Gorizia

Gorizia

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Gorizia is a town and comune
Comune
In Italy, the comune is the basic administrative division, and may be properly approximated in casual speech by the English word township or municipality.-Importance and function:...

 in northeastern Italy
Italy
Italy , officially the Italian Republic languages]] under the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages. In each of these, Italy's official name is as follows:;;;;;;;;), is a unitary parliamentary republic in South-Central Europe. To the north it borders France, Switzerland, Austria and...

, in the autonomous region of Friuli Venezia Giulia. It is located at the foot of the Julian Alps
Julian Alps
The Julian Alps are a mountain range of the Southern Limestone Alps that stretches from northeastern Italy to Slovenia, where they rise to 2,864 m at Mount Triglav. They are named after Julius Caesar, who founded the municipium of Cividale del Friuli at the foot of the mountains...

, bordering Slovenia
Slovenia
Slovenia , officially the Republic of Slovenia , is a country in Central and Southeastern Europe touching the Alps and bordering the Mediterranean. Slovenia borders Italy to the west, Croatia to the south and east, Hungary to the northeast, and Austria to the north, and also has a small portion of...

. It is the capital of the Province of Gorizia
Province of Gorizia
The Province of Gorizia is a province in the autonomous Friuli–Venezia Giulia region of Italy.-Overview:Its capital is the city of Gorizia. It belonged to the Province of Udine between 1924 and 1927 and the communes of Sonzia, Plezzo, Bergogna, Caporetto, Tolmino, Circhina, Santa Lucia d'Isonzo,...

, and it is a local center of tourism, industry, and commerce. Since 1947, a twin town of Nova Gorica
Nova Gorica
Nova Gorica ; 21,082 ; 31,000 ) is a town and a municipality in western Slovenia, on the border with Italy...

 has developed on the other side of the Italian-Slovenian border. Both towns constitute a conurbation
Conurbation
A conurbation is a region comprising a number of cities, large towns, and other urban areas that, through population growth and physical expansion, have merged to form one continuous urban and industrially developed area...

, which also includes the Slovenian municipality of Šempeter-Vrtojba
Šempeter-Vrtojba
Šempeter-Vrtojba is a municipality in Slovenia. The municipality comprises the town of Šempeter pri Gorici and the adjacent village of Vrtojba....

. Since May 2011, these three towns are joined in a common trans-border metropolitan zone, administered by a joint administration board.

Gorizia is located at the confluence of the Isonzo and Vipava Valley
Vipava Valley
The Vipava Valley is a valley located in the Slovenian Littoral, between the towns of Nova Gorica and Vipava.-Geography:It is a narrow valley, serving as the main passage between Friulian lowland and central Slovenia, and thus also an important corridor connecting Northern Italy to Central Europe...

s. It lies in a plain overlooked by the Collio
Collio Goriziano
Collio Goriziano or Collio is a Denominazione di origine controllata located in the Italian wine region of Friuli-Venezia Giulia. The DOC is located in the province of Gorizia near the border with Slovenia. Some Slovenian wine from the region of Goriška Brda also carry the designation of Collio...

 hills, which are renowned for the production of outstanding wine
Wine
Wine is an alcoholic beverage, made of fermented fruit juice, usually from grapes. The natural chemical balance of grapes lets them ferment without the addition of sugars, acids, enzymes, or other nutrients. Grape wine is produced by fermenting crushed grapes using various types of yeast. Yeast...

s. Sheltered from the north by a mountain ridge, Gorizia is protected from the cold Bora wind
Bora (wind)
Bora or Bura is a northern to north-eastern katabatic wind in the Adriatic, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia, Montenegro, Italy, Greece, Slovenia, and Turkey....

 that affects most of the neighbouring areas. The town thus retains a mild Mediterranean climate
Mediterranean climate
A Mediterranean climate is the climate typical of most of the lands in the Mediterranean Basin, and is a particular variety of subtropical climate...

 throughout the year, making it a popular resort.

The name of the town probably comes from the Slovene word meaning "little hill", which is a very common toponym in the Slovene-inhabited areas
Slovene Lands
Slovene Lands or Slovenian Lands is the historical denomination for the whole of the Slovene-inhabited territories in Central Europe. It more or less corresponds to modern Slovenia and the adjacent territories in Italy, Austria and Hungary in which autochthonous Slovene minorities live.-...

.

Middle Ages

See also County of Gorizia
County of Gorizia
The County of Görz was a county based around the town of Gorizia in the present-day Friuli-Venezia Giulia region of north-eastern Italy.Count Meinhard, descendant of the Bavarian Meinhardiner noble family with possessions around Lienz in Tyrol, is mentioned as early as 1107...



Originating in a watchtower or a prehistoric castle controlling the fords of the river Isonzo, Gorizia first emerged as a small village not far from the former Via Gemina
Via Gemina
Via Gemina was the Roman road linking Aquileia and Emona . It took its name, the "twin road", from the circumstance that it departed from Aquileia along with the Via Postumia...

, the Roman road
Roman road
The Roman roads were a vital part of the development of the Roman state, from about 500 BC through the expansion during the Roman Republic and the Roman Empire. Roman roads enabled the Romans to move armies and trade goods and to communicate. The Roman road system spanned more than 400,000 km...

 linking Aquileia
Aquileia
Aquileia is an ancient Roman city in what is now Italy, at the head of the Adriatic at the edge of the lagoons, about 10 km from the sea, on the river Natiso , the course of which has changed somewhat since Roman times...

 and Emona
Emona
Emona or Aemona, short for Colonia Iulia emona, was a Roman castrum founded in 14-15 AD, possibly by the Legio XV Apollinaris , on a territory already populated by ancient settlers of uncertain origin...

 (the modern Ljubljana
Ljubljana
Ljubljana is the capital of Slovenia and its largest city. It is the centre of the City Municipality of Ljubljana. It is located in the centre of the country in the Ljubljana Basin, and is a mid-sized city of some 270,000 inhabitants...

). The name of Gorizia was recorded for the first time in a document dating April 28, 1001, in which the Holy Roman Emperor
Holy Roman Emperor
The Holy Roman Emperor is a term used by historians to denote a medieval ruler who, as German King, had also received the title of "Emperor of the Romans" from the Pope...

 Otto III donated the castle and the village of Goriza to the Patriarch of Aquileia
Patriarch of Aquileia
The Patriarch of Aquileia was an office in the Roman Catholic Church. During the Middle Ages the Patriarchate of Aquileia was a temporal state in Northern Italy. The Patriarchate of Aquileia as a church office was suppressed in 1752....

 John II and to Count Verihen Eppenstein
Eppenstein
Eppenstein is a municipality in the district of Judenburg in Styria, Austria....

 of Friuli
Friuli
Friuli is an area of northeastern Italy with its own particular cultural and historical identity. It comprises the major part of the autonomous region Friuli-Venezia Giulia, i.e. the province of Udine, Pordenone, Gorizia, excluding Trieste...

. The document referred to Gorizia as "the village known as Goriza in the language of the Slavs" ("Villa quae Sclavorum lingua vocatur Goriza").
Count Meinhard of the Bavarian
History of Bavaria
The history of Bavaria stretches from its earliest settlement and its formation as a stem duchy in the 6th century through its inclusion in the Holy Roman Empires to its status as an independent kingdom and, finally, as a large and significant Bundesland of the modern Federal Republic of...

 Meinhardiner noble limeage, with possessions around Lienz
Lienz
Lienz is a medieval town in the Austrian state of Tyrol. It is the administrative centre of the Lienz district, which covers all of East Tyrol. The municipality also includes the cadastral subdivision of Patriasdorf.-Geography:...

 in Tyrol
County of Tyrol
The County of Tyrol, Princely County from 1504, was a State of the Holy Roman Empire, from 1814 a province of the Austrian Empire and from 1867 a Cisleithanian crown land of Austria-Hungary...

, is mentioned as early as 1107; as a vogt
Vogt
A Vogt ; plural Vögte; Dutch voogd; Danish foged; ; ultimately from Latin [ad]vocatus) in the Holy Roman Empire was the German title of a reeve or advocate, an overlord exerting guardianship or military protection as well as secular justice...

 of the Patriarchate of Aquileia
Patriarchate of Aquileia (State)
The Patriarchate of Aquileia was an Imperial State in the Friulian region of Northeastern Italy under the control of the Patriarchs of Aquileia.- Foundation :...

 he was enfeoffed
Enfeoffment
Under the European feudal system, enfeoffment was the deed by which a person was given land in exchange for a pledge of service. This mechanism was later used to avoid restrictions on the passage of title in land by a system in which a landowner would give land to one person for the use of another...

 with large estates in the former March of Friuli
March of Friuli
The March of Friuli was a Carolingian frontier march against the Slavs and Avars in the ninth and tenth centuries. It was a successor to the Lombard Duchy of Friuli....

, including the town of Gorizia, and as early as 1127 called himself a Graf von Görz. The borders of the county changed frequently in the following four centuries, due to frequent wars with Aquileia and other counties, but also to the subdivision of the territory in two main nuclei: one around the upper Drava
Drava
Drava or Drave is a river in southern Central Europe, a tributary of the Danube. It sources in Toblach/Dobbiaco, Italy, and flows east through East Tirol and Carinthia in Austria, into Slovenia , and then southeast, passing through Croatia and forming most of the border between Croatia and...

 near Lienz, the other centered on Gorizia itself. Between the 12th century and early 16th century, the town served as the political and administrative centre of this essentially independent County of Gorizia
County of Gorizia
The County of Görz was a county based around the town of Gorizia in the present-day Friuli-Venezia Giulia region of north-eastern Italy.Count Meinhard, descendant of the Bavarian Meinhardiner noble family with possessions around Lienz in Tyrol, is mentioned as early as 1107...

, which at the height of its power comprised the territory of the present-day regions of Goriška
Goriška
Goriška is a traditional region in western Slovenia on the border with Italy. The name means "the Gorizia region" because it is named after Gorizia, Italy. It is part of the wider traditional region of the Slovenian Littoral . Its principal urban center is Nova Gorica...

, south-east Friuli
Friuli
Friuli is an area of northeastern Italy with its own particular cultural and historical identity. It comprises the major part of the autonomous region Friuli-Venezia Giulia, i.e. the province of Udine, Pordenone, Gorizia, excluding Trieste...

, the Kras
Kras
Karst ; also known as the Karst Plateau, is a limestone borderline plateau region extending in southwestern Slovenia and northeastern Italy. It lies between the Vipava Valley, the low hills surrounding the valley, the westernmost part of the Brkini Hills, northern Istria, and the Gulf of Trieste...

 plateau, central Istria
Istria
Istria , formerly Histria , is the largest peninsula in the Adriatic Sea. The peninsula is located at the head of the Adriatic between the Gulf of Trieste and the Bay of Kvarner...

 and East Tyrol
East Tyrol
East Tyrol, or East Tirol , is an exclave of the Austrian state of Tyrol, sharing no border with the main North Tyrol part of the state. It corresponds with the administrative district of Lienz....

.

From the 11th century, the town had two different layers of development: the upper castle district and the village beneath it. The first played a political-administrative role and the second a rural-commercial role.

Habsburg rule

See also Inner Austria
Inner Austria
Inner Austria was a term used from the late 14th to the early 17th century for the Habsburg hereditary lands south of the Semmering Pass, referring to the duchies of Styria, Carinthia, Carniola and the Windic March, the County of Gorizia , the city of Trieste and assorted smaller possessions...

, Gorizia and Gradisca
Gorizia and Gradisca
The County of Gorizia and Gradisca was a Habsburg county in Central Europe, in what is now a multilingual border area of Italy and Slovenia. It was named for its two major urban centers, Gorizia and Gradisca d'Isonzo.-Province of the Habsburg Empire:...

, Austrian Littoral
Austrian Littoral
The Austrian Littoral was established as a crown land of the Austrian Empire in 1849. In 1861 it was divided into the three crown lands of the Imperial Free City of Trieste and its suburbs, the Margraviate of Istria, and the Princely County of Gorizia and Gradisca, which each had separate...

, Austrian Riviera
Austrian Riviera
The Austrian Riviera is a description for the coastal strip of former Austrian Littoral, a Habsburg crown land which until 1919 stretched along the northeastern Adriatic Coast.The Austrian Riviera covered coastal areas adjacent the port city of Trieste...

, Italian irredentism


In 1500, the dynasty of the Counts of Gorizia died out and their County passed to Austria
Austria
Austria , officially the Republic of Austria , is a landlocked country of roughly 8.4 million people in Central Europe. It is bordered by the Czech Republic and Germany to the north, Slovakia and Hungary to the east, Slovenia and Italy to the south, and Switzerland and Liechtenstein to the...

n Habsburg
Habsburg Monarchy
The Habsburg Monarchy covered the territories ruled by the junior Austrian branch of the House of Habsburg , and then by the successor House of Habsburg-Lorraine , between 1526 and 1867/1918. The Imperial capital was Vienna, except from 1583 to 1611, when it was moved to Prague...

 rule, after a short occupation by the Republic of Venice
Republic of Venice
The Republic of Venice or Venetian Republic was a state originating from the city of Venice in Northeastern Italy. It existed for over a millennium, from the late 7th century until 1797. It was formally known as the Most Serene Republic of Venice and is often referred to as La Serenissima, in...

 in the years 1508 and 1509. Under Habsburg
Habsburg
The House of Habsburg , also found as Hapsburg, and also known as House of Austria is one of the most important royal houses of Europe and is best known for being an origin of all of the formally elected Holy Roman Emperors between 1438 and 1740, as well as rulers of the Austrian Empire and...

 dominion, the town
Town
A town is a human settlement larger than a village but smaller than a city. The size a settlement must be in order to be called a "town" varies considerably in different parts of the world, so that, for example, many American "small towns" seem to British people to be no more than villages, while...

 spread out at the foot of the castle
Castle
A castle is a type of fortified structure built in Europe and the Middle East during the Middle Ages by European nobility. Scholars debate the scope of the word castle, but usually consider it to be the private fortified residence of a lord or noble...

. Many settlers from northern Italy
Northern Italy
Northern Italy is a wide cultural, historical and geographical definition, without any administrative usage, used to indicate the northern part of the Italian state, also referred as Settentrione or Alta Italia...

 moved there and started their commerce. Gorizia developed in a multi-ethnic town, in which Friulian, Venetian
Venetian language
Venetian or Venetan is a Romance language spoken as a native language by over two million people, mostly in the Veneto region of Italy, where of five million inhabitants almost all can understand it. It is sometimes spoken and often well understood outside Veneto, in Trentino, Friuli, Venezia...

, German
German language
German is a West Germanic language, related to and classified alongside English and Dutch. With an estimated 90 – 98 million native speakers, German is one of the world's major languages and is the most widely-spoken first language in the European Union....

 and Slovene language was spoken.
In mid-16th century, Gorizia emerged as a centre of Protestant Reformation
Protestant Reformation
The Protestant Reformation was a 16th-century split within Western Christianity initiated by Martin Luther, John Calvin and other early Protestants. The efforts of the self-described "reformers", who objected to the doctrines, rituals and ecclesiastical structure of the Roman Catholic Church, led...

, which was spreading from the neighbouring north-eastern regions of Carniola
Carniola
Carniola was a historical region that comprised parts of what is now Slovenia. As part of Austria-Hungary, the region was a crown land officially known as the Duchy of Carniola until 1918. In 1849, the region was subdivided into Upper Carniola, Lower Carniola, and Inner Carniola...

 and Carinthia
Duchy of Carinthia
The Duchy of Carinthia was a duchy located in southern Austria and parts of northern Slovenia. It was separated from the Duchy of Bavaria in 976, then the first newly created Imperial State beside the original German stem duchies....

. The famous Slovene Protestant preacher Primož Trubar
Primož Trubar
Primož Trubar or Primož Truber was a Slovene Protestant reformer, the founder and the first superintendent of the Protestant Church of the Slovene Lands, a consolidator of the Slovene language and the author of the first Slovene-language printed book...

 also visited and preached in the town. Already at the end of the century, however, Catholic
Roman Catholic Church
The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the world's largest Christian church, with over a billion members. Led by the Pope, it defines its mission as spreading the gospel of Jesus Christ, administering the sacraments and exercising charity...

 Counter Reformation gained force in Gorizia, led by the local dean Janez Tavčar, who later became bishop of Ljubljana. Tavčar was also instrumental in bringing the Jesuit order to the town, which played an important role in the education and cultural life in Gorizia thereafter.

After the suppression of the Patriarchate of Aquileia in 1751, the Archdiocese of Gorizia was established as its legal successor on the territory of the Habsburg Monarchy
Habsburg Monarchy
The Habsburg Monarchy covered the territories ruled by the junior Austrian branch of the House of Habsburg , and then by the successor House of Habsburg-Lorraine , between 1526 and 1867/1918. The Imperial capital was Vienna, except from 1583 to 1611, when it was moved to Prague...

. Gorizia thus emerged as an important Roman Catholic religious centre: the archdiocese of Gorizia extended over a large territory extending to the Drava
Drava
Drava or Drave is a river in southern Central Europe, a tributary of the Danube. It sources in Toblach/Dobbiaco, Italy, and flows east through East Tirol and Carinthia in Austria, into Slovenia , and then southeast, passing through Croatia and forming most of the border between Croatia and...

 river to the north and the Kolpa to the east, with the dioceses of Trieste
Trieste
Trieste is a city and seaport in northeastern Italy. It is situated towards the end of a narrow strip of land lying between the Adriatic Sea and Italy's border with Slovenia, which lies almost immediately south and east of the city...

, Trento
Trento
Trento is an Italian city located in the Adige River valley in Trentino-Alto Adige/Südtirol. It is the capital of Trentino...

, Como
Como
Como is a city and comune in Lombardy, Italy.It is the administrative capital of the Province of Como....

 and Pedena
Pican
Pićan is a village and municipality in the central part of Istria, Croatia, 12 km southeast of Pazin; elevation 360 m. The chief occupations are agriculture and livestock breeding. It is situated on the Pazin-Kršan-Vozilići regional road...

 subjected to the authority of the archbishops of Gorizia. A new town quarter developed around the Cathedral where many treasures of the Basilica of Aquileia
Aquileia
Aquileia is an ancient Roman city in what is now Italy, at the head of the Adriatic at the edge of the lagoons, about 10 km from the sea, on the river Natiso , the course of which has changed somewhat since Roman times...

 were transferred. Many new palaces were built conveying to the town the typical late Baroque
Baroque
The Baroque is a period and the style that used exaggerated motion and clear, easily interpreted detail to produce drama, tension, exuberance, and grandeur in sculpture, painting, literature, dance, and music...

 appearance, which characterized it up to World War I
World War I
World War I , which was predominantly called the World War or the Great War from its occurrence until 1939, and the First World War or World War I thereafter, was a major war centred in Europe that began on 28 July 1914 and lasted until 11 November 1918...

. A synagogue
Synagogue
A synagogue is a Jewish house of prayer. This use of the Greek term synagogue originates in the Septuagint where it sometimes translates the Hebrew word for assembly, kahal...

 was built within the town walls, too, which was another example of Gorizia's relatively tolerant multi-ethnic nature.

During the Napoleonic Wars
Napoleonic Wars
The Napoleonic Wars were a series of wars declared against Napoleon's French Empire by opposing coalitions that ran from 1803 to 1815. As a continuation of the wars sparked by the French Revolution of 1789, they revolutionised European armies and played out on an unprecedented scale, mainly due to...

, Gorizia was incorporated to the French
First French Empire
The First French Empire , also known as the Greater French Empire or Napoleonic Empire, was the empire of Napoleon I of France...

 Illyrian Provinces
Illyrian provinces
The Illyrian Provinces was an autonomous province of the Napoleonic French Empire on the north and east coasts of the Adriatic Sea between 1809 and 1816. Its capital was established at Laybach...

 between 1809 and 1813. After the restoration of the Austrian
Austrian Empire
The Austrian Empire was a modern era successor empire, which was centered on what is today's Austria and which officially lasted from 1804 to 1867. It was followed by the Empire of Austria-Hungary, whose proclamation was a diplomatic move that elevated Hungary's status within the Austrian Empire...

 rule, the Gorizia and its County were incorporated in the administrative unit known as the Kingdom of Illyria
Kingdom of Illyria
The Kingdom of Illyria was an administrative unit of the Austrian Empire from 1816 to 1849. Its administrative centre was Ljubljana and it included the western and central part of present-day Slovenia, the present Austrian state of Carinthia, as well as some territories in north-western Croatia ...

. During this period, Gorizia emerged as a popular summer residence of the Austrian nobility, and became known as the "Austrian Nice
Nice
Nice is the fifth most populous city in France, after Paris, Marseille, Lyon and Toulouse, with a population of 348,721 within its administrative limits on a land area of . The urban area of Nice extends beyond the administrative city limits with a population of more than 955,000 on an area of...

". Members of the former French ruling Bourbon family, deposed by the July Revolution
July Revolution
The French Revolution of 1830, also known as the July Revolution or in French, saw the overthrow of King Charles X of France, the French Bourbon monarch, and the ascent of his cousin Louis-Philippe, Duke of Orléans, who himself, after 18 precarious years on the throne, would in turn be overthrown...

 of 1830, also settled in the town, including the last Bourbon monarch Charles X who spent his last years in Gorizia. Unlike in most neighbouring areas, the revolutionary spring of nations of 1848 passed almost unnoticed in Gorizia, thus reaffirming its reputation of a calm and loyal provincial town.



In 1849, the County of Gorizia was included in the Austrian Littoral
Austrian Littoral
The Austrian Littoral was established as a crown land of the Austrian Empire in 1849. In 1861 it was divided into the three crown lands of the Imperial Free City of Trieste and its suburbs, the Margraviate of Istria, and the Princely County of Gorizia and Gradisca, which each had separate...

, along with Trieste
Trieste
Trieste is a city and seaport in northeastern Italy. It is situated towards the end of a narrow strip of land lying between the Adriatic Sea and Italy's border with Slovenia, which lies almost immediately south and east of the city...

 and Istria
Istria
Istria , formerly Histria , is the largest peninsula in the Adriatic Sea. The peninsula is located at the head of the Adriatic between the Gulf of Trieste and the Bay of Kvarner...

. In 1861, the territory was reorganized as the Princely County of Gorizia and Gradisca and granted a high degree of regional autonomy
Regional autonomy
Regional autonomy is the term for the decentralization of governance to outlying regions. Recent examples of disputes over autonomy include:* The Basque region of Spain* The Catalonian region of Spain...

. At the time, Gorizia was a multiethnic town
Town
A town is a human settlement larger than a village but smaller than a city. The size a settlement must be in order to be called a "town" varies considerably in different parts of the world, so that, for example, many American "small towns" seem to British people to be no more than villages, while...

: Italian
Italian language
Italian is a Romance language spoken mainly in Europe: Italy, Switzerland, San Marino, Vatican City, by minorities in Malta, Monaco, Croatia, Slovenia, France, Libya, Eritrea, and Somalia, and by immigrant communities in the Americas and Australia...

 and Venetian
Venetian language
Venetian or Venetan is a Romance language spoken as a native language by over two million people, mostly in the Veneto region of Italy, where of five million inhabitants almost all can understand it. It is sometimes spoken and often well understood outside Veneto, in Trentino, Friuli, Venezia...

, Slovene, Friulian
Friulian language
Friulan , is a Romance language belonging to the Rhaeto-Romance family, spoken in the Friuli region of northeastern Italy. Friulan has around 800,000 speakers, the vast majority of whom also speak Italian...

 and German
German language
German is a West Germanic language, related to and classified alongside English and Dutch. With an estimated 90 – 98 million native speakers, German is one of the world's major languages and is the most widely-spoken first language in the European Union....

 were spoken in the town centre, while in the suburbs Slovene and Friulian prevailed. Although some tensions between the Italian-Friulian and the Slovene population were registred, the town continued to maintain a relatively tolerant climate until World War I
World War I
World War I , which was predominantly called the World War or the Great War from its occurrence until 1939, and the First World War or World War I thereafter, was a major war centred in Europe that began on 28 July 1914 and lasted until 11 November 1918...

, in which both Slovene and Italian-Friulian culture flourished.

World War I

See also Italian Campaign (WWI), Battles of the Isonzo
Battles of the Isonzo
The Battles of the Isonzo were a series of 12 battles between the Austro-Hungarian and Italian armies in World War I. They were fought along the Soča River on the eastern sector of the Italian Front between June 1915 and November 1917...



Italy entered World War I
World War I
World War I , which was predominantly called the World War or the Great War from its occurrence until 1939, and the First World War or World War I thereafter, was a major war centred in Europe that began on 28 July 1914 and lasted until 11 November 1918...

 on the Allied
Allies of World War I
The Entente Powers were the countries at war with the Central Powers during World War I. The members of the Triple Entente were the United Kingdom, France, and the Russian Empire; Italy entered the war on their side in 1915...

 side and conflict with Austria-Hungary
Austria-Hungary
Austria-Hungary , more formally known as the Kingdoms and Lands Represented in the Imperial Council and the Lands of the Holy Hungarian Crown of Saint Stephen, was a constitutional monarchic union between the crowns of the Austrian Empire and the Kingdom of Hungary in...

 began on 24 May 1915. The hills west of Gorizia soon became a scenery of fierce battles between the Italian and Austro-Hungarian Army. The town itself was seriously damaged and most of its inhabitants were evacuated by early 1916. The Italian Army
Royal Italian Army
The Regio Esercito was the army of the Kingdom of Italy from the unification of Italy in 1861 to the birth of the Italian Republic in 1946...

 conquered Gorizia during the Sixth Battle of the Isonzo
Sixth Battle of the Isonzo
The Sixth Battle of the Isonzo also known as the Battle of Gorizia was the most successful Italian offensive along the Soča River during World War I.- Background :...

 in August 1916, with the front line moving to the eastern outskirts of the town. With the Battle of Caporetto
Battle of Caporetto
The Battle of Caporetto , took place from 24 October to 19 November 1917, near the town of Kobarid , on the Austro-Italian front of World War I...

 in October and November 1917, when the Central Powers
Central Powers
The Central Powers were one of the two warring factions in World War I , composed of the German Empire, the Austro-Hungarian Empire, the Ottoman Empire, and the Kingdom of Bulgaria...

 pushed the Italians back to the Piave River
Piave River
Piave is a river in north Italy. It begins in the Alps and flows southeast for into the Adriatic Sea near the city of Venice....

, the town came under Austro-Hungarian control again.

After the Battle of Caporetto, the political life in Austria-Hungary resumed and Gorizia became the focus of three competing political camps: the unified Slovene
Slovenia
Slovenia , officially the Republic of Slovenia , is a country in Central and Southeastern Europe touching the Alps and bordering the Mediterranean. Slovenia borders Italy to the west, Croatia to the south and east, Hungary to the northeast, and Austria to the north, and also has a small portion of...

 nationalist parties that demanded an semi-independent Yugoslav state
Yugoslavia
Yugoslavia refers to three political entities that existed successively on the western part of the Balkans during most of the 20th century....

 under the House of Habsburg, the Friulian
Friulians
Friulians or Furlans are a linguistic minority living in Italy and elsewhere. About 530,000 of them live in the provinces of Udine and Pordenone and in parts of Gorizia and Venice. Their language, the Friulian language, is the second largest minority language in Italy. About 170,000 Friulians live...

 conservatives who demanded a separate and autonomous Eastern Friuli within an Austrian confederation, and the underground Italian irredentist movement
Italia irredenta
Italian irredentism was an Italian Irredentist movement that aimed at the unification of all ethnically Italian peoples....

 working for the unification with Italy. At the end of World War I, in late October 1918, the Slovenes unilaterally declared an independent State of Slovenes, Croats and Serbs
State of Slovenes, Croats and Serbs
The State of Slovenes, Croats and Serbs was a short-lived state formed from the southernmost parts of the Austro-Hungarian monarchy after its dissolution at the end of the World War I by the resident population of Slovenes, Croats, and Serbs...

, while the Friulians continued to demand an autonomous region under Habsburg rule. Gorizia became a contested town. In early November 1918, it was occupied by Italian troops again, which immediately dissolved the two competing authorities and introduced their own civil administration.

First annexation to Italy

See also Julian March
Julian March
The Julian March is a former political region of southeastern Europe on what are now the borders between Croatia, Slovenia, and Italy...



In the first years of Italian administration, Gorizia was included in the Governorate of Julian March
Julian March
The Julian March is a former political region of southeastern Europe on what are now the borders between Croatia, Slovenia, and Italy...

 (1918–1919). In 1920, the town and the whole region became officially part of Italy. The autnomous County of Gorizia and Gradisca was dissolved in 1922, and in 1924 it was annexed to the Province of Udine
Province of Udine
The Province of Udine is a province in the autonomous Friuli-Venezia Giulia region of Italy, bordering Austria and Slovenia. Its capital is the city of Udine....

 (then called the Province of Friuli
Friuli
Friuli is an area of northeastern Italy with its own particular cultural and historical identity. It comprises the major part of the autonomous region Friuli-Venezia Giulia, i.e. the province of Udine, Pordenone, Gorizia, excluding Trieste...

). In 1927 Gorizia became a provincial capital within the Julian March adiministrative region. During the fascist regime
Italian Fascism
Italian Fascism also known as Fascism with a capital "F" refers to the original fascist ideology in Italy. This ideology is associated with the National Fascist Party which under Benito Mussolini ruled the Kingdom of Italy from 1922 until 1943, the Republican Fascist Party which ruled the Italian...

, all Slovene organizations were dissolved and the public use of Slovene language was prohibited. Underground Slovene organizations, with an anti-Fascist and often irredentist agenda, such as the militant insurrectionist organization TIGR
TIGR
TIGR, abbreviation for Trst , Istra , Gorica and Reka , with the full name Revolutionary Organization of the Julian March T.I.G.R. was a militant anti-Fascist and insurgent organization active in the 1920s and the 1930s in the eastern Italian border region known as the Julian March.The...

, were established as a result. Many Slovenes emigrated to the Kingdom of Yugoslavia
Kingdom of Yugoslavia
The Kingdom of Yugoslavia was a state stretching from the Western Balkans to Central Europe which existed during the often-tumultuous interwar era of 1918–1941...

 and to South America, especially to Argentina
Argentina
Argentina , officially the Argentine Republic , is the second largest country in South America by land area, after Brazil. It is constituted as a federation of 23 provinces and an autonomous city, Buenos Aires...

. Many of these emigrants became prominent in their new environments.

After the Italian armistice in September 1943, the town was shortly liberated by the Slovene partisan resistance, but soon fell under Nazi German
Nazi Germany
Nazi Germany , also known as the Third Reich , but officially called German Reich from 1933 to 1943 and Greater German Reich from 26 June 1943 onward, is the name commonly used to refer to the state of Germany from 1933 to 1945, when it was a totalitarian dictatorship ruled by...

 administration. Between 1943 and 1945 it was incorporated into the Operational Zone Adriatic Littoral. After a brief occupation by the Yugoslav partisans
Partisans (Yugoslavia)
The Yugoslav Partisans, or simply the Partisans were a Communist-led World War II anti-fascist resistance movement in Yugoslavia...

 in May and June 1945, the administration was transferred to the Allies
Allies of World War II
The Allies of World War II were the countries that opposed the Axis powers during the Second World War . Former Axis states contributing to the Allied victory are not considered Allied states...

.

Partition and second annexation to Italy

See also Morgan Line
Morgan Line
The Morgan Line was the line of demarcation set up after World War II in the region known as Julian March which prior to the war belonged to the Kingdom of Italy. The Morgan Line was the border between two military administrations in the region: the Yugoslav on the east, and that of the Allied...

, Treaty of Osimo
Treaty of Osimo
The Treaty of Osimo was signed on 10 November 1975 by the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia and the Italian Republic in Osimo, Italy, to definitely divide the Free Territory of Trieste between the two states...



On September 15, 1947, the town was incorporated into Italy again. Several peripherical districts of the Gorizia municipality (Solkan
Solkan
Solkan is a suburb of the town of Nova Gorica in the Goriška region of western Slovenia, close to the border with Italy. Although it is nowadays completely integrated into Nova Gorica, with which it forms a single urban area, it has maintained the status of a separate urban settlement, due to its...

, Pristava
Pristava, Nova Gorica
Pristava , also known as Rafut, is one of the four suburbs of the town of Nova Gorica in the Goriška region of western Slovenia ....

, Rožna Dolina
Rožna Dolina
Rožna Dolina is one of the four suburbs of the town of Nova Gorica in western Slovenia . It is located on the border with Italy...

, Kromberk
Kromberk
Kromberk is a settlement in the municipality of Nova Gorica in western Slovenia. Although it officially has the status of a village, it forms, together with its two satellite settlements of Ajševica and Loke, one of the four major suburbs of Nova Gorica .Kromberk Castle is located near the...

, Šempeter pri Gorici
Šempeter pri Gorici
Šempeter pri Gorici is a town and the administrative centre of the Šempeter-Vrtojba municipality in the Slovene Littoral region of Slovenia. There is a border crossing into the Italian town of Gorizia...

, Vrtojba
Vrtojba
Vrtojba is a settlement in the Šempeter-Vrtojba municipality in the Slovene Littoral region of Slovenia. A border crossing into Italy is located here...

, Stara Gora
Stara Gora, Nova Gorica
Stara Gora is a dispersed settlement southeast of Rožna Dolina in the municipality of Nova Gorica in western Slovenia. One of the two town cemeteries of Nova Gorica is located in Stara Gora.-External links:*...

, Ajševica
Ajševica
Ajševica is a settlement in western Slovenia in the municipality of Nova Gorica. It has a population of 261. It is closely linked to the nearby settlements of Kromberk and Loke, which together form a single district in the municipality of Nova Gorica, which is de facto one of the four suburbs of...

, Volčja Draga
Volcja Draga
Volčja Draga is a settlement in the Renče-Vogrsko municipality in the Littoral region of Slovenia.-External links:*...

, Bukovica, Vogrsko
Vogrsko
Vogrsko is a settlement in the lower Vipava Valley in the Renče-Vogrsko municipality in the Littoral region of Slovenia.The Parish Church in the settlement is dedicated to Saint Justus and belongs to the Diocese of Koper.-External links:*...

) were handed over to the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia
Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia
The Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia was the Yugoslav state that existed from the abolition of the Yugoslav monarchy until it was dissolved in 1992 amid the Yugoslav Wars. It was a socialist state and a federation made up of six socialist republics: Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia,...

, together with the vast majority of the former Province of Gorizia. Around a half of the pre-war area of the municipality of Gorizia, with an approximate 20% of the population, were annexed to Yugoslavia. The national border was drawn just off the town centre, putting Gorizia into a peripheral zone. Several important landmarks of the town, such as the Kostanjevica Monastery
Kostanjevica Monastery
Kostanjevica Monastery is a Franciscan monastery in Pristava near Nova Gorica, Slovenia. The locals frequently refer to it simply as Kapela ....

, the Kromberk Castle, the Sveta Gora pilgrimage site, the old Jewish cemetery, and the northern railway station, remained on the other side of the border. In 1948, the authorities of the Socialist Republic of Slovenia
Socialist Republic of Slovenia
The Socialist Republic of Slovenia was a socialist state that was a constituent country of the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia from 1943 until 1990...

 (with president Tito
Josip Broz Tito
Marshal Josip Broz Tito – 4 May 1980) was a Yugoslav revolutionary and statesman. While his presidency has been criticized as authoritarian, Tito was a popular public figure both in Yugoslavia and abroad, viewed as a unifying symbol for the nations of the Yugoslav federation...

's special support) started building a new town called Nova Gorica
Nova Gorica
Nova Gorica ; 21,082 ; 31,000 ) is a town and a municipality in western Slovenia, on the border with Italy...

("New Gorizia") on their side of the border.

Though a border city, Gorizia was not crossed by the border with Yugoslavia
Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia
The Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia was the Yugoslav state that existed from the abolition of the Yugoslav monarchy until it was dissolved in 1992 amid the Yugoslav Wars. It was a socialist state and a federation made up of six socialist republics: Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia,...

 as often erroneously claimed. This image stems mainly from the presence in Yugoslav territory of old buildings once belonging to Gorizia: these include the old railway station of the line that connected the town of Gorizia to the Austro-Hungarian
Austria-Hungary
Austria-Hungary , more formally known as the Kingdoms and Lands Represented in the Imperial Council and the Lands of the Holy Hungarian Crown of Saint Stephen, was a constitutional monarchic union between the crowns of the Austrian Empire and the Kingdom of Hungary in...

 capital Vienna
Vienna
Vienna is the capital and largest city of the Republic of Austria and one of the nine states of Austria. Vienna is Austria's primary city, with a population of about 1.723 million , and is by far the largest city in Austria, as well as its cultural, economic, and political centre...

. Although the situation in Gorizia was often compared with that of Berlin
Berlin
Berlin is the capital city of Germany and is one of the 16 states of Germany. With a population of 3.45 million people, Berlin is Germany's largest city. It is the second most populous city proper and the seventh most populous urban area in the European Union...

 during the Cold War
Cold War
The Cold War was the continuing state from roughly 1946 to 1991 of political conflict, military tension, proxy wars, and economic competition between the Communist World—primarily the Soviet Union and its satellite states and allies—and the powers of the Western world, primarily the United States...

, Italy and Yugoslavia had good relations regarding Gorizia. These included cultural
Culture
Culture is a term that has many different inter-related meanings. For example, in 1952, Alfred Kroeber and Clyde Kluckhohn compiled a list of 164 definitions of "culture" in Culture: A Critical Review of Concepts and Definitions...

 and sporting events that favoured the spirit of harmonious coexistence that remained in place after Yugoslavia broke up in 1991.

With the breakup of Yugoslavia, the frontier remained as the division between Italy and Slovenia until the implementation of the Schengen Agreement
Schengen Agreement
The Schengen Agreement is a treaty signed on 14 June 1985 near the town of Schengen in Luxembourg, between five of the ten member states of the European Economic Community. It was supplemented by the Convention implementing the Schengen Agreement 5 years later...

 by Slovenia on 21 December 2007.

Main sights



  • The Castle, built within the Middle Ages walls, was once the seat of the administrative and judiciary power of the county. It is divided into the Corte dei Lanzi (with foundings of a high tower demolished in the 16th century), the Palazzetto dei Conti (13th century) and the Palazzetto Veneto. The Lanzi were the armed guards, the term being an Italian form of Landsknecht
    Landsknecht
    Landsknechte were European, predominantly German mercenary pikemen and supporting foot soldiers from the late 15th to the late 16th century, and achieved the reputation for being the universal mercenary of Early modern Europe.-Etymology:The term is from German, Land "land, country" + Knecht...

    . The palatine chapel
    Chapel
    A chapel is a building used by Christians as a place of fellowship and worship. It may be part of a larger structure or complex, such as a church, college, hospital, palace, prison or funeral home, located on board a military or commercial ship, or it may be an entirely free-standing building,...

    , entitled to Saint Bartholomew
    Bartholomew
    Bartholomew was one of the Twelve Apostles of Jesus, and is usually identified as Nathaniel . He was introduced to Christ through St. Philip, another of the twelve apostles as per , where the name Nathaniel first appears. He is also mentioned as “Nathaniel of Cana in Galilee” in...

     houses canvases of the Venetian school of painting and traces of Renaissance
    Renaissance
    The Renaissance was a cultural movement that spanned roughly the 14th to the 17th century, beginning in Italy in the Late Middle Ages and later spreading to the rest of Europe. The term is also used more loosely to refer to the historical era, but since the changes of the Renaissance were not...

     fresco
    Fresco
    Fresco is any of several related mural painting types, executed on plaster on walls or ceilings. The word fresco comes from the Greek word affresca which derives from the Latin word for "fresh". Frescoes first developed in the ancient world and continued to be popular through the Renaissance...

    es. There is also a Museum of the Goritian Middle Ages.
  • The Cathedral (originally erected in the 14th century), like many of the city's buildings, was almost entirely destroyed during World War I. It has been rebuilt following the forms of the 1682 edifice, a Baroque
    Baroque
    The Baroque is a period and the style that used exaggerated motion and clear, easily interpreted detail to produce drama, tension, exuberance, and grandeur in sculpture, painting, literature, dance, and music...

     church with splendid stucco
    Stucco
    Stucco or render is a material made of an aggregate, a binder, and water. Stucco is applied wet and hardens to a very dense solid. It is used as decorative coating for walls and ceilings and as a sculptural and artistic material in architecture...

     decoration. A Gothic
    Gothic architecture
    Gothic architecture is a style of architecture that flourished during the high and late medieval period. It evolved from Romanesque architecture and was succeeded by Renaissance architecture....

     chapel of San Acatius is annexed to the nave.
  • The most important church of Gorizia is that of St. Ignatius of Loyola, built by the Jesuits in 1680–1725. It has a single nave with precious sculptures at the altars of the side chapels. In the presbytery Christoph Tausch painted a Glory of St. Ignatius in 1721.
  • The Palazzo Attems Petzenstein (19th century), designed by Nicolò Pacassi
    Nicolò Pacassi
    Nicolò Pacassi , also known as Nikolaus Pacassi, was an Austrian architect of Italian descent. He was born in Wiener Neustadt in Lower Austria in a family of merchants from the Gorizia. In 1753, he was appointed court architect to Maria Theresa of Austria...

    .
  • The church of San Rocco.
  • Palazzo Cobenzl, today seat of the archbishops.
  • The Earls of Lantieri's house, which housed emperors
    Holy Roman Empire
    The Holy Roman Empire was a realm that existed from 962 to 1806 in Central Europe.It was ruled by the Holy Roman Emperor. Its character changed during the Middle Ages and the Early Modern period, when the power of the emperor gradually weakened in favour of the princes...

     and popes in his history.
  • The Palazzo Coronini Cronberg, including an art gallery.
  • The Transalpina
    Bohinj railway
    The Bohinj Railway or Transalpina is a railway in Slovenia extending into Italy. It connects Jesenice in Slovenia with the towns of Nova Gorica in Slovenia and Gorizia in Italy through the Julian Alps. It was built by Austria-Hungary in 1904 as a strategic railway to the port of Trieste...

     railway square, divided by an international border.
  • The Department of International and Diplomatic Sciences of the University of Trieste, hosted in the beautiful "Seminario Minore", is the most prestigious academic course in Foreign Affairs in Italy.

Border crossings


The Italy-Slovenia border runs by the edge of Gorizia and Nova Gorica
Nova Gorica
Nova Gorica ; 21,082 ; 31,000 ) is a town and a municipality in western Slovenia, on the border with Italy...

 and there are several border crossings between the cities. The ease of movement between the two parts of town have depended very much on the politics of both countries, ranging from strict controls to total free movement since December 21, 2007 when Slovenia joined the Schengen area
Schengen Area
The Schengen Area comprises the territories of twenty-five European countries that have implemented the Schengen Agreement signed in the town of Schengen, Luxembourg, in 1985...

.

Designated border crossings are (Gorizia-Nova Gorica
Nova Gorica
Nova Gorica ; 21,082 ; 31,000 ) is a town and a municipality in western Slovenia, on the border with Italy...

):
  • Casa Rossa-Rožna Dolina
    Rožna Dolina
    Rožna Dolina is one of the four suburbs of the town of Nova Gorica in western Slovenia . It is located on the border with Italy...

    : main international crossing checkpoint
  • Via San Gabriele-Erjavceva Ulica: previously only for local traffic with passes, nearest crossing to Nova Gorica center
  • Via del Rafut-Pristava: previously only for local traffic with passes
  • San Pietro (Via Vittorio Veneto)/Šempeter pri Gorici
    Šempeter pri Gorici
    Šempeter pri Gorici is a town and the administrative centre of the Šempeter-Vrtojba municipality in the Slovene Littoral region of Slovenia. There is a border crossing into the Italian town of Gorizia...

     (Goriška Ulica)
  • Piazza della Transalpina
    Piazza della Transalpina
    Piazza della Transalpina or Evropski trg , is a square divided between the towns of Gorizia, Italy and Nova Gorica, Slovenia....

     (square): open pedestrian square dissected by the border that was once fenced. The square was never an official crossing and signboards were erected to prohibit people from crossing square from one side to the other
  • The major highway crossing at San Andrea-Vrtojba
    Vrtojba
    Vrtojba is a settlement in the Šempeter-Vrtojba municipality in the Slovene Littoral region of Slovenia. A border crossing into Italy is located here...

     is located nearby to the south of the city.

Historical demography


The chart shows the historical development of the population of Gorizia from the late 18th century to the eve of World War I
World War I
World War I , which was predominantly called the World War or the Great War from its occurrence until 1939, and the First World War or World War I thereafter, was a major war centred in Europe that began on 28 July 1914 and lasted until 11 November 1918...

, according to official Austrian censuses. The figures show the population of the municipality of Gorizia in the boundiaries of the time. The criteria for the definition of the ethnical structure were changing over the years: in 1789, only the religious affiliation of the population was taken into account; in 1869 the ethnic affiliation was also recorded, with Jews counted as a separate category; in 1880 the category of ethnicity was replaced by the mother tongue, and from 1890 to 1910 only the "language of everyday communication" was recorded. After 1869, the Jews were only recorded as a religious community, under the official category of "Israelites".
Census Ethnical structure
Year Population of
Gorizia
Italians and Friulians
Friulians
Friulians or Furlans are a linguistic minority living in Italy and elsewhere. About 530,000 of them live in the provinces of Udine and Pordenone and in parts of Gorizia and Venice. Their language, the Friulian language, is the second largest minority language in Italy. About 170,000 Friulians live...

Slovenes other Slavs ethnic Germans Jews
Jews
The Jews , also known as the Jewish people, are a nation and ethnoreligious group originating in the Israelites or Hebrews of the Ancient Near East. The Jewish ethnicity, nationality, and religion are strongly interrelated, as Judaism is the traditional faith of the Jewish nation...

1789 7.639 n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. 3,9%
1850 10.581 n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a.
1857 13.297 n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a.
1869 16.659 66,6% 21,0% n.a. 10,8% 1,8%
1880 19.113 70,7% 17,8% 0,3% 11,2% (1,4%)
1890 20.019 74,2% 17,8% 0,5% 7,5% n.a.
1900 23.765 67,8% 20,0% 0,5% 11,6% n.a.
1910 29.291 50,6% 36,8% 1,3% 11,1% (0,9%)
1921 39.829 60,8% 37,1% n.a. n.a. n.a.
1924 45.540 70,6% 28,5% n.a. n.a. n.a.
1936 52.065 68,1% 30,0% n.a. n.a. n.a.

Culture and education


Although the majority of the population identifies with the Italian culture, Gorizia is an important center of Friulian
Friulians
Friulians or Furlans are a linguistic minority living in Italy and elsewhere. About 530,000 of them live in the provinces of Udine and Pordenone and in parts of Gorizia and Venice. Their language, the Friulian language, is the second largest minority language in Italy. About 170,000 Friulians live...

 and Slovene culture
Culture of Slovenia
Slovenia's first book was printed by the Protestant reformer Primož Trubar . It was actually two books, Katekizem and Abecednik, which was published in 1550 in Tübingen, Germany....

. Before 1918, the tri-lingual Gorizia Grammar School was one of the most important educational institutions in the Slovene Lands
Slovene Lands
Slovene Lands or Slovenian Lands is the historical denomination for the whole of the Slovene-inhabited territories in Central Europe. It more or less corresponds to modern Slovenia and the adjacent territories in Italy, Austria and Hungary in which autochthonous Slovene minorities live.-...

 and for the Italians
Italian people
The Italian people are an ethnic group that share a common Italian culture, ancestry and speak the Italian language as a mother tongue. Within Italy, Italians are defined by citizenship, regardless of ancestry or country of residence , and are distinguished from people...

 in the Austrian Littoral
Austrian Littoral
The Austrian Littoral was established as a crown land of the Austrian Empire in 1849. In 1861 it was divided into the three crown lands of the Imperial Free City of Trieste and its suburbs, the Margraviate of Istria, and the Princely County of Gorizia and Gradisca, which each had separate...

.

Nowadays, Gorizia hosts several important scientific and educational institutions. Both the University of Trieste
University of Trieste
The University of Trieste is a medium-sized university in Trieste in the Friuli-Venezia Giulia region of Italy. The university consists of 12 faculties, boasts a wide and almost complete range of university courses and currently has about 23,000 students enrolled and 1,000 professors...

 and the University of Udine
University of Udine
The University of Udine is a university in the city of Udine . It was founded in 1978 as part of the reconstruction plan of Friuli after the earthquake in 1976...

 have part of their campuses and faculties located in Gorizia. Other institutes of international renomation from Gorizia are the Institute of International Sociology Gorizia, the Institute for Central European Cultural Encounters and the International University Institute for European Studies.

Gorizia is also the site of one of the most important choral competitions, the "C. A. Seghizzi" International Choir Competition, which is a member of the European Grand Prix for Choral Singing
European Grand Prix for Choral Singing
The European Grand Prix for Choral Singing is an annual choral competition between the winners of six European choral competitions...

.

Religion


The majority of the population of Gorizia is of Roman Catholic denomination. The town is the seat of the Archbishop of Gorizia
Archbishop of Gorizia (Görz)
The Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Gorizia, is an Archdiocese of the Latin Rite of the Roman Catholic church in Italy. The archiepiscopal see of Gorizia was founded in 1752 when the Patriarchate of Aquileia was divided. It was suppressed in 1788 and re-established in 1797 as the Diocese of...

, who were one of the three legal descendants of the Patriarchate of Aquileia (along with the Patriarchate of Venice and the Archdiocese of Udine). Between mid-18th century and 1920, Gorizia was thus the center of a Metropolitan bishop
Metropolitan bishop
In Christian churches with episcopal polity, the rank of metropolitan bishop, or simply metropolitan, pertains to the diocesan bishop or archbishop of a metropolis; that is, the chief city of a historical Roman province, ecclesiastical province, or regional capital.Before the establishment of...

ric that comprised the Dioceses of Ljubljana
Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Ljubljana
The Roman Catholic Metropolitan Archdiocese of Ljubljana is an ecclesiastical territory or diocese of the Roman Catholic Church in Slovenia. It was erected as the Diocese of Ljubljana by Pope Eugene IV on 6 December 1461 and was immediately subject to the Holy See from its creation until erected...

, Trieste, Poreč-Pula
Roman Catholic Diocese of Porec and Pula
The Roman Catholic Diocese of Poreč and Pula is a diocese located in the cities of Poreč and Pula in the Ecclesiastical province of Rijeka in Croatia.-History:* 3rd century: Established as Diocese of Parentium...

 and Krk. Several important religious figures lived and worked in Gorizia during this period, including cardinal Jakob Missia, bishop Frančišek Borgia Sedej, theologians Anton Mahnič
Anton Mahnič
Dr. Anton Mahnič, also spelled as Antun Mahnić in Croatian ortography , was a Slovene and Croatian Roman Catholic bishop, theologian and philosopher, founder and the main leader of the Croatian Catholic movement....

 and Josip Srebrnič
Josip Srebrnič
Josip Srebrnič, also spelled Srebrnić was a Slovene Roman Catholic prelate who spent most of his career in Croatia....

, and Franciscan
Franciscan
Most Franciscans are members of Roman Catholic religious orders founded by Saint Francis of Assisi. Besides Roman Catholic communities, there are also Old Catholic, Anglican, Lutheran, ecumenical and Non-denominational Franciscan communities....

 monk and philologian Stanislav Škrabec.

There are many important Roman Catholic sacral buildings in the area, among them the sancturies of Sveta Gora ("Holy Mountain") and the Kostanjevica Monastery
Kostanjevica Monastery
Kostanjevica Monastery is a Franciscan monastery in Pristava near Nova Gorica, Slovenia. The locals frequently refer to it simply as Kapela ....

, both of which are now located in Slovenia
Slovenia
Slovenia , officially the Republic of Slovenia , is a country in Central and Southeastern Europe touching the Alps and bordering the Mediterranean. Slovenia borders Italy to the west, Croatia to the south and east, Hungary to the northeast, and Austria to the north, and also has a small portion of...

.

Until 1943, Gorizia was also home of a small but significant Jewish minority. Most of its members however perished in the shoah
The Holocaust
The Holocaust , also known as the Shoah , was the genocide of approximately six million European Jews and millions of others during World War II, a programme of systematic state-sponsored murder by Nazi...

. An important Evangelical
Evangelicalism
Evangelicalism is a Protestant Christian movement which began in Great Britain in the 1730s and gained popularity in the United States during the series of Great Awakenings of the 18th and 19th century.Its key commitments are:...

 community also exists in Gorizia.

Authors

  • France Bevk
    France Bevk
    France Bevk was a Slovene writer, poet and translator. He also wrote under the pseudonym Pavle Sedmak.-Biography:...

     (1890–1970), Writer
    Writer
    A writer is a person who produces literature, such as novels, short stories, plays, screenplays, poetry, or other literary art. Skilled writers are able to use language to portray ideas and images....

    , Poet
    Poet
    A poet is a person who writes poetry. A poet's work can be literal, meaning that his work is derived from a specific event, or metaphorical, meaning that his work can take on many meanings and forms. Poets have existed since antiquity, in nearly all languages, and have produced works that vary...

     and translator
  • Andrej Budal
    Andrej Budal
    Andrej Budal was a Slovene language writer, poet, journalist and translator from Italy.He was born in Gorizia, in the Slovene-inhabited suburban district of Sant'Andrea , in what was then the Austro-Hungarian Empire . He studied Romance languages at the University of Vienna, obtaining his PhD in...

     (1889–1972), Writer and translator
  • Fran Erjavec (1837–1884), Author
  • Simon Gregorčič
    Simon Gregorcic
    Simon Gregorčič was a Slovene poet and Roman Catholic priest.- Biography :Gregorčič was born in the small mountain village of Vrsno above the river Soča in the County of Gorizia and Gradisca. In 1851, he attended primary school in Libušnje, but was in 1855 sent to school in Gorizia. After...

     (1844–1906), Poet
    Poet
    A poet is a person who writes poetry. A poet's work can be literal, meaning that his work is derived from a specific event, or metaphorical, meaning that his work can take on many meanings and forms. Poets have existed since antiquity, in nearly all languages, and have produced works that vary...

  • Julius Kugy
    Julius Kugy
    Julius Kugy was an Austrian - Italian mountaineer and writer of Slovene origin. He wrote mostly in German. He is renowned for his travelogues from the Julian Alps, in which he reflected on the relationship between man, nature, and culture...

     (1858–1944), Writer and mountaineer
    Mountaineer
    -Sports:*Mountaineering, the sport, hobby or profession of walking, hiking, trekking and climbing up mountains, also known as alpinism-University athletic teams and mascots:*Appalachian State Mountaineers, the athletic teams of Appalachian State University...

  • Celso Macor (1925–1998), Essayist, writer and translator
  • Paolo Maurensig
    Paolo Maurensig
    Paolo Maurensig is an Italian novelist, best known for the book Canone inverso , a complex tale of a violin and its owners.-Biography:Maurensig was born at Udine....

     (b. 1943), Novelist
  • Fulvio Melia
    Fulvio Melia
    Fulvio Melia is an Italian-American astrophysicist and author. He is Professor of Physics and Astronomy at the University of Arizona and Associate Editor of the Astrophysical Journal Letters...

     (b. 1956), Author
  • Alojzij Res (1893–1936), Writer, translator, literary historian

Artists and architects

  • Vittorio Bolaffio (1883–1931), Painter
    Painting
    Painting is the practice of applying paint, pigment, color or other medium to a surface . The application of the medium is commonly applied to the base with a brush but other objects can be used. In art, the term painting describes both the act and the result of the action. However, painting is...

  • Italico Brass (1870–1943), Painter
  • Tullio Crali
    Tullio Crali
    Tullio Crali was an Italian artist associated with Futurism. A self-taught painter, he was a late adherent to the movement, not joining until 1929...

     (1910–2000), Futurist artist
  • Max Fabiani
    Max Fabiani
    Max Fabiani, was a Slovene-Italian architect from the Gorizia region. Together with Ciril Metod Koch, he introduced the Vienna Secession style of architecture in the Slovene Lands.-Life:...

     (1865–1962), Architect
    Architect
    An architect is a person trained in the planning, design and oversight of the construction of buildings. To practice architecture means to offer or render services in connection with the design and construction of a building, or group of buildings and the space within the site surrounding the...

  • Franc Kavčič (1755–1828), Painter
  • Gojmir Anton Kos
    Gojmir Anton Kos
    Gojmir Anton Kos was a Slovene academic painter, a photographer and a professor at the Academy of Fine Arts in Ljubljana.-Biography:...

     (1896–1970), Painter
  • Rodolfo Lipizer
    Rodolfo Lipizer
    Rodolfo Lipizer , was an Italian violinist, professor of music, and orchestra conductor.Lipizer was born in Gorizia, Italy. The International Violin Competition “Rodolfo Lipizer Prize” is named in his honour....

     (1895–1974), Violin
    Violin
    The violin is a string instrument, usually with four strings tuned in perfect fifths. It is the smallest, highest-pitched member of the violin family of string instruments, which includes the viola and cello....

    ist
  • Nicolò Pacassi
    Nicolò Pacassi
    Nicolò Pacassi , also known as Nikolaus Pacassi, was an Austrian architect of Italian descent. He was born in Wiener Neustadt in Lower Austria in a family of merchants from the Gorizia. In 1753, he was appointed court architect to Maria Theresa of Austria...

     (1716–1790), Architect
  • Veno Pilon
    Veno Pilon
    Veno Pilon was a Slovene expressionist painter, graphic artist and photographer.Pilon was born in Ajdovščina, then part of the Austro-Hungarian province of Gorizia and Gradisca . After graduating from the prestigious gymasium of Gorizia, he was drafted by the Austro-Hungarian Army during World War I...

     (1896–1970), Painter
  • Saša Šantel (1883–1945), Painter
  • Carlo Tavagnutti
    Carlo Tavagnutti
    Carlo Tavagnutti is an Italian photographer who, for over 50 years, has taken pictures of landscapes and architecture...

     (b. 1929), Photographer
  • Jožef Tominc
    Jožef Tominc
    Giuseppe Tominz, also known as Jožef Tominc was a Italian painter who lived and worked in the Austrian Empire and in Italy. He was one of the most prominent Italian and Austrian portraitists of the Biedermeier period. He became renowned for his realistic portraits,...

     (1790–1866), Painter

Politicians and public servants

  • Engelbert Besednjak
    Engelbert Besednjak
    Engelbert Besednjak was a Slovene Christian Democrat politician, lawyer and journalist. In the 1920s, he was one of the foremost leaders of the Slovene and Croat minority in the Italian-administered Julian March. In the 1930s, he was one of the leaders of Slovene anti-Fascist émigrés from the...

     (1894–1968), Politician
  • Darko Bratina
    Darko Bratina
    Darko Bratina was an Italian sociologist, film theorist and politician of Slovene ethnicity. Between 1992 and 1997, he served as member of the Italian Senate.- Early life and intellectual endeavours :...

     (1942–1997), Politician, sociologist, and film critic
  • Anton Dermota (1876–1914), Politician and journalist
  • Baron Anton von Doblhoff-Dier
    Baron Anton von Doblhoff-Dier
    Baron Anton von Doblhoff-Dier was an Austrian statesman.Born in Gorizia, he studied law at the University of Vienna and at first entered into civil service. In 1836 he retired to cultivate the manor estate of his uncle at Weikersdorf Castle in Baden, where he excelled in agronomic studies...

     (1800–1872), Austrian statesman
  • Carlo Favetti
    Carlo Favetti
    Carlo Favetti was an Italian politician and lawyer from Gorizia, who also wrote poetry in the Friulian language. He was the founder and leader of Italian irredentism in Gorizia and Gradisca....

     (1819–1892), Politician and poet
  • Josip Ferfolja
    Josip Ferfolja
    Josip Ferfolja was a Slovene lawyer and Social democratic politician, and human rights activist from the Province of Gorizia...

     (1880–1958), Politician, lawyer and human rights activist
  • Anton Füster
    Anton Füster
    Anton Füster, also spelled as Fister was an Austrian Roman Catholic priest, theologian, pedagogue, radical political activist and author of Slovene origin. He was one of the leaders of the Viennese March Revolution of 1848....

     (1808–1881), Revolutionary activist, author and pedagogue
  • Andrej Gabršček (1864–1938), Politician, editor and historian
  • Anton Gregorčič (1852–1925), Politician
  • Karel Lavrič
    Karel Lavrič
    Karel Lavrič, also spelled Laurič or Lauritsch , was a Slovene liberal politician and lawyer from the Slovenian Littoral, and one of the most prominent activists of the Young Slovene movement. Together with the conservative Lovro Toman, he was considered among the most popular Slovene politicians...

     (1818–1876), Politician and lawyer
  • Tomaž Marušič
    Tomaž Marušic
    Tomaž Marušič was a Slovenian lawyer and politician.He was born in Gorizia, Italy. His father, Franc Marušič was a renowned local physician and a staunch Slovene patriot and antifascist...

     (b. 1932), Slovenian politician and lawyer
  • Henrik Tuma (1858–1935), Politician, mountaneer and author
  • Bogumil Vošnjak
    Bogumil Vošnjak
    Bogumil Vošnjak, also known as Bogomil Vošnjak was a Slovene and Yugoslav jurist, politician, diplomat, author and legal historian...

     (1882–1955), Politician, lawyer, historian

Religious figures

  • Karl Michael Attems (1711–1774), First Archbishop of Gorizia
  • Luigi Fogar (1882–1971), bishop of Trieste (1923–1936)
  • Anton Mahnič
    Anton Mahnič
    Dr. Anton Mahnič, also spelled as Antun Mahnić in Croatian ortography , was a Slovene and Croatian Roman Catholic bishop, theologian and philosopher, founder and the main leader of the Croatian Catholic movement....

     (1850–1920), Roman Catholic bishop, author and political activist
  • Jakob Missia (1838–1902), Cardinal
    Cardinal (Catholicism)
    A cardinal is a senior ecclesiastical official, usually an ordained bishop, and ecclesiastical prince of the Catholic Church. They are collectively known as the College of Cardinals, which as a body elects a new pope. The duties of the cardinals include attending the meetings of the College and...

  • Isaac Samuel Reggio
    Isaac Samuel Reggio
    Isaac Samuel Reggio was an Austro-Italian scholar and rabbi born at Gorizia. Reggio studied Hebrew and rabbinics under his father, Abraham Vita, later rabbi of Gorizia, acquiring at the same time in the gymnasium a knowledge of secular science and languages...

     (1784–1855), Scholar and Rabbi
  • Frančišek Borgia Sedej (1854–1931), Prelate
    Prelate
    A prelate is a high-ranking member of the clergy who is an ordinary or who ranks in precedence with ordinaries. The word derives from the Latin prælatus, the past participle of præferre, which means "carry before", "be set above or over" or "prefer"; hence, a prelate is one set over others.-Related...

  • Janez Svetokriški
    Janez Svetokriški
    Janez Svetokriški was a Slovene preacher and writer in the Baroque period.Svetokriški was born as Tobia Lionelli to a Slovene mother and an Italian father in the town of Sveti Križ in the Vipava Valley, County of Gorizia...

     (1647–1714), Franciscan monk and precher

Scholars

  • Graziadio Isaia Ascoli
    Graziadio Isaia Ascoli
    Graziadio Isaia Ascoli was an Italian linguist.- Life and work :Ascoli was born in an Italian-speaking Jewish family in the multiethnic town of Gorizia, then part of the Austrian Empire...

     (1829–1907), Linguist
  • Martin Baučer
    Martin Baucer
    Martin Baučer , also known as Martin Baucer, was a Slovene historian who wrote in Latin.Baučer was born in the village of Selo near Ajdovščina in the Vipava Valley, in what was then the County of Gorizia...

     (1595–1668), Historian
    Historian
    A historian is a person who studies and writes about the past and is regarded as an authority on it. Historians are concerned with the continuous, methodical narrative and research of past events as relating to the human race; as well as the study of all history in time. If the individual is...

  • Milko Brezigar
    Milko Brezigar
    Milko Brezigar was a Slovene and Yugoslav liberal economist.Born to a Slovene family the village of Doberdò del Lago in the Austrian Littoral , he attended the State gymnasium in Gorizia. He studied law at the universities of Graz and Vienna, graduating in 1910...

     (1886–1958), Economist
    Economist
    An economist is a professional in the social science discipline of economics. The individual may also study, develop, and apply theories and concepts from economics and write about economic policy...

  • Johannes Christian Brunnich
    Johannes Christian Brunnich
    Johannes Christian Brünnich was an Australian agricultural chemist.Brünnich was the son of Christian Christoph Brünnich, a Lutheran pastor and mathematician, and his wife Pauline Therese, née Kühnehe and was born at Gorizia, then in Austria-Hungary, now Italy...

     (1866–1931), Chemist
    Chemist
    A chemist is a scientist trained in the study of chemistry. Chemists study the composition of matter and its properties such as density and acidity. Chemists carefully describe the properties they study in terms of quantities, with detail on the level of molecules and their component atoms...

  • Jonathan Kaye (linguist)
    Jonathan Kaye (linguist)
    Jonathan Derek Kaye is an influential linguist who specialises in phonology. He is recognized as one of the founders of Government Phonology....

     (born 1942), Linguist
  • Štefan Kociančič (1818–1883), Theologian
  • Franc Kos (1853–1924), Historian
  • Milko Kos
    Milko Kos
    Milko Kos was a Slovenian historian, considered the father of the so-called Ljubljana school of historiography....

     (1892–1972), Historian
  • Branko Marušič
    Branko Marušič
    Branko Marušič is a Slovenian historian.Born to an upper middle class Slovene family in Gorizia, Italy, he moved with the family to the Yugoslav side of the Yugoslav-Italian border in 1947, and has been living in Solkan since...

     (b. 1942), Historian
  • Pietro Andrea Mattioli
    Pietro Andrea Mattioli
    Pietro Andrea Gregorio Mattioli was a doctor and naturalist born in Siena.He received his MD at the University of Padua in 1523, and subsequently practiced the profession in Siena, Rome, Trento and Gorizia, becoming personal physician of Ferdinand II, Archduke of Austria in Prague and Ambras...

     (1501–1577), Naturalist
    Naturalist
    Naturalist may refer to:* Practitioner of natural history* Conservationist* Advocate of naturalism * Naturalist , autobiography-See also:* The American Naturalist, periodical* Naturalism...

  • Fulvio Melia
    Fulvio Melia
    Fulvio Melia is an Italian-American astrophysicist and author. He is Professor of Physics and Astronomy at the University of Arizona and Associate Editor of the Astrophysical Journal Letters...

     (b. 1956), Astrophysicist
  • Carlo Michelstaedter
    Carlo Michelstaedter
    Carlo Michelstaedter was an Italian writer, philosopher, and man of letters.- Life :Carlo Michelstaedter was born in Gorizia, the capital of the Austro-Hungarian County of Gorizia and Gradisca, as the youngest of four children of Albert and Emma Michelstaedter Coen Luzzatto: Gino , Elda , Paula ...

     (1887–1910), Philosopher
  • Avgust Pirjevec
    Avgust Pirjevec
    Avgust Pirjevec was a Slovene literary scholar, lexicographist and librarian.- Biography :Pirjevec was born in a Slovene-speaking family in Gorizia, a town in the Austrian Littoral . He studied Slavic philology at the University of Vienna. He graduated in 1913 with a thesis on Fran Levstik...

     (1887–1944), Literary historian and librarian
  • Carlo Rubbia
    Carlo Rubbia
    Carlo Rubbia Knight Grand Cross is an Italian particle physicist and inventor who shared the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1984 with Simon van der Meer for work leading to the discovery of the W and Z particles at CERN.-Biography:...

     (b. 1934), Physicist
    Physicist
    A physicist is a scientist who studies or practices physics. Physicists study a wide range of physical phenomena in many branches of physics spanning all length scales: from sub-atomic particles of which all ordinary matter is made to the behavior of the material Universe as a whole...

     and Nobel laureate
  • Jožko Šavli
    Jožko Šavli
    Jožko Šavli was a Slovene author, self-declared historian and high school teacher in economic sciences from Italy....

     (b. 1943), Historian
  • Vladimir Truhlar (1912–1977), Poet and theologian
  • Vaclav Belohradsky
    Václav Belohradský
    Václav Bělohradský is one of the most famous contemporary Czech philosophers and sociologists. A graduate in philosophy and Czech from Charles University, Prague, he has lived in Italy since 1970, where he is currently Professor of Political Sociology at the University of Trieste. He is said to be...

     (b. 1944), Philosopher

Sportsmen

  • Matej Černič
    Matej Cernic
    Matej Černic is a volleyball player from Italy, who won the silver medal with the Italian men's national team at the 2004 Summer Olympics in Athens, Greece. He is of Slovene ethnicity and belongs to the Slovene minority in Italy.-References:*...

     (1978), Volleyball
    Volleyball
    Volleyball is a team sport in which two teams of six players are separated by a net. Each team tries to score points by grounding a ball on the other team's court under organized rules.The complete rules are extensive...

     player
  • Barbara Lah
    Barbara Lah
    Barbara Lah is a retired Italian triple jumper, whose personal best jump is 14.38 metres, at the 2003 World Championships in Paris. In addition she has 6.12 m in the long jump.-Achievements:-External links:...

     (b. 1972), Triple jumper
  • Giorgio Petrosyan
    Giorgio Petrosyan
    Gevorg "Giorgio" Petrosyan is an Armenian-Italian welterweight kickboxer, fighting out of Satori Gladiatorium in Gorizia, Italy. He is the two time K-1 World MAX champion and WKN Intercontinental Middleweight Muay Thai champion....

     (b. 1985), Kickboxer and martial artist
  • Rachel Collins (b. 1991), Field Hockey player and life coach
  • Gianmarco Pozzecco
    Gianmarco Pozzecco
    Gianmarco Pozzecco is a retired Italian basketball player, an all-around offensive talent. He won, for seven years, the ranking for the top assistmen in Italian League.- Career :...

     (b. 1972), Basketball player
  • Edoardo Reja
    Edoardo Reja
    Edoardo "Edy" Reja is an Italian football coach and former player, currently managing Lazio in the Italian Serie A. Born in Italy to Slovenian parents, Reja speaks Slovene and Italian. He is also fluent in Friulan....

     (b. 1945), Football (soccer) coach and player
  • Paolo Vidoz
    Paolo Vidoz
    Paolo Vidoz is a boxer from Italy, who won the Olympic bronze medal, twice won the bronze medal at the World Amateur Boxing Championships: 1997 and 1999 and also won a silver medal at the European Championships....

     (b. 1970), Boxer
    Boxing
    Boxing, also called pugilism, is a combat sport in which two people fight each other using their fists. Boxing is supervised by a referee over a series of between one to three minute intervals called rounds...


Others

  • Gianpaolo Barone (b. 1974), Chef
    Chef
    A chef is a person who cooks professionally for other people. Although over time the term has come to describe any person who cooks for a living, traditionally it refers to a highly skilled professional who is proficient in all aspects of food preparation.-Etymology:The word "chef" is borrowed ...

  • Lojze Bratuž
    Lojze Bratuž
    Lojze Bratuž, italianized name Luigi Bertossi was a Slovene choirmaster and composer from Gorizia, killed by the Italian Fascist squads...

     (1902–1937), Composer
    Composer
    A composer is a person who creates music, either by musical notation or oral tradition, for interpretation and performance, or through direct manipulation of sonic material through electronic media...

     and Anti-fascist martyr
  • Ferdo Delak (1905–1968), Slovene—Croatian stage director
  • Nora Gregor
    Nora Gregor
    -Biography:She was born Eleonora Hermina Gregor in Gorizia, a town which then belonged to Austria-Hungary but is now part of Italy, to Austrian Jewish parents.Her first husband was Mitja Nikisch, a pianist...

     (1901–1949), Actress
  • István Környey (1901–1988), Physician
    Physician
    A physician is a health care provider who practices the profession of medicine, which is concerned with promoting, maintaining or restoring human health through the study, diagnosis, and treatment of disease, injury and other physical and mental impairments...

    , father of Hungarian
    Hungary
    Hungary , officially the Republic of Hungary , is a landlocked country in Central Europe. It is situated in the Carpathian Basin and is bordered by Slovakia to the north, Ukraine and Romania to the east, Serbia and Croatia to the south, Slovenia to the southwest and Austria to the west. The...

     neuropathology
    Neuropathology
    Neuropathology is the study of disease of nervous system tissue, usually in the form of either small surgical biopsies or whole autopsy brains. Neuropathology is a subspecialty of anatomic pathology, neurology, and neurosurgery...

  • Sergej Mašera
    Sergej Mašera
    Sergej Mašera was a naval Lieutenant of the Yugoslav Royal Navy, which on the April War, along with his fellow Lieutenant Milan Spasić blown up Destroyer Zagreb at Bay of Kotor besides Tivat to not fall into the hands of Italian Royal Navy and together with Spasic died.- Before World War...

     (1912–1941), Lieutenant of the Yugoslav Royal Navy
    Yugoslav Royal Navy
    The Royal Yugoslav Navy was the navy of the Kingdom of Yugoslavia.This navy existed since the establishment of the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes in 1918, which was changed in 1929 to the Kingdom of Yugoslavia...

     and national hero of Yugoslavia
    People's Hero of Yugoslavia
    The Order of the People's Hero was a Yugoslav gallantry medal, the second highest military award, and third overall Yugoslav decoration. It was awarded to individuals, military units, political and other organisations who distinguished themselves by extraordinary heroic deeds during war and in...

  • Arturo Reggio
    Arturo Reggio
    Arturo Reggio was an Italian chess master.He started playing chess as an engineering student at the Graz University of Technology and at the Imperial-Royal Polytechnic Institute of Vienna, both in Austria...

     (1863–1917), Italian chess
    Chess
    Chess is a two-player board game played on a chessboard, a square-checkered board with 64 squares arranged in an eight-by-eight grid. It is one of the world's most popular games, played by millions of people worldwide at home, in clubs, online, by correspondence, and in tournaments.Each player...

     master
  • Edvard Rusjan
    Edvard Rusjan
    Edvard Rusjan was a Slovene flight pioneer and airplane constructor. He died in an airplane crash in Belgrade.- Biography :Rusjan was born in Trieste, then the major port of Austria-Hungary...

     (1886–1911), Aircraft
    Aircraft
    An aircraft is a vehicle that is able to fly by gaining support from the air, or, in general, the atmosphere of a planet. An aircraft counters the force of gravity by using either static lift or by using the dynamic lift of an airfoil, or in a few cases the downward thrust from jet engines.Although...

     constructor
    Constructor
    Constructor may refer to:*Constructor , object-organizing method* Constructor , a 1997 PC game by Acclaim, the prequel of Constructor: Street Wars...

     and pilot
    Aviator
    An aviator is a person who flies an aircraft. The first recorded use of the term was in 1887, as a variation of 'aviation', from the Latin avis , coined in 1863 by G. de la Landelle in Aviation Ou Navigation Aérienne...

  • Karl von Scherzer
    Karl von Scherzer
    Karl Ritter von Scherzer was an Austrian explorer, diplomat and natural scientist.-Biography:...

     (1821–1903), Explorer and natural scientist

Twin towns


Gorizia is twinned
Town twinning
Twin towns and sister cities are two of many terms used to describe the cooperative agreements between towns, cities, and even counties in geographically and politically distinct areas to promote cultural and commercial ties.- Terminology :...

 with:
Kielce
Kielce
Kielce ) is a city in central Poland with 204,891 inhabitants . It is also the capital city of the Świętokrzyskie Voivodeship since 1999, previously in Kielce Voivodeship...

, Poland Klagenfurt
Klagenfurt
-Name:Carinthia's eminent linguists Primus Lessiak and Eberhard Kranzmayer assumed that the city's name, which literally translates as "ford of lament" or "ford of complaints", had something to do with the superstitious thought that fateful fairies or demons tend to live around treacherous waters...

, Austria Lienz
Lienz
Lienz is a medieval town in the Austrian state of Tyrol. It is the administrative centre of the Lienz district, which covers all of East Tyrol. The municipality also includes the cadastral subdivision of Patriasdorf.-Geography:...

, Austria Venlo
Venlo
Venlo is a municipality and a city in the southeastern Netherlands, next to the German border. It is situated in the province of Limburg.In 2001, the municipalities of Belfeld and Tegelen were merged into the municipality of Venlo. Tegelen was originally part of the Duchy of Jülich centuries ago,...

, Netherlands Zalaegerszeg
Zalaegerszeg
In 2001 Zalaegerszeg had 61,654 inhabitants . The distribution of religions were, 71.1% Roman Catholic, 3.8% Calvinist, 1.6% Lutheran, 11.6% Atheist .-Notable people:* Lajos Botfy , mayor...

, Hungary

External links