Ghost in the Shell

Ghost in the Shell

Overview
is a Japanese multimedia franchise
Media franchise
A media franchise is an intellectual property involving the characters, setting and trademarks of an original work of media , such as a film, a work of literature, a television program or a video game. Generally, a whole series is made in a particular medium, along with merchandising and endorsements...

 composed of manga
Manga
Manga is the Japanese word for "comics" and consists of comics and print cartoons . In the West, the term "manga" has been appropriated to refer specifically to comics created in Japan, or by Japanese authors, in the Japanese language and conforming to the style developed in Japan in the late 19th...

, animated films, anime
Anime
is the Japanese abbreviated pronunciation of "animation". The definition sometimes changes depending on the context. In English-speaking countries, the term most commonly refers to Japanese animated cartoons....

 series, video games and novels. It focuses on the activities of the counter-terrorist
Counter-terrorism
Counter-terrorism is the practices, tactics, techniques, and strategies that governments, militaries, police departments and corporations adopt to prevent or in response to terrorist threats and/or acts, both real and imputed.The tactic of terrorism is available to insurgents and governments...

 organization Public Security Section 9
Public Security Section 9
is a fictional intelligence department from Masamune Shirow's Ghost in the Shell anime and manga series. In the story, it exists under the Japanese Ministry of Home Affairs. In some translations, the name is given as Public Safety Section 9...

 in a futuristic, cyberpunk
Cyberpunk
Cyberpunk is a postmodern and science fiction genre noted for its focus on "high tech and low life." The name is a portmanteau of cybernetics and punk, and was originally coined by Bruce Bethke as the title of his short story "Cyberpunk," published in 1983...

 Japan (Hong Kong in the movie).

The first entry in the franchise was Shirow Masamune's Ghost in the Shell
Ghost in the Shell (manga)
is a Japanese science fiction manga created by Masamune Shirow originally released in 8 separate issues. He followed it up by Ghost in the Shell 2: Man/Machine Interface and Ghost in the Shell 1.5: Human Error Processor....

manga, first published in 1989 in Young Magazine
Young Magazine
is a Japanese manga magazine published weekly by Kodansha. The magazine was started on June 23, 1980 and is targeted at adult males . It is also known as Young or YM. It goes on sale Monday every week...

. A sequel, Ghost in the Shell 2: Man-Machine Interface, was released in 2002, and a serialized manga, Ghost in the Shell 1.5: Human-Error Processor, which contained material that was planned for but not included in the sequel, was released in 2003.

The manga series has been adapted into two anime films, Ghost in the Shell
Ghost in the Shell (film)
"See You Everyday" is different from the rest of the soundtrack, being a pop song sung in Cantonese by Fang Ka Wing. It can be faintly heard playing in the marketplace scene, when Batou is hunting the ghost-hacked puppet....

and Ghost in the Shell 2: Innocence
Ghost in the Shell 2: Innocence
Ghost in the Shell 2: Innocence, known simply as in japan, is a 2004 science fiction film and sequel to the anime film, Ghost in the Shell. Released in Japan on March 6, 2004, with an U.S. release on September 17, 2004, Innocence had a production budget of approximately $20 million...

; two anime television series, Ghost in the Shell: Stand Alone Complex
Ghost in the Shell: Stand Alone Complex
is an anime television series produced by Production I.G and based on Masamune Shirow's manga Ghost in the Shell. It was written and directed by Kenji Kamiyama, with original character design by Hajime Shimomura and a soundtrack by Yoko Kanno...

and Ghost in the Shell: S.A.C. 2nd GIG
Ghost in the Shell: S.A.C. 2nd GIG
is the second season of the anime series Ghost in the Shell: Stand Alone Complex, based on Masamune Shirow's manga Ghost in the Shell. It was written and directed by Kenji Kamiyama, with original character design by Hajime Shimomura and a soundtrack by Yoko Kanno...

; an OVA sequel of the TV series, Ghost in the Shell: S.A.C. Solid State Society
Ghost in the Shell: S.A.C. Solid State Society
is an OVA and part of the Ghost in the Shell: Stand Alone Complex series based on Masamune Shirow's manga Ghost in the Shell. It was produced by Production I.G and directed by Kenji Kamiyama....

; and three video games: one PlayStation game, one PlayStation 2
PlayStation 2
The PlayStation 2 is a sixth-generation video game console manufactured by Sony as part of the PlayStation series. Its development was announced in March 1999 and it was first released on March 4, 2000, in Japan...

 game, and one PlayStation Portable
PlayStation Portable
The is a handheld game console manufactured and marketed by Sony Corporation Development of the console was announced during E3 2003, and it was unveiled on , 2004, at a Sony press conference before E3 2004...

 game.
Discussion
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Quotations

Just a whisper. I hear it in my ghost.

If we all reacted the same way, we'd be predictable, and there's always more than one way to view a situation. What's true for the group is also true for the individual. It's simple: overspecialize, and you breed in weakness. It's slow death.

When I float weightless back to the surface, I'm imagining I'm becoming someone else. It's probably the decompression.

Well, I guess cyborgs like myself have a tendency to be paranoid about our origins.

So what happens if she turns over in her sleep? Won't her ghost separate from her body?

Maybe someday your "maker" will come … haul you away, take you apart, and announce the recall of a defective product. What if all that's left of the "real you" is just a couple of lonely brain cells, huh?

What we really need, Togusa, is not sharpshooting skills, so much as the ability to get close enough to make sure the enemy can be killed. If you want to play at long-range sniping, you can always go shoot an elephant at 500 miles with a miniature cruise missile …

As revenge for the fact that two of my men were killed, I even set it up so he would shoot his own son – through a door.

What we see now is like a dim image in a mirror. Then we shall see face to face.

Encyclopedia
is a Japanese multimedia franchise
Media franchise
A media franchise is an intellectual property involving the characters, setting and trademarks of an original work of media , such as a film, a work of literature, a television program or a video game. Generally, a whole series is made in a particular medium, along with merchandising and endorsements...

 composed of manga
Manga
Manga is the Japanese word for "comics" and consists of comics and print cartoons . In the West, the term "manga" has been appropriated to refer specifically to comics created in Japan, or by Japanese authors, in the Japanese language and conforming to the style developed in Japan in the late 19th...

, animated films, anime
Anime
is the Japanese abbreviated pronunciation of "animation". The definition sometimes changes depending on the context. In English-speaking countries, the term most commonly refers to Japanese animated cartoons....

 series, video games and novels. It focuses on the activities of the counter-terrorist
Counter-terrorism
Counter-terrorism is the practices, tactics, techniques, and strategies that governments, militaries, police departments and corporations adopt to prevent or in response to terrorist threats and/or acts, both real and imputed.The tactic of terrorism is available to insurgents and governments...

 organization Public Security Section 9
Public Security Section 9
is a fictional intelligence department from Masamune Shirow's Ghost in the Shell anime and manga series. In the story, it exists under the Japanese Ministry of Home Affairs. In some translations, the name is given as Public Safety Section 9...

 in a futuristic, cyberpunk
Cyberpunk
Cyberpunk is a postmodern and science fiction genre noted for its focus on "high tech and low life." The name is a portmanteau of cybernetics and punk, and was originally coined by Bruce Bethke as the title of his short story "Cyberpunk," published in 1983...

 Japan (Hong Kong in the movie).

The first entry in the franchise was Shirow Masamune's Ghost in the Shell
Ghost in the Shell (manga)
is a Japanese science fiction manga created by Masamune Shirow originally released in 8 separate issues. He followed it up by Ghost in the Shell 2: Man/Machine Interface and Ghost in the Shell 1.5: Human Error Processor....

manga, first published in 1989 in Young Magazine
Young Magazine
is a Japanese manga magazine published weekly by Kodansha. The magazine was started on June 23, 1980 and is targeted at adult males . It is also known as Young or YM. It goes on sale Monday every week...

. A sequel, Ghost in the Shell 2: Man-Machine Interface, was released in 2002, and a serialized manga, Ghost in the Shell 1.5: Human-Error Processor, which contained material that was planned for but not included in the sequel, was released in 2003.

The manga series has been adapted into two anime films, Ghost in the Shell
Ghost in the Shell (film)
"See You Everyday" is different from the rest of the soundtrack, being a pop song sung in Cantonese by Fang Ka Wing. It can be faintly heard playing in the marketplace scene, when Batou is hunting the ghost-hacked puppet....

and Ghost in the Shell 2: Innocence
Ghost in the Shell 2: Innocence
Ghost in the Shell 2: Innocence, known simply as in japan, is a 2004 science fiction film and sequel to the anime film, Ghost in the Shell. Released in Japan on March 6, 2004, with an U.S. release on September 17, 2004, Innocence had a production budget of approximately $20 million...

; two anime television series, Ghost in the Shell: Stand Alone Complex
Ghost in the Shell: Stand Alone Complex
is an anime television series produced by Production I.G and based on Masamune Shirow's manga Ghost in the Shell. It was written and directed by Kenji Kamiyama, with original character design by Hajime Shimomura and a soundtrack by Yoko Kanno...

and Ghost in the Shell: S.A.C. 2nd GIG
Ghost in the Shell: S.A.C. 2nd GIG
is the second season of the anime series Ghost in the Shell: Stand Alone Complex, based on Masamune Shirow's manga Ghost in the Shell. It was written and directed by Kenji Kamiyama, with original character design by Hajime Shimomura and a soundtrack by Yoko Kanno...

; an OVA sequel of the TV series, Ghost in the Shell: S.A.C. Solid State Society
Ghost in the Shell: S.A.C. Solid State Society
is an OVA and part of the Ghost in the Shell: Stand Alone Complex series based on Masamune Shirow's manga Ghost in the Shell. It was produced by Production I.G and directed by Kenji Kamiyama....

; and three video games: one PlayStation game, one PlayStation 2
PlayStation 2
The PlayStation 2 is a sixth-generation video game console manufactured by Sony as part of the PlayStation series. Its development was announced in March 1999 and it was first released on March 4, 2000, in Japan...

 game, and one PlayStation Portable
PlayStation Portable
The is a handheld game console manufactured and marketed by Sony Corporation Development of the console was announced during E3 2003, and it was unveiled on , 2004, at a Sony press conference before E3 2004...

 game. The films and anime were produced by Production I.G.

Setting




Ghost in the Shell is a futuristic police
Police
The police is a personification of the state designated to put in practice the enforced law, protect property and reduce civil disorder in civilian matters. Their powers include the legitimized use of force...

 thriller dealing with the exploits of the cyborg Motoko Kusanagi
Motoko Kusanagi
is a fictional Japanese character in the Ghost in the Shell anime and manga series. She is a cyborg employed as the squad leader of Public Security Section 9, a fictional division of the real Japanese National Public Safety Commission. She is voiced by Atsuko Tanaka in the movies and the Ghost in...

, a member of a covert operations division of the Japanese National Public Safety Commission
National Public Safety Commission (Japan)
The is a Japanese Cabinet Office commission. It is headquartered in the 2nd Building of the Central Common Government Office at 2-1-2 Kasumigasaeki in Chiyoda, Tokyo....

 known as Section 9
Public Security Section 9
is a fictional intelligence department from Masamune Shirow's Ghost in the Shell anime and manga series. In the story, it exists under the Japanese Ministry of Home Affairs. In some translations, the name is given as Public Safety Section 9...

. The unit specializes in fighting technology-related crimes. Although supposedly equal to all other members, Kusanagi fills the leadership role in the team, and is usually referred to as "the Major" due to her past rank in the Japanese Self-Defense Forces. She is capable of superhuman feats, and bionically specialized for her job — her body is almost completely mechanized; only her brain
Human brain
The human brain has the same general structure as the brains of other mammals, but is over three times larger than the brain of a typical mammal with an equivalent body size. Estimates for the number of neurons in the human brain range from 80 to 120 billion...

 and a segment of her spinal cord remain organic.

The setting of Ghost in the Shell is cyberpunk
Cyberpunk
Cyberpunk is a postmodern and science fiction genre noted for its focus on "high tech and low life." The name is a portmanteau of cybernetics and punk, and was originally coined by Bruce Bethke as the title of his short story "Cyberpunk," published in 1983...

 or postcyberpunk, similar to that of William Gibson
William Gibson
William Gibson is an American-Canadian science fiction author.William Gibson may also refer to:-Association football:*Will Gibson , Scottish footballer...

's Sprawl trilogy. Kusanagi and her colleagues face external threats and also suffer internal conflict over their own natures.

Manga


The first entry in the franchise was Shirow Masamune's Ghost in the Shell
Ghost in the Shell (manga)
is a Japanese science fiction manga created by Masamune Shirow originally released in 8 separate issues. He followed it up by Ghost in the Shell 2: Man/Machine Interface and Ghost in the Shell 1.5: Human Error Processor....

manga, first published in 1989 in Young Magazine
Young Magazine
is a Japanese manga magazine published weekly by Kodansha. The magazine was started on June 23, 1980 and is targeted at adult males . It is also known as Young or YM. It goes on sale Monday every week...

. A sequel, Ghost in the Shell 2: Man-Machine Interface, was released in 2002, and a serialized manga, Ghost in the Shell 1.5: Human-Error Processor, which contained material that was planned for but not included in the sequel, was released in 2003.

Films


The manga was first adapted into a theatrical anime film adaptation in 1995, titled Ghost in the Shell
Ghost in the Shell (film)
"See You Everyday" is different from the rest of the soundtrack, being a pop song sung in Cantonese by Fang Ka Wing. It can be faintly heard playing in the marketplace scene, when Batou is hunting the ghost-hacked puppet....

, directed by Mamoru Oshii
Mamoru Oshii
Mamoru Oshii is a Japanese filmmaker, television director, and writer. Famous for his philosophy-oriented storytelling, Oshii has directed a number of popular anime, including Urusei Yatsura 2: Beautiful Dreamer, Ghost in the Shell, and Patlabor 2...

. The film was followed by a theatrical film sequel, Ghost in the Shell 2: Innocence
Ghost in the Shell 2: Innocence
Ghost in the Shell 2: Innocence, known simply as in japan, is a 2004 science fiction film and sequel to the anime film, Ghost in the Shell. Released in Japan on March 6, 2004, with an U.S. release on September 17, 2004, Innocence had a production budget of approximately $20 million...

, produced in 2004, which was also directed by Oshii and places the character of Batou in the lead role. Both were based on storylines from the first manga. The original film was redone in 2008, updating the computer graphics and re-recording the sound in 6.1 surround sound
Surround sound
Surround sound encompasses a range of techniques such as for enriching the sound reproduction quality of an audio source with audio channels reproduced via additional, discrete speakers. Surround sound is characterized by a listener location or sweet spot where the audio effects work best, and...

, though some members of the cast had to be changed. The new version premiered on 12 July 2008 in Japan as "Ghost in the Shell 2.0".
As of 2008, DreamWorks
DreamWorks
DreamWorks Pictures, also known as DreamWorks, LLC, DreamWorks SKG, DreamWorks II Distribution Co., LLC, DreamWorks Studios or DW Studios, LLC, is an American film studio which develops, produces, and distributes films, video games and television programming...

 acquired the rights to produce a live-action film adaptation of the original manga with Steven Spielberg
Steven Spielberg
Steven Allan Spielberg KBE is an American film director, screenwriter, producer, video game designer, and studio entrepreneur. In a career of more than four decades, Spielberg's films have covered many themes and genres. Spielberg's early science-fiction and adventure films were seen as an...

. Avi Arad
Avi Arad
Avi Arad is an Israeli-American businessman. He became the CEO of the company Toy Biz in the 1990s, and soon afterward became the chief creative officer of Marvel Entertainment, a Marvel director, chairman, CEO and the founder of Marvel Studios....

 and Steven Paul are confirmed producers; Jamie Moss was originally hired to adapt the manga into a screenplay but in October 2009 it was announced that Laeta Kalogridis
Laeta Kalogridis
Laeta Elizabeth Kalogridis is a screenwriter and an executive producer. She is a graduate of Davidson College in Davidson, NC and University of Texas at Austin and attended UCLA's prestigious film school. She has written scripts for Alexander , Night Watch , Pathfinder and Shutter Island...

 had replaced Moss as writer.

TV series


The series has been adapted into an anime
Anime
is the Japanese abbreviated pronunciation of "animation". The definition sometimes changes depending on the context. In English-speaking countries, the term most commonly refers to Japanese animated cartoons....

 series with a total of two seasons and one epilogue film. Ghost in the Shell: Stand Alone Complex
Ghost in the Shell: Stand Alone Complex
is an anime television series produced by Production I.G and based on Masamune Shirow's manga Ghost in the Shell. It was written and directed by Kenji Kamiyama, with original character design by Hajime Shimomura and a soundtrack by Yoko Kanno...

was written and directed by Kenji Kamiyama
Kenji Kamiyama
, born on March 20, 1966 in Saitama Prefecture, Japan, is a Japanese anime director. He has worked regularly with the anime studio and production enterprise, Production I.G, such as his work on Jin-Roh, Patlabor, Blood: The Last Vampire, and for whom he has directed the Ghost in the Shell: Stand...

 and produced by Production I.G, airing on Animax
Animax
is a Japanese anime satellite television network, dedicated to broadcasting anime programming. A subsidiary of Japanese media conglomerate Sony, it is headquartered in in Minato, Tokyo, Japan, with its co-founders and shareholders including Sony Pictures Entertainment and the noted anime studios...

 from 1 October 2002 to 25 March 2003 with a total of 26 episodes. The second season titled Ghost in the Shell: S.A.C. 2nd GIG
Ghost in the Shell: S.A.C. 2nd GIG
is the second season of the anime series Ghost in the Shell: Stand Alone Complex, based on Masamune Shirow's manga Ghost in the Shell. It was written and directed by Kenji Kamiyama, with original character design by Hajime Shimomura and a soundtrack by Yoko Kanno...

was also written and directed by Kenji Kamiyama
Kenji Kamiyama
, born on March 20, 1966 in Saitama Prefecture, Japan, is a Japanese anime director. He has worked regularly with the anime studio and production enterprise, Production I.G, such as his work on Jin-Roh, Patlabor, Blood: The Last Vampire, and for whom he has directed the Ghost in the Shell: Stand...

 and produced by Production I.G.
Production I.G.
is a Japanese anime studio and production enterprise, which was founded on December 15, 1987 by Mitsuhisa Ishikawa. It is headquartered in Kokubunji, Tokyo, Japan....

 2nd GIG aired on Animax
Animax
is a Japanese anime satellite television network, dedicated to broadcasting anime programming. A subsidiary of Japanese media conglomerate Sony, it is headquartered in in Minato, Tokyo, Japan, with its co-founders and shareholders including Sony Pictures Entertainment and the noted anime studios...

 from 1 January 2004 to 8 January 2005, with a total of 26 episodes.

A film called Ghost in the Shell: S.A.C. Solid State Society
Ghost in the Shell: S.A.C. Solid State Society
is an OVA and part of the Ghost in the Shell: Stand Alone Complex series based on Masamune Shirow's manga Ghost in the Shell. It was produced by Production I.G and directed by Kenji Kamiyama....

, was created after the anime series and directed by Kenji Kamiyama
Kenji Kamiyama
, born on March 20, 1966 in Saitama Prefecture, Japan, is a Japanese anime director. He has worked regularly with the anime studio and production enterprise, Production I.G, such as his work on Jin-Roh, Patlabor, Blood: The Last Vampire, and for whom he has directed the Ghost in the Shell: Stand...

, premiering on the SKY Perfect satellite television network on September 1, 2006. Solid State Society is a sequel to the TV anime series storyline, and so takes place in a separate continuity. It does not connect with either of Oshii's works. Solid State Society was later released in 3D on March 25, 2011.

Video games



A PlayStation game
Ghost in the Shell (video game)
Ghost in the Shell is a 1997 video game for the PlayStation game console, and draws on both the animated cyberpunk film of the same name and the manga by Masamune Shirow in its style, environments, and characters.-Plot:...

 was released in 1997, developed by Exact and published by THQ
THQ
THQ Inc. is an American developer and publisher of video games. Founded in 1989 in the United States, the company develops products for video game consoles, handheld game systems, as well as for personal computers and wireless devices...

. A second game bearing the anime TV series title Stand Alone Complex
Ghost in the Shell: Stand Alone Complex (video game)
Ghost in the Shell: Stand Alone Complex is the title of a pair of video games based on the cyberpunk anime of the same name, a third person action game, released for the PlayStation 2, and a first-person shooter game, released for the PlayStation Portable.-PS2 game:The games take place in the year...

was released in November 2004 on PlayStation 2
PlayStation 2
The PlayStation 2 is a sixth-generation video game console manufactured by Sony as part of the PlayStation series. Its development was announced in March 1999 and it was first released on March 4, 2000, in Japan...

, developed by SCEJ
Sony
, commonly referred to as Sony, is a Japanese multinational conglomerate corporation headquartered in Minato, Tokyo, Japan and the world's fifth largest media conglomerate measured by revenues....

 and Cavia and published by Bandai
Bandai
is a Japanese toy making and video game company, as well as the producer of a large number of plastic model kits. It is the world's third-largest producer of toys . Some ex-Bandai group companies produce anime and tokusatsu programs...

. A game of the same name developed by G-Artists and published by Bandai was released in 2005 for PlayStation Portable
PlayStation Portable
The is a handheld game console manufactured and marketed by Sony Corporation Development of the console was announced during E3 2003, and it was unveiled on , 2004, at a Sony press conference before E3 2004...

, but this is a sequel to the PlayStation 2 game, with a completely different storyline, setting, and gameplay.

Impact and influence


The Wachowskis, makers of The Matrix trilogy, have commented on the influence of the first Ghost in the Shell
Ghost in the Shell (film)
"See You Everyday" is different from the rest of the soundtrack, being a pop song sung in Cantonese by Fang Ka Wing. It can be faintly heard playing in the marketplace scene, when Batou is hunting the ghost-hacked puppet....

film, directed by Mamoru Oshii
Mamoru Oshii
Mamoru Oshii is a Japanese filmmaker, television director, and writer. Famous for his philosophy-oriented storytelling, Oshii has directed a number of popular anime, including Urusei Yatsura 2: Beautiful Dreamer, Ghost in the Shell, and Patlabor 2...

, on The Matrix
The Matrix
The Matrix is a 1999 science fiction-action film written and directed by Larry and Andy Wachowski, starring Keanu Reeves, Laurence Fishburne, Carrie-Anne Moss, Joe Pantoliano, and Hugo Weaving...

. Producer Joel Silver
Joel Silver
Joel Silver is an American Hollywood film producer, co-creator of the sport of Ultimate, co-founder of Dark Castle Entertainment and owner of Silver Pictures.-Life and career:...

 also stated in an interview on The Animatrix
The Animatrix
is a 2003 direct-to-video anthology film based on The Matrix trilogy. The film is a compilation of nine animated short films.-Production:Development of the Animatrix project began when the film series' writers and directors, the Wachowski brothers, were in Japan promoting the first Matrix film...

DVD that he was shown the Ghost in the Shell movie during a pitch from the Wachowski brothers to indicate the style and look of the film they wanted for The Matrix.

Connections


Ghost in the Shell universe (21st fictional century) has light connection with Appleseed universe (22nd fictional century) (also created by Masamune Shirow
Masamune Shirow
is an internationally renowned manga artist, born on November 23, 1961.Masamune Shirow is a pen name, based on a famous swordsmith, Masamune. He is best known for the manga Ghost in the Shell, which has since been turned into two theatrical anime movies, two anime TV series, an anime TV movie, and...

). Seburo
Seburo
Seburo is a fictional small arms manufacturer commonly found in many of the works of manga artist Masamune Shirow.-Fictional corporate history:...

 small arms manufacturer is presented in both universes; the first of bioroids (which are widely presented in Appleseed) had appeared in Ghost in the Shell: S.A.C. 2nd GIG
Ghost in the Shell: S.A.C. 2nd GIG
is the second season of the anime series Ghost in the Shell: Stand Alone Complex, based on Masamune Shirow's manga Ghost in the Shell. It was written and directed by Kenji Kamiyama, with original character design by Hajime Shimomura and a soundtrack by Yoko Kanno...

.

External links