Ghulam Ishaq Khan

Ghulam Ishaq Khan

Discussion
Ask a question about 'Ghulam Ishaq Khan'
Start a new discussion about 'Ghulam Ishaq Khan'
Answer questions from other users
Full Discussion Forum
 
Encyclopedia
Ghulam Ishaq Khan abbreviated as GIK, was the seventh President of Pakistan
President of Pakistan
The President of Pakistan is the head of state, as well as figurehead, of the Islamic Republic of Pakistan. Recently passed an XVIII Amendment , Pakistan has a parliamentary democratic system of government. According to the Constitution, the President is chosen by the Electoral College to serve a...

 from August 17, 1988 until July 18, 1993 and a career statesman
Statesman
A statesman is usually a politician or other notable public figure who has had a long and respected career in politics or government at the national and international level. As a term of respect, it is usually left to supporters or commentators to use the term...

 from the start to the end of cold war
Cold War
The Cold War was the continuing state from roughly 1946 to 1991 of political conflict, military tension, proxy wars, and economic competition between the Communist World—primarily the Soviet Union and its satellite states and allies—and the powers of the Western world, primarily the United States...

. A bureaucrat, Khan started his career under the Ayub Khan's military regime, and was the chairman of Water and Power Development Authority
Water and Power Development Authority
The Water and Power Development Authority is a government-owned public utility maintaining power and water in Pakistan, although it does not manage thermal power. WAPDA includes Tarbela and Mangla dams among its resources...

 from 1961 till 1966; and Finance Secretary
Finance Secretary of Pakistan
Finance Secretary of Pakistan is the highest bureaucratic position within the Ministry of Finance of Pakistan. There were at least three instances when finance ministry was headed by Secretary-General...

 from 1966–1970.

Under Zulfikar Ali Bhutto
Zulfikar Ali Bhutto
Zulfikar Ali Bhutto was 9th Prime Minister of Pakistan from 1973 to 1977, and prior to that, 4th President of Pakistan from 1971 to 1973. Bhutto was the founder of the Pakistan Peoples Party — the largest and most influential political party in Pakistan— and served as its chairman until his...

's elected government, Khan served as Governor of State Bank of Pakistan
State Bank of Pakistan
The State Bank of Pakistan is the central bank of Pakistan. While its constitution, as originally laid down in the State Bank of Pakistan Order 1948, remained basically unchanged until January 1, 1974, when the bank was nationalized, the scope of its functions was considerably enlarged...

 from 1971–1975, and Defence Secretary
Defence Secretary of Pakistan
Defence Secretary of Pakistan is the highest bureaucratic position within the Ministry of Defence of Pakistan. Following is the list of the defence secretaries to date....

 from 1975 till 1977. Khan led Ministry of Finance, under the military government of General Zia, from 5 July 1977 – 21 March 1985. Before becoming President, Khan was the Chairman
Chairman of the Senate of Pakistan
The current Chairman of the Senate of Pakistan is Farooq Naek since 12 March, 2009.The first Chairman of the Senate was Justice Khan Habibullah Khan Marwat.-History:...

 of the Senate
Senate of Pakistan
The Senate of Pakistan is the upper house of the bicameral Parliament of Pakistan. Elections are held every three years for one half of the senate and each senator has a term of six years...

 to which he was elected in 21 March 1985. Under his presidency, Pakistan's economy faced a major currency crises, and repeatedly dismissed democratically elected governments of Benazir Bhutto and Nawaz Sharif on charges of corruption
Corruption
Corruption usually refers to spiritual or moral impurity.Corruption may also refer to:* Corruption , an American crime film* Corruption , a British horror film...

, mismanagement
Financial mismanagement
Financial mismanagement is management that, deliberately or not, is handled in a way that can be characterized as "wrong, bad, careless, inefficient or incompetent" and that will reflect negatively upon the financial standing of a business or individual....

, and nepotism
Nepotism
Nepotism is favoritism granted to relatives regardless of merit. The word nepotism is from the Latin word nepos, nepotis , from which modern Romanian nepot and Italian nipote, "nephew" or "grandchild" are also descended....

. In 1993, Khan, along with Nawaz Sharif, was forced to resign from his presidency by the Chief of Army Staff of Pakistan Army
Pakistan Army
The Pakistan Army is the branch of the Pakistani Armed Forces responsible for land-based military operations. The Pakistan Army came into existence after the Partition of India and the resulting independence of Pakistan in 1947. It is currently headed by General Ashfaq Parvez Kayani. The Pakistan...

 General Abdul Waheed Kakar. In 1993, new parliamentary elections
Pakistani general election, 1993
General elections were held in Pakistan on 6 October 1993. The election took place after both the Prime Minister Nawaz Sharif and President Ghulam Ishaq Khan resigned to resolve a power struggle between them. Although the Pakistan Muslim League won the largest number of votes, the Pakistan Peoples...

 were held and Khan was succeeded by Farooq Leghari
Farooq Leghari
Sardar Farooq Ahmad Khan Leghari was the eighth President of Pakistan from November 14, 1993 until December 2, 1997...

 of Pakistan Peoples Party
Pakistan Peoples Party
The Pakistan Peoples Party , is a democratic socialist political party in Pakistan affiliated with Socialist International. Pakistan People's Party is the largest political party of Pakistan...

 (PPP).

Early life


Khan was born on January 20, 1915 in a small village - Ismail Khel - in the suburbs of Bannu District
Bannu District
Bannu District is one of the twenty four districts of the Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province of Pakistan, it is represented in the provincial assembly by four MPAs. The chief city of the district is Bannu. The major industries are cloth weaving and the manufacture of cotton fabrics, machinery, and...

 located in the now Khyber-Pakhtunkhwa region. In 1933, he attended Peshawar University where he received his double B.S.
Bachelor of Science
A Bachelor of Science is an undergraduate academic degree awarded for completed courses that generally last three to five years .-Australia:In Australia, the BSc is a 3 year degree, offered from 1st year on...

 in Chemistry
Chemistry
Chemistry is the science of matter, especially its chemical reactions, but also its composition, structure and properties. Chemistry is concerned with atoms and their interactions with other atoms, and particularly with the properties of chemical bonds....

 and Botany
Botany
Botany, plant science, or plant biology is a branch of biology that involves the scientific study of plant life. Traditionally, botany also included the study of fungi, algae and viruses...

, followed by his M.S.
Master of Science
A Master of Science is a postgraduate academic master's degree awarded by universities in many countries. The degree is typically studied for in the sciences including the social sciences.-Brazil, Argentina and Uruguay:...

 in Nuclear chemistry in 1940. Despite his educational field, Khan joined the Indian Civil Service and became a career bureaucrat
Bureaucrat
A bureaucrat is a member of a bureaucracy and can comprise the administration of any organization of any size, though the term usually connotes someone within an institution of a government or corporation...

 in the Government of British Indian Empire. He was appointed to the prestigious Civil Service of Pakistan after independence in 1947.

His son-in-law is senior politician Anwar Saifullah Khan
Anwar Saifullah Khan
Anwar Saifullah Khan is a politician of Pakistan and is currently a Member of the Provincial Assembly of Khyber-Pakhtunkhwa. He hails from District Lakki Marwat and has remained a Federal Minister under the Premiership of Benazir Bhutto. Anwar Saifullah Khan has remained federal Minister three...

. A grand-daughter of his is married to Omar Ayub Khan
Omar Ayub Khan
Omar Ayub Khan Omar Ayub Khan Omar Ayub Khan (born January 26, 1970 to an influential Hindko speaking family of Hazara region, but originally of Pashtun Tareen (Tarin properly) descent, is a former Minister of State for Finance in Pakistan...

, who is the grandson of former Pakistani President Ayub Khan and son of Gohar Ayub Khan
Gohar Ayub Khan
Gohar Ayub Khan is a Pakistani politician and a son of the late Pakistani dictator, President General Ayub Khan. A Tareen/Tarin Afghan/Pathan, he was born in village Rehana, Haripur, Hazara region. Khan studied at Army Burn Hall College, Abbottabad, and Saint Mary's Academy, Rawalpindi,...

.

Government offices


After holding various regional posts in the Sindh Government, Khan was appointed as the Chairman of the West-Pakistan
West Pakistan
West Pakistan , common name West-Pakistan , in the period between its establishment on 22 November 1955 to disintegration on December 16, 1971. This period, during which, Pakistan was divided, ended when East-Pakistan was disintegrated and succeeded to become which is now what is known as Bangladesh...

 Water and Power Development Authority
Water and Power Development Authority
The Water and Power Development Authority is a government-owned public utility maintaining power and water in Pakistan, although it does not manage thermal power. WAPDA includes Tarbela and Mangla dams among its resources...

 (W-WAPDA) in 1961 by President Field Marshal Ayub Khan. In 1966, Khan was relieved and was made Finance Secretary
Finance Secretary of Pakistan
Finance Secretary of Pakistan is the highest bureaucratic position within the Ministry of Finance of Pakistan. There were at least three instances when finance ministry was headed by Secretary-General...

 of the Ministry of Finance until 1970 when he resigned from his position in favor of Zulfikar Ali Bhutto
Zulfikar Ali Bhutto
Zulfikar Ali Bhutto was 9th Prime Minister of Pakistan from 1973 to 1977, and prior to that, 4th President of Pakistan from 1971 to 1973. Bhutto was the founder of the Pakistan Peoples Party — the largest and most influential political party in Pakistan— and served as its chairman until his...

. After witnessing the disastrous Indo-Pakistani Winter War of 1971
Indo-Pakistani War of 1971
The Indo-Pakistani War of 1971 was a military conflict between India and Pakistan. Indian, Bangladeshi and international sources consider the beginning of the war to be Operation Chengiz Khan, Pakistan's December 3, 1971 pre-emptive strike on 11 Indian airbases...

, Khan was tasked to run the retail and commercial services, since the economy was in fragile state. This tasked was considered quiet difficult and challenging for a country that was dismembered as a result of this war. In 1971, Zulfikar Ali Bhutto
Zulfikar Ali Bhutto
Zulfikar Ali Bhutto was 9th Prime Minister of Pakistan from 1973 to 1977, and prior to that, 4th President of Pakistan from 1971 to 1973. Bhutto was the founder of the Pakistan Peoples Party — the largest and most influential political party in Pakistan— and served as its chairman until his...

 appointed him as the Governor
Governor of State Bank of Pakistan
- List :# Zahid Hussain, 10-06-1948 TO 19-07-1953# Abdul Qadir, 20-07-1953 TO 19-07-1960# Shujaat Ali Hasnie, 20-07-1960 TO 19-07-1967# Mahbubur Raschid, 20-07-1967 TO 01-07-1971# Shahkur Ullah Durrani, 01-07-1971 TO 22-12-1971...

 of State Bank of Pakistan
State Bank of Pakistan
The State Bank of Pakistan is the central bank of Pakistan. While its constitution, as originally laid down in the State Bank of Pakistan Order 1948, remained basically unchanged until January 1, 1974, when the bank was nationalized, the scope of its functions was considerably enlarged...

 when he was tasked to carry out monetary and credit policy in accordance to Government policy with influence of socialism. In the latter position, he questioned the wisdom of a number of the economic policies of then Prime Minister Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto who was keen to intensified his nationalization and socialist influence in the financial institutions that marked the slow down of the economy.

Tenure as Secretary of Defence


In 1977, Bhutto subsequently moved Khan from the bank and appointed as the Secretary
Defence Secretary of Pakistan
Defence Secretary of Pakistan is the highest bureaucratic position within the Ministry of Defence of Pakistan. Following is the list of the defence secretaries to date....

 of Ministry of Defence
Ministry of Defence (Pakistan)
The Ministry of Defence , is a federal government ministry tasked with coordinating and supervising all major government agencies and federal departments of the government relating directly to National security and the Pakistan Defense Forces...

, a prestigious post for the statesman and stateswoman in the Government. Although an unusual post for a senior economics expert, it proved to be fortuitous in that it brought him into close contact with the senior officers of the Pakistan Armed Forces. Among them was General Zia-ul-Haq, then-Chief of Army Staff appointed by Bhutto, who later ousted Bhutto and turned the management of the economy over to Ishaq Khan.

Operation Fair Play


Ouster of Bhutto was notably a major event in his life. The time Bhutto was forcefully being removed under the Fair Play
Operation Fair Play
Operation Fairplay was the code-name for the coup d'etat conducted at midnight on July 4, 1977 by the Pakistan Army's 111th Infantry Brigade led by Chief of Army Staff General Zia-ul-Haq against the elected civilian government of then-Prime minister Zulfikar Ali Bhutto.-1977 election:The coup was...

, Khan was preparing to meet with Bhutto to present the assessment report. Khan came in initial state of shock when he received a call from Pakistan Army Combatant General Headquarters (GHQ) that Bhutto has been forcefully removed by Chief of Army Staff General Zia-ul-Haq. Therefore, Khan immediately went to meet General Zia-ul-Haq. At the meeting with General Zia-ul-Haq and his top military generals, Khan had told General Zia-ul-Haq that this action was going to harm the country, but since it could not be reversed, they should do their best to salvage whatever they could.

During the General Zia-ul-Haq's Martial law regime, Ishaq Khan's titles changed, but he was responsible for all important economic decisions. Among other things, he supported the Zia government's efforts to Islamized
Zia-ul-Haq's Islamization
On December 2, 1978, General Muhammad Zia-ul-Haq delivered a nationwide address on the occasion of the first day of the Hijra calendar. He did this in order to usher in an Islamic system to Pakistan...

 the economy by changes in the fiscal and banking systems.

Senate Secretariat


Khan successfully campaigned and won the 1985 parliamentary elections
Pakistani general election, 1985
General elections were held in Pakistan on 28 February 1985. Around 1,300 candidates contested the election, which was held on a non-party basis. Voter turnout was 52.93%.-Results:...

 for the Senate Secretariat
Senate of Pakistan
The Senate of Pakistan is the upper house of the bicameral Parliament of Pakistan. Elections are held every three years for one half of the senate and each senator has a term of six years...

. Khan was unanimously voted for Chairing the Senate Secretariat and assumed this office on 21 March 1985. After the controversial and mysterious aviation accident occurred in Bahawalpur
Bahawalpur
Bahawalpur , located in the province of Punjab, is the twelfth largest city in Pakistan. The city was once the capital of the former princely state of Bahawalpur. The city was home to various Nawabs and counted as part of the Rajputana states...

, Khan appeared in national television where he announced the death of General Zia-ul-Haq. In 1988, Khan became acting President in accordance with the Constitutional rules of succession, and was formally elected to the position in December of that year. He held the position of President until 1993.

Presidency


As President, Pakistan's economy suffered with economic and political upheavals. During his Presidency, the economic issue was considered a national highest priority. However, after the Pressler amendment came in affect by the United States
United States
The United States of America is a federal constitutional republic comprising fifty states and a federal district...

, a large military and economic embargo was forced on Pakistan, and and many commercial relations to Pakistan were cut off. During his time, the nuclear development, economic issues, and political stability, was considered his presidency's highest priority. But, Khan's presidency failed to arrest the control of currency and a new currency crises hampered the Pakistan economy badly. Khan repeatedely dismissed democratically elected governments of Benazir Bhutto and Navaz Sharif that seriously undermined Khan's effort to improve the economy. At the end, Khan was forced to resigned from the Presidency and a call for new elections were made.

Appointment of Chiefs of Armed Forces


Khan reportedly vetoed the appointment of Lieutenant-General Hamid Gull, a former Director-General
Director-general
The term director-general is a title given the highest executive officer within a governmental, statutory, NGO, third sector or not-for-profit institution.-European Union:...

 of Directorate for Inter-Services Intelligence (ISI
Inter-Services Intelligence
The Directorate for Inter-Services Intelligence , is Pakistan's premier intelligence agency, responsible for providing critical national security intelligence assessment to the Government of Pakistan...

), as Chief of Army Staff of Pakistan Army
Pakistan Army
The Pakistan Army is the branch of the Pakistani Armed Forces responsible for land-based military operations. The Pakistan Army came into existence after the Partition of India and the resulting independence of Pakistan in 1947. It is currently headed by General Ashfaq Parvez Kayani. The Pakistan...

, appointing the moderately reformist General Asif Nawaz Khan Janjua instead. Khan's presidency also saw the resignation of General Rahimuddin Khan
Rahimuddin Khan
Rahimuddin Khan Afridi is a retired four-star general of the Pakistan Army who was the fourth Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff Committee from 1984 to 1987. He was also the longest-serving Governor and martial law administrator of Balochistan, from 1978 to when he resigned in 1984...

 from the post of Governor of Sindh
Governor of Sindh
The Governor of Sindh is the appointed Head of State of the provincial government in Sindh, Pakistan. The governor is designated by the Prime Minister and is normally regarded a ceremonial post...

, due to differences between the two after Khan started restricting Rahimuddin's vast amount of legislative power.

Khan appointed Air Chief Marshal Farooq Feroze Khan
Farooq Feroze Khan
Air Chief Marshal Farooq Feroze Khan, NI, SBt, , is a retired four-star air force officer in the Pakistan Air Force who was the 13th Chief of Air Staff of the Pakistan Air Force from 1991 to 1994. Air Chief Marshal Farooq Feroze Khan was the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff Committee from...

 as Chief of Air Staff
Chief of Air Staff (Pakistan)
The Chief of the Air Staff of the Pakistan Air Force, abbreviated as CAS, is typically the highest ranking 4-star rank officer in the Pakistan Air Force, unless a four-star officer is appointed as the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff Committee. The CAS is a senior and permanent member of the...

 of Pakistan Air Force
Pakistan Air Force
The Pakistan Air Force is the leading air arm of the Pakistan Armed Forces and is primarily tasked with the aerial defence of Pakistan with a secondary role of providing air support to the Pakistan Army and the Pakistan Navy. The PAF also has a tertiary role of providing strategic air transport...

 on the advice of Bhutto. Khan later promoted Vice-Admiral Yastur-ul-Haq Malik
Yastur-ul-Haq Malik
Admiral Yastur-ul-Haq Malik, NI, SBt, is a retired 4-Star naval officer and 11th Chief of Naval Staff of Pakistan Navy from 10 November 1988 to 8 November 1991. He is a recipient of Nishan-i-Imtiaz , which is awarded to all the services chiefs upon taking over their respective commands and...

 as 4-star Admiral, and appointed him as Chief of Naval Staff of Pakistan Navy. On Prime minister
Prime Minister of Pakistan
The Prime Minister of Pakistan , is the Head of Government of Pakistan who is designated to exercise as the country's Chief Executive. By the Constitution of Pakistan, Pakistan has the parliamentary democratic system of government...

 Benazir Bhutto's recommendation and advice, Khan approved Admiral
Admiral
Admiral is the rank, or part of the name of the ranks, of the highest naval officers. It is usually considered a full admiral and above vice admiral and below admiral of the fleet . It is usually abbreviated to "Adm" or "ADM"...

 Iftikhar Ahmed Sirohey
Iftikhar Ahmed Sirohey
Admiral Iftikhar Ahmed Sirohey, NI, SBt, HI, , is a now-retired and senior four-star admiral who was the 10th Chief of Naval Staff of Pakistan Navy from 1986 to 1988...

, former Chief of Naval Staff
Chief of Naval Staff (Pakistan)
The Chief of the Naval Staff, abbreviated as CNS, is the highest ranking officer in the Pakistani Navy unless a 4-star naval officer is appointed as Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff Committee. The current Chief of the Naval Staff is Admiral Asif Sandila who commands the Navy. The CNS reports...

, as Chairman of Joint Chiefs of Staff Committee
Joint Chiefs of Staff Committee, Pakistan
The Joint Chiefs of Staff Committee , is a military administrative body of high-ranking and senior uniformed military leaders and officers in the Pakistan Defense Forces who advises the civilian Government of Pakistan, National Security Council, and Defence Minister on important military matters...

.

Dismissing the Governments of Bhutto and Sharif


Khan's presidency was also marked by his use of Eighth Amendment
Eighth Amendment to the Constitution of Pakistan
The VIII Amendment to the Constitution of Pakistan, was short-time amendment to the Constitution of Pakistan, which was passed by the Majlis-e-Shoora, in the absence of elected Parliament of Pakistan, in 1985. The VIII Amendment was drafted and later enforced by the joint Technocratic-Military...

 reserve power
Reserve power
In a parliamentary or semi-presidential system of government, a reserve power is a power that may be exercised by the head of state without the approval of another branch of the government. Unlike a presidential system of government, the head of state is generally constrained by the cabinet or the...

s to check the government
Government of Pakistan
The Government of Pakistan is a federal parliamentary system, with an indirectly-elected President as the Head of State and Commander in Chief of the Pakistani Armed Forces, and an indirectly-elected Prime Minister as the Head of Government. The President’s appointment and term are...

. While the Prime Minister
Prime Minister of Pakistan
The Prime Minister of Pakistan , is the Head of Government of Pakistan who is designated to exercise as the country's Chief Executive. By the Constitution of Pakistan, Pakistan has the parliamentary democratic system of government...

 is the Head of Government
Head of government
Head of government is the chief officer of the executive branch of a government, often presiding over a cabinet. In a parliamentary system, the head of government is often styled prime minister, chief minister, premier, etc...

, Khan, as President of Pakistan, was able to dismiss the governments of both prime ministers, Benazir Bhutto
Benazir Bhutto
Benazir Bhutto was a democratic socialist who served as the 11th Prime Minister of Pakistan in two non-consecutive terms from 1988 until 1990 and 1993 until 1996....

 and Nawaz Sharif
Nawaz Sharif
Mian Mohammad Nawaz Sharif is a Pakistani conservative politician and steel magnate who served as 12th Prime Minister of Pakistan in two non-consecutive terms from November 1990 to July 1993, and from February 1997 to October 12, 1999...

 on charges of corruption, mismanagement, and nepotism
Nepotism
Nepotism is favoritism granted to relatives regardless of merit. The word nepotism is from the Latin word nepos, nepotis , from which modern Romanian nepot and Italian nipote, "nephew" or "grandchild" are also descended....

, thereby triggering new elections
Pakistani general election, 1993
General elections were held in Pakistan on 6 October 1993. The election took place after both the Prime Minister Nawaz Sharif and President Ghulam Ishaq Khan resigned to resolve a power struggle between them. Although the Pakistan Muslim League won the largest number of votes, the Pakistan Peoples...

, which the incumbent parties lost. The second dismissal of government exacerbated institutional and political opposition to Khan, leading to his resignation in 1993.

Currency crisis


During the early 1990s, Khan's administration failed to arrest the 30 per cent fall in the value of the Pakistani Rupee from 21 to 30 to the US Dollar.

Atomic weapons programme


Khan was a staunch supporter of nuclear detterent programme and played a major role in the development of nuclear weapons as his role as Defence Secretary and then as Chairman of Senate. In 1975, Zahid Ali Akbar
Zahid Ali Akbar
Lieutenant-General Zahid Ali Akbar Khan , TKdt, was an engineering officer of Pakistan Army who oversaw the construction of the Generals Combatant Army Headquarter and is well-known as the director of the Kahuta Project as part of the Pakistan's acquisition of integrated atomic bomb project...

, Brigadier-General at that time, submitted a survey and map of Kahuta
Kahuta
Kahuta is a town and tehsil in the Rawalpindi District of Pakistan's Punjab Province. According to Pakistan's 2008 census, Kahuta tehsil has a population of approximately 160,000....

 and the Engineering Research Laboratories (ERL) to Khan as he was Defence Secretary to Bhutto's premiership cabinet. As the Pakistan Army Corps of Engineers
Pakistan Army Corps of Engineers
The Pakistan Army Corps of Engineers, , is an active military administrative staff corps, and a major science and technology command of the Pakistan Army...

, under Zahid Ali Akbar, supervised the Project-706, Khan had maintained extremely closed relationship with Dr. Abdul Qadeer Khan
Abdul Qadeer Khan
Abdul Qadeer Khan , also known in Pakistan as Mohsin-e-Pakistan , D.Eng, Sc.D, HI, NI , FPAS; more widely known as Dr. A. Q...

, and remained his staunch loyal. Ghulam Ishaq Khan, as President of Pakistan
President of Pakistan
The President of Pakistan is the head of state, as well as figurehead, of the Islamic Republic of Pakistan. Recently passed an XVIII Amendment , Pakistan has a parliamentary democratic system of government. According to the Constitution, the President is chosen by the Electoral College to serve a...

, established Ghulam Ishaq Khan Institute of Engineering Sciences and Technology
Ghulam Ishaq Khan Institute of Engineering Sciences and Technology
-See also:* List of universities in Pakistan* GIKI clock tower* Project topi-External links:* * * * *...

 (GIKI) that offers world-class programmes in engineering science and technology in the country. In 1990, he invited Dr. Abdul Qadeer Khan to become institute's executive member, and with his support, Abdul Qadeer Khan became the Chairman of Department
Academic department
An academic department is a division of a university or school faculty devoted to a particular academic discipline. This article covers United States usage at the university level....

 of Materials Science and Metallurgical Engineering. Khan also inivited Asghar Qadir
Asghar Qadir
Asghar Qadir , HI, SI, FPAS, is a renowned Pakistani mathematician and a prominent cosmologist, specialized in Mathematical physics and Physical cosmology. He is considered as one of the top mathematicians in Pakistan...

, a PAEC mathematician
Mathematician
A mathematician is a person whose primary area of study is the field of mathematics. Mathematicians are concerned with quantity, structure, space, and change....

, to become a head of Department of Mathematics
Mathematics
Mathematics is the study of quantity, space, structure, and change. Mathematicians seek out patterns and formulate new conjectures. Mathematicians resolve the truth or falsity of conjectures by mathematical proofs, which are arguments sufficient to convince other mathematicians of their validity...

. However, Khan did not become the head of the nuclear weapons programme until Munir Ahmad Khan retired. After Munir Ahmad Khan took retirement from Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission
Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission
The Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission, , is an administrative governmental and autonomous science and technology governmental department of Pakistan, responsible for development of nuclear energy and development of nuclear power sector in Pakistan...

 (PAEC), President Ghulam Ishaq Khan eventually become the administrative head of Nuclear weapons programme. Under his presidency, the nuclear weapons program periodically progressed.

In 1972, when Prime Minister
Prime Minister of Pakistan
The Prime Minister of Pakistan , is the Head of Government of Pakistan who is designated to exercise as the country's Chief Executive. By the Constitution of Pakistan, Pakistan has the parliamentary democratic system of government...

 Zulfikar Ali Bhutto
Zulfikar Ali Bhutto
Zulfikar Ali Bhutto was 9th Prime Minister of Pakistan from 1973 to 1977, and prior to that, 4th President of Pakistan from 1971 to 1973. Bhutto was the founder of the Pakistan Peoples Party — the largest and most influential political party in Pakistan— and served as its chairman until his...

 started the nuclear weapons research program
Pakistan and weapons of mass destruction
Pakistan began focusing on nuclear weapons development in January 1972 under the leadership of Prime Minister Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto, who delegated the program to the Chairman of PAEC Munir Ahmad Khan...

; Khan, as then-Defence Minister, played an important and central role in the programme as he also served as an administrator. And, he also provided funds for the construction of the nuclear test laboratories where weapons are made and tested. In 1983, as Chairman
Chairman of the Senate of Pakistan
The current Chairman of the Senate of Pakistan is Farooq Naek since 12 March, 2009.The first Chairman of the Senate was Justice Khan Habibullah Khan Marwat.-History:...

 of Senate
Senate of Pakistan
The Senate of Pakistan is the upper house of the bicameral Parliament of Pakistan. Elections are held every three years for one half of the senate and each senator has a term of six years...

, he was one of the invited high civil officials, who reportedly, were supposed to be present at the Cold test
Cold fission
Cold fission or cold nuclear fission is defined as involving fission events for which fission fragments have such low excitation energy that no neutrons or gammas are emitted....

, along with Lieutenant-General Zahid Ali Akbar
Zahid Ali Akbar
Lieutenant-General Zahid Ali Akbar Khan , TKdt, was an engineering officer of Pakistan Army who oversaw the construction of the Generals Combatant Army Headquarter and is well-known as the director of the Kahuta Project as part of the Pakistan's acquisition of integrated atomic bomb project...

 — E-in-C
Engineer-in-Chief (Pakistan Army)
Engineer-in-Chief or E-in-C, is a Colonel Commandant of the Pakistan Army Corps of Engineers, Frontier Works Organisation and the Military Engineering Services of Pakistan...

 of Corps of Engineers— General Khalid Mehmud Arif — Vice Chief of Army Staff — Air Vice-Marshal
Air Vice-Marshal
Air vice-marshal is a two-star air-officer rank which originated in and continues to be used by the Royal Air Force. The rank is also used by the air forces of many countries which have historical British influence and it is sometimes used as the English translation of an equivalent rank in...

 Michael John O'Brian
Michael John O'Brian
Air Vice-Marshal Michael John O'Brian, , was a retired air force officer and two-star general in the Pakistan Air Force who served as the Commandant of National Defence University, Islamabad. O'Brian was the first Pakistan Air Force general to serve as the Commandant of the university...

AOC
Air Officer Commanding
Air Officer Commanding is a title given in the air forces of Commonwealth nations to an air officer who holds a command appointment. Thus, an air vice marshal might be the AOC 38 Group...

 of Sargodha Air Force Base— and Chairman of Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission
Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission
The Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission, , is an administrative governmental and autonomous science and technology governmental department of Pakistan, responsible for development of nuclear energy and development of nuclear power sector in Pakistan...

 Munir Ahmad Khan
Munir Ahmad Khan
Munir Ahmad Khan , HI, was a Pakistani nuclear engineer and a scientist who served as the Chairman of the Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission from 1972 to 1991...

.

Retirement and death


Despite coming to an arrangement with the PPP government
Pakistan Peoples Party
The Pakistan Peoples Party , is a democratic socialist political party in Pakistan affiliated with Socialist International. Pakistan People's Party is the largest political party of Pakistan...

 to be re-elected to the presidency
Presidency
The word presidency is often used to describe the administration or the executive, the collective administrative and governmental entity that exists around an office of president of a state or nation...

 after the 1993 elections
Pakistani general election, 1993
General elections were held in Pakistan on 6 October 1993. The election took place after both the Prime Minister Nawaz Sharif and President Ghulam Ishaq Khan resigned to resolve a power struggle between them. Although the Pakistan Muslim League won the largest number of votes, the Pakistan Peoples...

, he was eventually dropped as a candidate in favour of Farooq Ahmed Khan Leghari. He subsequently retired from politics and avoided contact with the international and national media. He died on 27 October 2006 after a bout of pneumonia.

He has to his credit the establishment of Rs 2.2 billion Ghulam Ishaq Khan Institute of Engineering Sciences and Technology
Ghulam Ishaq Khan Institute of Engineering Sciences and Technology
-See also:* List of universities in Pakistan* GIKI clock tower* Project topi-External links:* * * * *...

 in Swabi, Topi, Khyber-Pakhtunkhwa.

See also

  • Establishment (Pakistan)
    Establishment (Pakistan)
    The Establishment is a term used commonly by Pakistani political scientists and also by political scholars and analysts around the world for the powerful military-dominant oligarchy in Pakistan...

  • Pakistan
    Pakistan
    Pakistan , officially the Islamic Republic of Pakistan is a sovereign state in South Asia. It has a coastline along the Arabian Sea and the Gulf of Oman in the south and is bordered by Afghanistan and Iran in the west, India in the east and China in the far northeast. In the north, Tajikistan...

  • President of Pakistan
    President of Pakistan
    The President of Pakistan is the head of state, as well as figurehead, of the Islamic Republic of Pakistan. Recently passed an XVIII Amendment , Pakistan has a parliamentary democratic system of government. According to the Constitution, the President is chosen by the Electoral College to serve a...

  • Finance Minister of Pakistan
    Finance Minister of Pakistan
    The Finance Minister of Pakistan heads the Ministry of Finance and serves in the Prime Minister's cabinet. The Minister is required to be a member of the Parliament.The current finance minister is Abdul Hafeez Shaikh...


External links


|-
|-