courses at both the Divinity School and at Harvard Extension School, and was the...

 states that aside from Marcion, "there is no certain evidence for its usage," prior to ca. 150. In the middle of the 2nd century, an edited version of the Gospel of Luke was the only gospel accepted by Marcion, a heretic who rejected Christianity's connection to Jewish scripture.

Before AD 70


A minority argument for a date between AD 37 and AD 61 for the Gospel typically suggests that Luke's address to "Most Excellent Theophilus," may be a reference to the Roman-imposed High Priest of Israel between AD 37 and AD 41, Theophilus ben Ananus
Theophilus ben Ananus
Theophilus was the High Priest in the Second Temple in Jerusalem from AD 37 to 41 according to Josephus's Antiquities of the Jews. He was a member of one of the wealthiest and most influential Jewish families in Iudaea Province during the 1st century...

.

Christian scholar Donald Guthrie reports that some think Luke collected much of his unique material during the imprisonment of Paul in Caesarea, when Luke attended to him. Paul mentions Luke, in passing, several times as traveling with Paul. However Guthrie notes that much of the evidence for dating the Gospel at any point is based upon conjecture.

Audience and authorial intent


It is thought that like Mark (but unlike Matthew), the intended audience is international. Luke portrays his subject in a positive light regarding Roman authorities. For example, the Jews are said to be responsible for Jesus' crucifixion, with Pontius Pilate
Pontius Pilate
Pontius Pilatus , known in the English-speaking world as Pontius Pilate , was the fifth Prefect of the Roman province of Judaea, from AD 26–36. He is best known as the judge at Jesus' trial and the man who authorized the crucifixion of Jesus...

 finding no wrong in him.

The Gospel is addressed to the author's patron, Theophilus, which in Greek simply means friend of God or (be)loved by God or loving God, and may not be a name but a generic term for a Christian. The Gospel is clearly directed at Christians, or at those who already knew about Early Christianity
Early Christianity
Early Christianity is generally considered as Christianity before 325. The New Testament's Book of Acts and Epistle to the Galatians records that the first Christian community was centered in Jerusalem and its leaders included James, Peter and John....

, rather than a general audience, since the ascription goes on to state that the Gospel was written "so that you may know the certainty of the things you have been taught" .

Content


Formal introduction
  • To Theophilus
    Theophilus (Biblical)
    Theophilus is the name or honorary title of the person to whom the Gospel of Luke and the Acts of the Apostles are addressed...

     (1:1–4)


Jesus' birth and boyhood
  • Zacharias
    Zechariah (priest)
    In the Bible, Zechariah , is the father of John the Baptist, a priest of the sons of Aaron, a prophet in , and the husband of Elisabeth who is the cousin of Mary the mother of Jesus.In the Qur'an, Zechariah plays a similar role as the father of John the Baptist and ranks him as a prophet alongside...

     (1:5–25)
  • Annunciation
    Annunciation
    The Annunciation, also referred to as the Annunciation to the Blessed Virgin Mary or Annunciation of the Lord, is the Christian celebration of the announcement by the angel Gabriel to Virgin Mary, that she would conceive and become the mother of Jesus the Son of God. Gabriel told Mary to name her...

     (1:26–45)
  • Magnificat
    Magnificat
    The Magnificat — also known as the Song of Mary or the Canticle of Mary — is a canticle frequently sung liturgically in Christian church services. It is one of the eight most ancient Christian hymns and perhaps the earliest Marian hymn...

     (1:46–56)
  • John the Baptist
    John the Baptist
    John the Baptist was an itinerant preacher and a major religious figure mentioned in the Canonical gospels. He is described in the Gospel of Luke as a relative of Jesus, who led a movement of baptism at the Jordan River...

     (1:57–80; 3:1–20; 7:18–35; 9:7–9)
    • Benedictus
      Benedictus (Song of Zechariah)
      The Benedictus , given in Gospel of , is one of the three canticles in the opening chapters of this Gospel. The Benedictus was the song of thanksgiving uttered by Zechariah on the occasion of the birth of his son, John the Baptist.The whole canticle naturally falls into two parts...

       (1:68–79)
  • Census of Quirinius
    Census of Quirinius
    The Census of Quirinius refers to the enrollment of the Roman Provinces of Syria and Iudaea for tax purposes taken in the year 6/7 during the reign of Emperor Augustus , when Publius Sulpicius Quirinius was appointed governor of Syria, after the banishment of Herod Archelaus from the Tetrarchy of...

     (2:1–5)
  • Nativity
    Nativity of Jesus
    The Nativity of Jesus, or simply The Nativity, refers to the accounts of the birth of Jesus in two of the Canonical gospels and in various apocryphal texts....

     (2:6–7)
  • Annunciation to the shepherds
    Annunciation to the shepherds
    The Annunciation to the shepherds is an episode in the Nativity of Jesus described in the Bible in Luke 2, in which angels tell a group of shepherds about the birth of Jesus...

     (2:8-15)
  • Adoration of the Shepherds
    Adoration of the shepherds
    The Adoration of the shepherds, in the Nativity of Jesus in art, is a scene in which shepherds are near witnesses to the birth of Jesus in Bethlehem. It is often combined with the Adoration of the Magi, in which case it is typically just referred to by the latter title...

     (2:16–20)
  • Circumcision of Jesus
    Circumcision of Jesus
    The Circumcision of Jesus is an event from the life of Jesus of Nazareth according to the Gospel of Luke, which states in verse 2:21 that Jesus was circumcised eight days after his birth...

     (2:21–40)
    • Nunc dimittis
      Nunc dimittis
      The Nunc dimittis is a canticle from a text in the second chapter of Luke named after its first words in Latin, meaning 'Now dismiss...'....

       (2:29–32)
  • Finding in the Temple
    Finding in the Temple
    The Finding in the Temple, also called "Christ among the Doctors" or the Disputation , was an episode in the early life of Jesus depicted in the Gospel of Luke. It is the only event of the later childhood of Jesus mentioned in a gospel.The episode is only described in...

     (2:41–52)


Jesus' baptism and temptation
  • Baptism
    Baptism of Jesus
    The baptism of Jesus marks the beginning of Jesus Christ's public ministry. This event is recorded in the Canonical Gospels of Matthew, Mark and Luke. In John 1:29-33 rather than a direct narrative, the Baptist bears witness to the episode...

     (3:21–22)
  • Genealogy
    Genealogy of Jesus
    The genealogy of Jesus is described in two passages of the Gospels: Luke 3:23–38 and Matthew 1:1–17.* Matthew's genealogy commences with Abraham and then from King David's son Solomon follows the legal line of the kings through Jeconiah, the king whose descendants were cursed, to Joseph, legal...

     (3:23–38)
  • Temptation (4:1–13)



Jesus' ministry in Galilee
  • Good News (4:14–15)
  • Rejection in Nazareth (4:16–30)
  • Capernaum
    Exorcism at the Synagogue in Capernaum
    The Exorcism at the Synagogue in Capernaum is one of the miracles of Jesus in the Gospels, i.e. Mark 1:21-28 and Luke 4:31-37.According to the Gospels, on the Sabbath Jesus and his disciples went to Capernaum, and Jesus began to teach. People were amazed at his teaching, because he taught them as...

     (4:31–44)
  • Miraculous catch of fish (5:1–11)
  • Leper
    Jesus cleansing a leper
    Jesus cleansing a leper is one of the miracles of Jesus in the Gospels, namely in Matthew 8:1-4, Mark 1:40-45 and Luke 5:12-16.According to the Gospels, when Jesus came down from the mountainside, large crowds followed him. A man with leprosy came and knelt before him and said, "Lord, if you are...

     and Paralytic
    Healing the paralytic at Capernaum
    Healing the paralytic at Capernaum is one of the miracles of Jesus in the Gospels in Matthew , Mark and Luke .According to the Gospels, when Jesus entered Capernaum, the people heard that he had come home. They gathered in such large numbers that there was no room left, not even outside the door,...

     (5:12–26)
  • Calling of Matthew
    Calling of Matthew
    The Calling of Matthew is an episode in the life of Jesus that appears in all three Synoptic Gospels, , and and relates the initial encounter between Jesus and St. Matthew.According to the Gospel of Matthew:...

     (5:27–32)
  • On fasting (5:33–35)
  • New Wine into Old Wineskins
    New Wine into Old Wineskins
    New Wine into Old Wineskins is one of a pair of parables told by Jesus in the New Testament, found in Matthew , Mark , and Luke . A version of the parables also appears in the Gnostic Gospel of Thomas .-Passage:...

     (5:36-39)
  • Lord of the Sabbath
    Lord of the Sabbath
    The Lord of the Sabbath is an episode in the life of Jesus that appears in all three Synoptic Gospels, , and . It relates an encounter between Jesus, his Apostles and the Pharisees and is the first of the "four Sabbath controversies"....

     (6:1-5)
  • Man with withered hand
    Healing the man with a withered hand
    Healing the man with a withered hand is one of the miracles of Jesus in the Gospels, namely in Mark 3:1-6, Luke 6:6-11 and Matthew 12:9-13.On a Sabbath when Jesus went into the synagogue, the Pharisees and the teachers of the law were looking for a reason to accuse him, so they watched him closely...

     (6:6-11)
  • Commission of the Twelve (6:12–16; 9:1–6, 22:24-30)
  • Sermon on the Plain
    Sermon on the Plain
    In Christianity, the Sermon on the Plain refers to a set of teachings by Jesus in the Gospel of Luke, in 6:17-49.This sermon may be compared to the longer Sermon on the Mount in the Gospel of Matthew....

     (6:17–49)
  • Centurion's servant
    Healing the Centurion's servant
    Healing the Centurion's servant is one of the miracles of Jesus in the Gospels of Matthew and Luke.According to the Gospels, a Roman Centurion asked Jesus for help because his boy servant was ill. Jesus offered to go to the Centurion's house to perform the healing, but the Centurion suggested that...

     (7:1–10)
  • Young man from Nain (7:11-17)
  • Anointing
    Anointing of Jesus
    The anointing of Jesus is an event reported by each of the Canonical gospels, in which a woman pours the entire contents of an alabastron of very expensive perfume over the head or feet of Jesus....

     (7:36–50)
  • Women companions of Jesus
    Female disciples of Jesus
    The New Testament identifies a number of women as followers of Jesus. The four gospels differ in the number, names, and roles of such female disciples...

     (8:1–3)
  • Parable of the Sower
    Parable of the Sower
    The Parable of the Sower is one of the parables of Jesus found in three out of the four Canonical gospels and in the non-canonical Gospel of Thomas In this story, a sower dropped seed on the path, on rocky ground, and among thorns, and the seed was lost; but when seed fell on good earth, it...

     (8:4–8,11–15)
  • Purpose of parables (8:9–10)
  • The Lamp under a Bushel (8:16-18; 11:33)
  • Jesus' true relatives
    Jesus' True Relatives
    The saying of Jesus concerning his true relatives is found in the Canonical gospels of Mark and Matthew.-In the Bible:From : There came then his brethren and his mother, and, standing without, sent unto him, calling him....

     (8:19-21)
  • Calming the storm
    Calming the storm
    thumb|240px|[[The Storm on the Sea of Galilee]] by [[Rembrandt]], 1632.Calming the storm is one of the miracles of Jesus in the Gospels, namely in Mark 4:35-41, Luke 8:22-25 and Matthew 8:23-27....

     (8:22–25)
  • Demon named Legion
    Legion (demon)
    Legion is a group of demons referred to in the Christian Bible. The New Testament outlines an encounter where Jesus healed a man from Gadarenes possessed by demons while traveling, known as Exorcising the Gerasenes demonic.- In the Bible :...

     (8:26–39)
  • Daughter of Jairus
    Daughter of Jairus
    The record of the daughter of Jairus is a combination of miracles of Jesus in the Gospels .The story immediately follows the exorcism at Gerasa. Jairus, a patron of the synagogue, asks Jesus to heal his dying daughter. However, according to Matthew, his daughter is already dead, not dying...

     (8:40–56)
  • Feeding of the 5000
    Feeding the multitude
    Feeding the multitude is the combined term used to refer to two separate miracles of Jesus in the Gospels.The First Miracle, "The Feeding of the 5,000" is the only miracle which is present in all four canonical Gospels...

     (9:10–17)
  • Peter's confession
    Peter's confession
    In Christianity, the Confession of Peter refers to an episode in the New Testament in which Apostle Peter proclaims Jesus to be Christ - the expected Messiah...

     (9:18–20)
  • Son of Man
    Son of man
    The phrase son of man is a primarily Semitic idiom that originated in Ancient Mesopotamia, used to denote humanity or self. The phrase is also used in Judaism and Christianity. The phrase used in the Greek, translated as Son of man is ὁ υἱὸς τοὺ ἀνθρώπου...

     (9:21–25, 44–45, 57–58; 18:31–34)
  • Return of the Son of Man
    Second Coming
    In Christian doctrine, the Second Coming of Christ, the Second Advent, or the Parousia, is the anticipated return of Jesus Christ from Heaven, where he sits at the Right Hand of God, to Earth. This prophecy is found in the canonical gospels and in most Christian and Islamic eschatologies...

     (9:26–27)
  • Transfiguration
    Transfiguration of Jesus
    The Transfiguration of Jesus is an event reported in the New Testament in which Jesus is transfigured and becomes radiant upon a mountain. The Synoptic Gospels describe it, and 2 Peter 1:16-18 refers to it....

     (9:28–36)
  • Possessed boy
    Exorcising a boy possessed by a demon
    Exorcising a boy possessed by a demon is one of the miracles of Jesus in the Gospels, i.e. Mark 9:14-29, Matthew 17:14-21 and Luke 9:37-49. According to the Gospels, Jesus performed this miracle just as he came down from the mountain after his transfiguration....

     (9:37–43)
  • The Little Children
    The Little Children
    The Little Children was a saying given by Jesus in the New Testament.From Matthew 18:1-6 Another saying referencing small children can be found in the Gospel of Thomas. The two passages are different in tone. However, both start by comparing those who enter the Kingdom of Heaven to children, and...

     (9:46–48)
  • Those not against are for (9:49–50)


Jesus' teaching on the journey to Jerusalem
  • On the road to Jerusalem
    Jerusalem in Christianity
    For Christians, Jerusalem's place in the ministry of Jesus and the Apostolic Age gives it great importance, in addition to its place in the Old Testament, the Hebrew Bible.-Jerusalem in the New Testament and early Christianity:...

     (9:51)
  • Samaritan rejection (9:52–56)
  • Let the dead bury the dead (9:59–60)
  • Don't look back (9:61–62)
  • Commission of the Seventy
    Seventy Disciples
    The seventy disciples or seventy-two disciples were early followers of Jesus mentioned in the Gospel of Luke . According to Luke, the only gospel in which they appear, Jesus appointed them and sent them out in pairs on a specific mission which is detailed in the text...

     (10:1–12,10:16-20)
  • Cursing Chorazin, Bethsaida, Capernaum (10:13–15)
  • Praising the Father
    God the Father
    God the Father is a gendered title given to God in many monotheistic religions, particularly patriarchal, Abrahamic ones. In Judaism, God is called Father because he is the creator, life-giver, law-giver, and protector...

     (10:21–24)
  • Great Commandment
    Great Commandment
    The Great Commandment, or Greatest Commandment, is an appellation applied to either the first, or both, of two commandments which appear in , and...

     (10:25–28)
  • Parable of the Good Samaritan
    Parable of the Good Samaritan
    The parable of the Good Samaritan is a parable told by Jesus and is mentioned in only one of the Canonical gospels. According to the Gospel of Luke a traveller is beaten, robbed, and left half dead along the road. First a priest and then a Levite come by, but both avoid the man. Finally, a...

     (10:29–37)
  • Visiting Martha and Mary
    Jesus at the home of Martha and Mary
    Jesus at the home of Martha and Mary is an episode in the life of Jesus that appears only in the Gospel of Luke, after the Parable of the Good Samaritan:.According to the Gospel of Luke:...

     (10:38–42)
  • Lord's Prayer
    Lord's Prayer
    The Lord's Prayer is a central prayer in Christianity. In the New Testament of the Christian Bible, it appears in two forms: in the Gospel of Matthew as part of the discourse on ostentation in the Sermon on the Mount, and in the Gospel of Luke, which records Jesus being approached by "one of his...

     (11:1–4)
  • The Friend at Night
    The Friend at Night
    The Parable of the Friend at Night , is a parable of Jesus, which appears in only one of the Canonical gospels of the New Testament. According to the Luke , a friend eventually agrees to help his neighbor due to his persistent demands.This parable demonstrates the need to pray and never give up...

     (11:5–13)
  • Blind-mute man
    Exorcising the blind and mute man
    Exorcising the blind and mute man is one of the miracles of Jesus in the Gospels, i.e. Matthew 12:22-32, Luke 11:14-23 and Mark 3:20-30.According to the Gospels, Jesus healed a demon-possessed man who was blind and mute, so that he could both talk and see...

     (11:14–19)
  • Finger of God (11:20)
  • Strong man
    Parable of the strong man
    The Parable of the strong man is a parable told by Jesus in the New Testament, found in Matthew , Mark , and Luke...

     (11:21-22)
  • Those not with me are against me (11:23)
  • Return of the unclean spirit
    Unclean spirit
    In English translations of the Bible, unclean spirit is a common rendering of Greek pneuma akatharton , which in its single occurrence in the Septuagint translates Hebrew ....

     (11:24–26)
  • Those who hear the word and keep it (11:27–28)
  • Sign of Jonah (11:29–32)
  • Eye and Light (11:34–36)
  • Woes of the Pharisees
    Woes of the Pharisees
    The Woes of the Pharisees is a list of criticisms by Jesus against Scribes and Pharisees and Lawyers that is present in the Gospel of Luke and Gospel of Matthew...

     (11:37–54)
  • Veiled and Unveiled (12:1–3)
  • Whom to fear (12:4–7)
  • Unforgivable sin
    Eternal sin
    Eternal sins or unforgivable sins or unpardonable sins, are a concept in Christian theology of sins which cannot or will not be forgiven, whereby salvation becomes impossible...

     (12:8–12)
  • Disputed inheritance (12:13–15)
  • The Rich Fool
    The Rich Fool
    The Parable of the Rich Fool is a parable of Jesus which appears in only one of the Canonical gospels of the New Testament. According to Luke , the parable reflects the foolishness of attaching too much importance to wealth....

     and Birds
    The Birds of Heaven
    The Birds of Heaven" was given by Jesus in the New Testament books of . It was considered important to the ancient Gnostics.From Matthew 6:24–33 : From :...

     (12:16–32)
  • Sell your possessions (12:33–34)
  • Parable of the Faithful Servant
    Parable of the Faithful Servant
    The Parable of the Faithful Servant is a parable of Jesus found in three out of the four Canonical gospels in the New Testament...

     (12:35–48)
  • Not Peace, but a Sword
    But to bring a sword
    "I come not to bring peace, but to bring a sword" , part of the Lesser Commission, is one of the controversial statements reported of Jesus in the Bible. The saying has been interpreted in several ways...

     (12:49–53; 14:25–27)
  • Knowing the times (12:54–56)
  • Settle with your accuser (12:57–59)
  • Tower of Siloam
    Tower of Siloam
    According to the Bible, the Tower of Siloam was an ancient tower in Siloam in south Jerusalem, which fell during the time of Jesus, killing 18 people.-Mentioned in the Bible:...

     (13:1–5)
  • The Barren Fig Tree (13:6–9)
  • Infirm woman
    Jesus healing an infirm woman
    Jesus healing an infirm woman is one of the miracles of Jesus in the Gospels .According to the Gospel, Jesus was teaching in one of the synagogues on a Sabbath, and a woman was there who had been crippled by a spirit for eighteen years. She was bent over and could not straighten up at all...

     (13:10–17)
  • Parables of Mustard seed
    Parable of the Mustard Seed
    The Parable of the Mustard Seed is one of the shorter parables of Jesus. It appears in three of the Canonical gospels of the New Testament. The differences between Gospels of Matthew , Mark , and Luke , are minor...

     and Leaven (13:18–21)
  • The Narrow Gate (13:22–30)
  • Lament over Jerusalem (13:31–35)
  • Man with dropsy
    Healing a man with dropsy
    Healing a man with dropsy is one of the miracles of Jesus in the Gospels .According to the Gospel one Sabbath, Jesus went to eat in the house of a prominent Pharisee, and he was being carefully watched. There in front of him was a man suffering from dropsy, i.e. abnormal swelling of his body.Jesus...

     (14:1–6)
  • Parable of the Wedding Feast
    Parable of the Wedding Feast
    The Parable of the Great Banquet or the Wedding Feast or the Marriage of the King's Son is a parable told by Jesus in the New Testament, found in Matthew and Luke ....

    , Great banquet, Counting the cost
    Counting the cost
    Counting the cost is a name often given to a pair of parables told by Jesus in the New Testament, and found in Luke . The name comes from the phrase "count the cost" which occurs in the King James Version of the passage, as well as some other versions....

    , Lost sheep, Lost coin
    Parable of the Lost Coin
    The Parable of the Lost Coin is one of the parables of Jesus. It appears in only one of the Canonical gospels of the New Testament. According to Luke , a woman searches for a lost coin...

    , Lost son
    Parable of the Prodigal Son
    The Prodigal Son, also known as the Lost Son and the Prodigal Father, is one of the parables of Jesus. It appears in only one of the Canonical gospels of the New Testament. According to the Gospel of Luke a father extravagantly gives his sons their inheritance before he dies...

    , Unjust steward
    The Unjust Steward
    The Parable of the Unjust Steward is a parable of Jesus which appears in only one of the Canonical gospels of the New Testament...

     (14:7–16:13)
  • Not one stroke of a letter (16:14–17)
  • On divorce (16:18)
  • Lazarus and Dives
    Lazarus and Dives
    The Parable of the rich man and Lazarus is a well known parable of Jesus which appears in one of the Four Gospels of the New Testament....

     (16:19–31)
  • Curse those who set traps (17:1–6)
  • The Master and Servant
    The Master and Servant
    The Parable of the Master and Servant is a parable told by Jesus in the New Testament, found in Luke . The parable teaches that when somebody "has done what God expects, he or she is only doing his or her duty."- Narrative :The parable is as follows:...

     (17:7–10)
  • Cleansing ten lepers
    Cleansing ten lepers
    Christ cleansing ten lepers is one of the miracles of Jesus in the Gospels .According to the Gospel, on his way to Jerusalem, Jesus traveled along the border between Samaria and Galilee. As he was going into a village, ten men who had leprosy met him...

     (17:11–19)
  • The Coming Kingdom of God
    Second Coming
    In Christian doctrine, the Second Coming of Christ, the Second Advent, or the Parousia, is the anticipated return of Jesus Christ from Heaven, where he sits at the Right Hand of God, to Earth. This prophecy is found in the canonical gospels and in most Christian and Islamic eschatologies...

     (17:20–37)
  • Parables of the Unjust judge
    The Unjust Judge
    The Parable of the Unjust Judge , is one of the parables of Jesus which appears in only one of the Canonical gospels of the New Testament...

    , Pharisee and Publican
    Pharisee and the Publican
    The parable of the Pharisee and the Publican , is a parable of Jesus that appears in only one of the Canonical gospels of the New Testament. According to , a Pharisee, obsessed by his own virtue, is contrasted with a tax collector who humbly asks God for mercy.This parable demonstrates the need to...

     (18:1–14)
  • The Little Children
    The Little Children
    The Little Children was a saying given by Jesus in the New Testament.From Matthew 18:1-6 Another saying referencing small children can be found in the Gospel of Thomas. The two passages are different in tone. However, both start by comparing those who enter the Kingdom of Heaven to children, and...

     (18:15–17)
  • Evangelical counsels
    Evangelical counsels
    The three evangelical counsels or counsels of perfection in Christianity are chastity, poverty , and obedience . As Jesus of Nazareth stated in the Canonical gospels , they are counsels for those who desire to become "perfect"...

     (18:18–30)
  • Blind near Jericho (18:35–43)
  • Zacchaeus
    Zacchaeus
    Zacchaeus , according to chapter 19 of the gospel of Luke, was a superintendent of customs; a chief tax-gatherer at Jericho...

     (19:1–10)
  • Parable of the Talents
    Parable of the Talents
    The Parable of the talents or minas, , is one of the well known parables of Jesus. It appears in two of the Canonical gospels of the New Testament. The differences between Matthew and the Luke are substantial, and the two parables may not be derived from the same source...

     (19:11–27)



Jesus' Jerusalem conflicts, crucifixion, and resurrection
  • Triumphal entry into Jerusalem
    Triumphal entry into Jerusalem
    In the accounts of the four canonical Gospels, Jesus' triumphal entry into Jerusalem takes place in the days before the Last Supper, marking the beginning of his Passion....

     (19:28–44)
  • Temple incident
    Jesus and the Money Changers
    The narrative of Jesus and the money changers, commonly referred to as the cleansing of the Temple, occurs in all four canonical gospels of the New Testament....

     (19:45–20:8)
  • The Wicked Husbandman (20:9–19)
  • Render unto Caesar...
    Render unto Caesar...
    "Render unto Caesar…" is the beginning of a phrase attributed to Jesus in the synoptic gospels, which reads in full, "Render unto Caesar the things which are Caesar's, and unto God the things that are God's" ....

     (20:20–26)
  • Resurrection of the Dead
    Resurrection of the dead
    Resurrection of the Dead is a belief found in a number of eschatologies, most commonly in Christian, Islamic, Jewish and Zoroastrian. In general, the phrase refers to a specific event in the future; multiple prophesies in the histories of these religions assert that the dead will be brought back to...

     (20:27–40)
  • Is the Messiah the son of David? (20:41–44)
  • Denouncing scribes (20:45–47)
  • Lesson of the widow's mite
    Lesson of the widow's mite
    For the 2009 movie, see The Widow's Might.The Lesson of the widow's mite is presented in the Synoptic Gospels , in which Jesus is teaching at the Temple in Jerusalem. The Gospel of Mark specifies that two mites are together worth a quadrans, the smallest Roman coin...

     (21:1–4)
  • Olivet discourse
    Olivet discourse
    The Olivet discourse or Olivet prophecy is a biblical passage found in the Synoptic Gospels of Mark 13, Matthew 24, Luke 21. It is known as the "Little Apocalypse" because it includes Jesus' descriptions of the end times, the use of apocalyptic language, and Jesus' warning to his followers that...

     (21:5–38)
  • Plot to kill Jesus (22:1–6)
  • Last Supper
    Last Supper
    The Last Supper is the final meal that, according to Christian belief, Jesus shared with his Twelve Apostles in Jerusalem before his crucifixion. The Last Supper provides the scriptural basis for the Eucharist, also known as "communion" or "the Lord's Supper".The First Epistle to the Corinthians is...

     (22:7–23)
  • Peter's denial
    Denial of Peter
    The Denial of Peter refers to three acts of denial of Jesus by the Apostle Peter as described in the three Synoptic Gospels of the New Testament....

     (22:31–34, 55–62)
  • Sell your cloak and buy a sword
    Sell your cloak and buy a sword
    Sell your cloak and buy a sword is an instruction by Jesus to his disciples which has been interpreted in several ways. At the Last Supper Jesus says:-Self-defence or righteous violence interpretation:Some, such as S. G. F...

     (22:35–38)
  • Arrest
    Arrest of Jesus
    The arrest of Jesus is a pivotal event recorded in the Canonical gospels. The event ultimately leads, in the Gospel accounts, to Jesus' crucifixion...

     (22:39–54)
  • Before the High Priest
    Sanhedrin Trial of Jesus
    The Sanhedrin trial of Jesus refers to the Canonical Gospel accounts of the trial of Jesus before the Jewish Council, or Sanhedrin, following his arrest and prior to his trial before Pontius Pilate...

     (22:63–71)
  • Before Pilate (23:1–5, 13–25)
  • Before Herod Antipas
    Herod Antipas
    Herod Antipater , known by the nickname Antipas, was a 1st-century AD ruler of Galilee and Perea, who bore the title of tetrarch...

     (23:6–12)
  • Crucifixion
    Crucifixion of Jesus
    The crucifixion of Jesus and his ensuing death is an event that occurred during the 1st century AD. Jesus, who Christians believe is the Son of God as well as the Messiah, was arrested, tried, and sentenced by Pontius Pilate to be scourged, and finally executed on a cross...

     (23:26–49)
  • Joseph of Arimathea
    Joseph of Arimathea
    Joseph of Arimathea was, according to the Gospels, the man who donated his own prepared tomb for the burial of Jesus after Jesus' Crucifixion. He is mentioned in all four Gospels.-Gospel references:...

     (23:50–56)
  • Empty tomb
    Empty tomb
    Empty tomb most often refers to the tomb of Jesus which was found to be empty by the women who were present at Jesus’ crucifixion. They had come to his tomb to anoint his body with spices...

     (24:1–12)
  • Resurrection appearances
    Resurrection appearances of Jesus
    The major Resurrection appearances of Jesus in the Canonical gospels are reported to have occurred after his death, burial and resurrection, but prior to his Ascension. Among these primary sources, most scholars believe First Corinthians was written first, authored by Paul of Tarsus along with...

     (24:13–43)
  • Great Commission
    Great Commission
    The Great Commission, in Christian tradition, is the instruction of the resurrected Jesus Christ to his disciples, that they spread his teachings to all the nations of the world. It has become a tenet in Christian theology emphasizing missionary work, evangelism, and baptism...

     (24:44–49)
  • Ascension of Jesus (24:50–53)


Content summary


The Gospel of Luke tells the story of Jesus' miraculous birth, ministry of healing and parables, passion, resurrection, and ascension. Christian scholar Donald Guthrie
Donald Guthrie
Donald Guthrie was a British New Testament scholar. Guthrie was a graduate of the University of London . From 1949 until his retirement in 1982 Guthrie was lecturer in New Testament studies at London Bible College , and from 1978 until 1982 he served as vice-principal of the college.Guthrie wrote...

 claims, “it is full of superb stories and leaves the reader with a deep impression of the personality and teachings of Jesus."

Introduction


Luke is the only gospel with a formal introduction, in which the author explains his methodology and purpose. It states that many others have already "undertaken to set down an orderly account of the events that have been fulfilled among us, just as they were handed on to us by those who from the beginning were eyewitnesses and servants of the word." The author adds that he too wishes to compose an orderly account for Theophilus, so that Theophilus "may know the certainty of the things [he has] been taught".

Birth narratives and genealogy


Like Matthew, Luke recounts a royal genealogy and a virgin birth for Jesus. Unlike Matthew, who traces Jesus' birth back through the line of David to Abraham in order to appeal to his Jewish audience, in Luke the evangelist traces Jesus' lineage back to Adam, indicating a universal sense of salvation. Luke's birth narrative features the Christmas story, in which Mary and Joseph travel to Bethlehem for a census
Census of Quirinius
The Census of Quirinius refers to the enrollment of the Roman Provinces of Syria and Iudaea for tax purposes taken in the year 6/7 during the reign of Emperor Augustus , when Publius Sulpicius Quirinius was appointed governor of Syria, after the banishment of Herod Archelaus from the Tetrarchy of...

, the newborn Jesus is laid in a feeding trough (or manger), angels proclaim him the savior for all people, and shepherds come to adore him
Adoration of the shepherds
The Adoration of the shepherds, in the Nativity of Jesus in art, is a scene in which shepherds are near witnesses to the birth of Jesus in Bethlehem. It is often combined with the Adoration of the Magi, in which case it is typically just referred to by the latter title...

. Also unique to Luke is John the Baptist's birth story and three canticles (including the Magnificat) as well as the only story from Jesus' boyhood.

Miracles and parables


Luke emphasizes Jesus' miracles, recounting 20, four of which are unique. Like Matthew, it includes important sayings from the Q source, such as the Beatitudes
Beatitudes
In Christianity, the Beatitudes are a set of teachings by Jesus that appear in the Gospels of Matthew and Luke. The term Beatitude comes from the Latin adjective beatus which means happy, fortunate, or blissful....

. Luke's version of the Beatitudes differs from Matthew's, and Luke's seems closer to the source in Q. More than a dozen of Jesus' most memorable parables are unique to Luke, including the Good Samaritan, the Corrupt Steward and the Parable of the Prodigal Son
Parable of the Prodigal Son
The Prodigal Son, also known as the Lost Son and the Prodigal Father, is one of the parables of Jesus. It appears in only one of the Canonical gospels of the New Testament. According to the Gospel of Luke a father extravagantly gives his sons their inheritance before he dies...

.

Role of women


More than the other gospels, Luke focuses on women as playing important roles among Jesus' followers, such as Mary Magdalene
Mary Magdalene
Mary Magdalene was one of Jesus' most celebrated disciples, and the most important woman disciple in the movement of Jesus. Jesus cleansed her of "seven demons", conventionally interpreted as referring to complex illnesses...

, Martha
Martha
Martha of Bethany is a biblical figure described in the Gospels of Luke and John. Together with her siblings Lazarus and Mary, she is described as living in the village of Bethany near Jerusalem...

, and Mary of Bethany. The Gospel of Luke is the only Gospel which contains the Annunciation
Annunciation
The Annunciation, also referred to as the Annunciation to the Blessed Virgin Mary or Annunciation of the Lord, is the Christian celebration of the announcement by the angel Gabriel to Virgin Mary, that she would conceive and become the mother of Jesus the Son of God. Gabriel told Mary to name her...

 of the Birth of Jesus to Mary his mother (1:26-38).

Compared to the other canonical gospels, Luke devotes significantly more attention to women. The Gospel of Luke features more female characters, features a female prophet , and details the experience of pregnancy .

Prominent discussion is given to the lives of Elizabeth
Elizabeth (Biblical person)
Elizabeth is also spelled Elisabeth or Elisheva...

, the mother of John the Baptist
John the Baptist
John the Baptist was an itinerant preacher and a major religious figure mentioned in the Canonical gospels. He is described in the Gospel of Luke as a relative of Jesus, who led a movement of baptism at the Jordan River...

 and of Mary, the mother of Jesus (ch. ).

Last supper


Luke is the only gospel that treats the Last Supper the way Paul does, as the institution of a liturgy to be repeated by his followers. According to Geza Vermes, Paul is to be considered the primary source for this interpretation because he says he received this insight from direct revelation rather than from the other apostles. The verses in question are not found in certain older manuscripts, and Bart Ehrman concludes that they were added in order to support the theme of Jesus' atoning death, a theme found in Mark but that the evangelist excluded from the original Luke.

Trials and crucifixion



Luke emphasizes that Jesus had committed no crime against Rome, as confirmed by Herod, Pilate, and the thief crucified with Jesus. It is possible that the author of Luke was trying to gain the respect of the Roman authorities for the benefit of the church by stressing Jesus' innocence. In addition, it is also noted that Luke downplays Roman involvement in Jesus' execution and places responsibility more on the Jews. In Luke's Passion narrative, Jesus prays that God forgive those who crucify him and his assurance to a crucified thief that they will be together in Paradise.

Resurrection appearances


Luke's accounts differ from those in Mark and Matthew. Luke tells the story of two disciples on the road to Emmaus, and (as in John) Jesus appears to the Eleven and demonstrates that he is flesh and blood, not a spirit. Some scholars suggest that by writing of the "flesh and bones" properties of the resurrected Jesus, the author was making an apologetic response to docetic or gnostic views about Jesus' body, or to views that the disciples had merely seen his ghost. However, scholar Daniel A. Smith writes that the author was more likely concerned with those in Christian circles who may have believed that the resurrection as merely "spiritual" and that it could have occurred without the transformation of the natural body. Jesus' commission (the Great Commission
Great Commission
The Great Commission, in Christian tradition, is the instruction of the resurrected Jesus Christ to his disciples, that they spread his teachings to all the nations of the world. It has become a tenet in Christian theology emphasizing missionary work, evangelism, and baptism...

), to the disciples to carry his message to all the nations, affirms Christianity as a universal religion. The Book of Acts, also written by Luke to the same Theophilus, declares about Jesus that "he showed himself alive after his passion by many infallible proofs, being seen of them forty days..."

The detailed narration of the Road to Emmaus appearance
Road to Emmaus appearance
The Road to Emmaus appearance refers to one of the early resurrection appearances of Jesus after his crucifixion and the discovery of the empty tomb...

 in is at times considered one of the best sketches of a biblical scene in the Gospel of Luke.

Manuscripts



The earliest manuscript
Manuscript
A manuscript or handwrite is written information that has been manually created by someone or some people, such as a hand-written letter, as opposed to being printed or reproduced some other way...

s of the Gospel of Luke are three extensive papyrus
Papyrus
Papyrus is a thick paper-like material produced from the pith of the papyrus plant, Cyperus papyrus, a wetland sedge that was once abundant in the Nile Delta of Egypt....

 fragments dating from the late 2nd century or early 3rd century. P4
Papyrus 4
Papyrus 4 is an early New Testament papyri of the Gospel of Luke in Greek. It is dated as being a late 2nd/early 3rd century manuscript.- Description :...

 is probably the earliest, dating from the late 2nd century. P75
Papyrus 75
Papyrus 75 is an early Greek New Testament papyrus.- Description :Originally '[it] contained about 144 pages ... of which 102 have survived, either in whole or in part.' It 'contains about half the text of ... two Gospels' – Luke and John in Greek...

 dates from the late 2nd century/early 3rd century. Finally P45
Papyrus 45
Papyrus 45 is an early New Testament manuscript which is a part of the Chester Beatty Papyri. It was probably created around 250 in Egypt. It contains the texts of Matthew 20-21 and 25-26; Mark 4-9 and 11-12; Luke 6-7 and 9-14; John 4-5 and 10-11; and Acts 4-17...

 (mid-3rd century) contains an extensive portion of all four Gospels. In addition to these major early papyri there are 6 other papyri (P3, P7, P42, P69
Papyrus 69
Papyrus 69 is a small fragment from the Gospel of Luke dating to the 3rd century.- Description :...

, P82 and P97) dating from between the 3rd-8th century which also have small portions of Luke's Gospel. The early copies, as well as the earliest copies of Acts, date after the Gospel was separated from Acts.

The Codex Sinaiticus
Codex Sinaiticus
Codex Sinaiticus is one of the four great uncial codices, an ancient, handwritten copy of the Greek Bible. It is an Alexandrian text-type manuscript written in the 4th century in uncial letters on parchment. Current scholarship considers the Codex Sinaiticus to be one of the best Greek texts of...

 and Vaticanus, 4th-century codices
Codex
A codex is a book in the format used for modern books, with multiple quires or gatherings typically bound together and given a cover.Developed by the Romans from wooden writing tablets, its gradual replacement...

 of the Greek bible, are the oldest manuscripts that contain the full text of Luke. Codex Bezae
Codex Bezae
The Codex Bezae Cantabrigensis, designated by siglum Dea or 05 , δ 5 , is a codex of the New Testament dating from the 5th century written in an uncial hand on vellum. It contains, in both Greek and Latin, most of the four Gospels and Acts, with a small fragment of the 3 John...

 is a 5th- or 6th-century Western text-type
Western text-type
The Western text-type is one of several text-types used in textual criticism to describe and group the textual character of Greek New Testament manuscripts...

 manuscript that contains Luke in Greek
Ancient Greek
Ancient Greek is the stage of the Greek language in the periods spanning the times c. 9th–6th centuries BC, , c. 5th–4th centuries BC , and the c. 3rd century BC – 6th century AD of ancient Greece and the ancient world; being predated in the 2nd millennium BC by Mycenaean Greek...

 and Latin
Latin
Latin is an Italic language originally spoken in Latium and Ancient Rome. It, along with most European languages, is a descendant of the ancient Proto-Indo-European language. Although it is considered a dead language, a number of scholars and members of the Christian clergy speak it fluently, and...

 versions on facing pages. This text-type appears to have descended from an offshoot of the main manuscript tradition, departing from more familiar readings at many points. Verses are omitted only in Codex Bezae and a handful of Old Latin
Vetus Latina
Vetus Latina is a collective name given to the Biblical texts in Latin that were translated before St Jerome's Vulgate Bible became the standard Bible for Latin-speaking Western Christians. The phrase Vetus Latina is Latin for Old Latin, and the Vetus Latina is sometimes known as the Old Latin Bible...

 manuscripts. Nearly all other manuscripts including Codex Sinaiticus and Codex Vaticanus and Church Fathers contain the "longer" reading of Luke 22:19 and 20. Verse 22:20, which is very similar to , provides the only gospel support for the doctrine of the New Covenant
New Covenant
The New Covenant is a concept originally derived from the Hebrew Bible. The term "New Covenant" is used in the Bible to refer to an epochal relationship of restoration and peace following a period of trial and judgment...

. Verses are found in Western text-type. But they are omitted by a diverse number of ancient witnesses and are generally marked as such in modern translations. See Bruce M. Metzger's Textual Commentary on the Greek New Testament for details.

Disputed verses


Some argue that early Christian scribes introduced numerous accidental and deliberate alterations into New Testament documents. Textual critics have used principles of textual criticism to tentatively identify which variants are original.
Bart D. Ehrman cites two cases where proto-orthodox Christians
Proto-orthodox Christianity
Proto-orthodox Christianity is a term, coined by New Testament scholar Bart D. Ehrman, used to describe the Early Christian movement which was the precursor of Christian orthodoxy...

 may have altered the text in order to prevent its being used to support heretical beliefs.

When Jesus is baptized, some early witnesses attest that Luke's gospel had God the Father
God the Father
God the Father is a gendered title given to God in many monotheistic religions, particularly patriarchal, Abrahamic ones. In Judaism, God is called Father because he is the creator, life-giver, law-giver, and protector...

 say to Jesus, "This day I have begotten you." In orthodox texts (and thus in most modern Bibles), this text is replaced by the text from Mark. Ehrman concludes that the original text was changed because it had adoptionist overtones.

When Jesus prays in the garden of Gethsemane, the text refers to his being comforted by an angel and sweating drops like blood (verses 43-44
Christ's agony at Gethsemane
Christ's agony at Gethsemane is a passage in the Gospel of Luke , describing a prayer of Jesus, after which he receives strength from an angel, on the Mount of Olives prior to his betrayal and arrest...

 in ). These two verses disrupt the literary structure of the scene (the chiasmus
Chiasmus
In rhetoric, chiasmus is the figure of speech in which two or more clauses are related to each other through a reversal of structures in order to make a larger point; that is, the clauses display inverted parallelism...

), they are not found in all the early manuscripts, and they are the only place in Luke where Jesus is seen to be in agony. Ehrman concludes that they were inserted in order to counter doceticism, the belief that Jesus, as divine, only seemed to suffer. While probably not original to the text, these verses reflect 1st-century tradition.

See also

  • Textual variants in the Gospel of Luke
  • List of Gospels
  • List of omitted Bible verses
  • Luke-Acts
    Luke-Acts
    Luke-Acts is the name usually given by Biblical scholars to the hypothetical composite work of the Gospel of Luke and the Acts of the Apostles in the New Testament. Together they describe the Ministry of Jesus and the subsequent lives of the Apostles and the Apostolic Age.Both the books of Luke and...

  • Order of St. Luke
    Order of St. Luke
    The Order of Saint Luke is an ecumenical religious order, dedicated to sacramental and liturgical scholarship, education, and practice.As a Christian religious order, it is a dispersed community of women and men, lay and clergy, from many different denominations, seeking to live the sacramental life...

  • Luke 1
    Luke 1
    Luke 1 is the first chapter of the Gospel of Luke in the New Testament of the Christian Bible. It describes the events leading up to the birth of Jesus. It is written to Theophilus, who could be a real person or could simply mean a fellow Christian as theo philus is Greek for God lover...

  • Luke 2
    Luke 2
    Luke 2 is the second chapter of the Gospel of Luke in the New Testament of the Christian Bible. It contains an account of Jesus's birth and an incident from his childhood.- Jesus's Birth :...

  • Luke 3
    Luke 3
    Luke 3 is the third chapter of the Gospel of Luke in the New Testament of the Christian Bible. It contains an account of John the Baptist as well as a Genealogy of Jesus.- John the Baptist :...

  • Luke 4
    Luke 4
    Luke 4 is the fourth chapter of the Gospel of Luke in the New Testament of the Christian Bible. It details Jesus's three temptations, his rejection at Nazareth, and the start of his mission.-Jesus's Three Temptations:...

  • Christ's agony at Gethsemane
    Christ's agony at Gethsemane
    Christ's agony at Gethsemane is a passage in the Gospel of Luke , describing a prayer of Jesus, after which he receives strength from an angel, on the Mount of Olives prior to his betrayal and arrest...


External links




Online translations of the Gospel of Luke:

Secondary Literature:

Related articles: