Home      Discussion      Topics      Dictionary      Almanac
Signup       Login
Gihwa

Gihwa

Discussion
Ask a question about 'Gihwa'
Start a new discussion about 'Gihwa'
Answer questions from other users
Full Discussion Forum
 
Encyclopedia
Gihwa also known as Hamheo Teuktong was a Buddhist monk of the Seon order and leading Buddhist figure during the late Goryeo
Goryeo
The Goryeo Dynasty or Koryŏ was a Korean dynasty established in 918 by Emperor Taejo. Korea gets its name from this kingdom which came to be pronounced Korea. It united the Later Three Kingdoms in 936 and ruled most of the Korean peninsula until it was removed by the Joseon dynasty in 1392...

 to early Joseon
Joseon Dynasty
Joseon , was a Korean state founded by Taejo Yi Seong-gye that lasted for approximately five centuries. It was founded in the aftermath of the overthrow of the Goryeo at what is today the city of Kaesong. Early on, Korea was retitled and the capital was relocated to modern-day Seoul...

 period. He was originally a Confucian scholar of high reputation, but converted to Buddhism at the age of 21 upon the death of a close friend. He wandered among the Korean mountain monasteries, until he had the fortune of becoming the disciple of the last Korean National Teacher Muhak.

Gihwa's writings showed a distinctive mixture between iconoclastic and suddenistic Chán
Chan
-People:* Chan Marshall, American musician better known as Cat Power* Chan , Chinese surname; Mandarin transcription of the same name is Chen ** Agnes Chan , Hong Kong singer, also famous in Japan...

 language, and a strong appreciation for the scriptural tradition. Thus, he took up from Jinul
Jinul
Chinul or Jinul was a Korean monk of the Goryeo period, who is considered to be the most influential figure in the formation of Korean Seon Buddhism....

 the tradition of unification of Seon and Gyo Buddhism. Among his writings, there are four works in particular that made a deep impact on the subsequent Seon tradition in Korea. These are:
  1. A commentary on the Sutra of Perfect Enlightenment
    Sutra of Perfect Enlightenment
    The Sutra of Perfect Enlightenment or Complete Enlightenment is a Mahāyāna Buddhist sūtra highly esteemed by both the Huayan and Zen schools....

    , the Weongak gyeong hae seorui.
  2. A redaction and subcommentary to five famous earlier commentaries on the Diamond Sutra
    Diamond Sutra
    The Diamond Sūtra , is a short and well-known Mahāyāna sūtra from the Prajñāpāramitā, or "Perfection of Wisdom" genre, and emphasizes the practice of non-abiding and non-attachment...

    , the Geumgang banyabaramilgyeong ogahae seorui.
  3. A subcommentary and redaction of the Collection of Yongjia, the Yonggajip gwaju seorui and
  4. The Hyeonjeong non
    Hyeonjeong non
    Hyeonjeong non was an essay written at the beginning of the Joseon period, defending Buddhism against the attacks of a rising antagonistic Neo-Confucian movement...

    . As a result of his fourth major work (the Hyeonjeong non) Gihwa distinguished himself as the primary Buddhist respondent to the rising Neo-Confucian polemic of his period, as he responded with vigor to the Neo-Confucian criticisms of Buddhism.


Gihwa died while residing at Jeongsusa, at the southern tip of Ganghwa Island
Ganghwa Island
Ganghwa Island is an island in the estuary of the Han River, on the west coast of South Korea. Ganghwa Island is separated from Gimpo, on the mainland, by a narrow channel, which is spanned by two bridges. The main channel of the Han River separates the island from Gaeseong in North Korea.About...

, where his tomb can still be visited. Gihwa's commentary on the Sutra of Perfect Enlightenment
Sutra of Perfect Enlightenment
The Sutra of Perfect Enlightenment or Complete Enlightenment is a Mahāyāna Buddhist sūtra highly esteemed by both the Huayan and Zen schools....

 was translated by A. Charles Muller, in 1999.

Essence-Function (體用) is a key concept in East Asian Buddhism
East Asian Buddhism
East Asian Buddhism is a collective term for the schools of Mahayana Buddhism that developed in the East Asian region and follow the Chinese Buddhist canon...

 and particularly that of Korean Buddhism
Korean Buddhism
Korean Buddhism is distinguished from other forms of Buddhism by its attempt to resolve what it sees as inconsistencies in Mahayana Buddhism. Early Korean monks believed that the traditions they received from foreign countries were internally inconsistent. To address this, they developed a new...

. Essence-Function takes a particular form in the philosophy and writings of Kihwa.

External links