Ghazni Province

Ghazni Province

Overview
Ghazni is one of the thirty-four provinces of Afghanistan
Provinces of Afghanistan
The provinces of Afghanistan are the primary administrative divisions of Afghanistan. As of 2004, there are thirty-four provinces in the country. Each province is further divided into smaller districts....

. Babur
Babur
Babur was a Muslim conqueror from Central Asia who, following a series of setbacks, finally succeeded in laying the basis for the Mughal dynasty of South Asia. He was a direct descendant of Timur through his father, and a descendant also of Genghis Khan through his mother...

 records in his Babur-Nama that Ghazni is also known as Zabulistan
Zabulistan
Zabulistan , also spelled Zabolestan, is a historical region in the border area of today's Iran and Afghanistan.-History of Zabulistan:...

 It is in the east of the country. Its capital is Ghazni City
Ghazni
For the Province of Ghazni see Ghazni ProvinceGhazni is a city in central-east Afghanistan with a population of about 141,000 people...

. The province lies on the important Kabul to Kandahar road
Kabul-Kandahar highway
The Kabul-Kandahar Highway is a road linking Afghanistan's two largest cities, Kabul and Kandahar. This highway is a key portion of Afghanistan's national road system or "Ring Road"...

, and has historically functioned as an important trade center between those two major cities.

Ghazni was a thriving Buddhist center before and during the 7th century AD. Excavations have revealed religious artifacts of both Hindu and Buddhist traditions.
In 644 AD, the Chinese pilgrim Hsüan-tsang visited Jaguda, Ghazni, while travelling from the country of Varnu
Varnu
Varnu was an ancient town located in what is now Khyber-Pakhtunkhwa province of Pakistan. It is associated with the modern day city of Bannu. In 602 CE the Chinese pilgrim Hsüan-tsang travelled from Varnu to Jaguda in Ghazni....

, crossing the land of O-po-kien (Afghans i.e.
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Encyclopedia
Ghazni is one of the thirty-four provinces of Afghanistan
Provinces of Afghanistan
The provinces of Afghanistan are the primary administrative divisions of Afghanistan. As of 2004, there are thirty-four provinces in the country. Each province is further divided into smaller districts....

. Babur
Babur
Babur was a Muslim conqueror from Central Asia who, following a series of setbacks, finally succeeded in laying the basis for the Mughal dynasty of South Asia. He was a direct descendant of Timur through his father, and a descendant also of Genghis Khan through his mother...

 records in his Babur-Nama that Ghazni is also known as Zabulistan
Zabulistan
Zabulistan , also spelled Zabolestan, is a historical region in the border area of today's Iran and Afghanistan.-History of Zabulistan:...

 It is in the east of the country. Its capital is Ghazni City
Ghazni
For the Province of Ghazni see Ghazni ProvinceGhazni is a city in central-east Afghanistan with a population of about 141,000 people...

. The province lies on the important Kabul to Kandahar road
Kabul-Kandahar highway
The Kabul-Kandahar Highway is a road linking Afghanistan's two largest cities, Kabul and Kandahar. This highway is a key portion of Afghanistan's national road system or "Ring Road"...

, and has historically functioned as an important trade center between those two major cities.

Buddhism and Indian influence


Ghazni was a thriving Buddhist center before and during the 7th century AD. Excavations have revealed religious artifacts of both Hindu and Buddhist traditions.
In 644 AD, the Chinese pilgrim Hsüan-tsang visited Jaguda, Ghazni, while travelling from the country of Varnu
Varnu
Varnu was an ancient town located in what is now Khyber-Pakhtunkhwa province of Pakistan. It is associated with the modern day city of Bannu. In 602 CE the Chinese pilgrim Hsüan-tsang travelled from Varnu to Jaguda in Ghazni....

, crossing the land of O-po-kien (Afghans i.e. Pashtuns
Pashtun people
Pashtuns or Pathans , also known as ethnic Afghans , are an Eastern Iranic ethnic group with populations primarily between the Hindu Kush mountains in Afghanistan and the Indus River in Pakistan...

).

Advent of Islam


In 683 AD, Arab armies
Umayyad
The Umayyad Caliphate was the second of the four major Arab caliphates established after the death of Muhammad. It was ruled by the Umayyad dynasty, whose name derives from Umayya ibn Abd Shams, the great-grandfather of the first Umayyad caliph. Although the Umayyad family originally came from the...

 brought Islam
Islam
Islam . The most common are and .   : Arabic pronunciation varies regionally. The first vowel ranges from ~~. The second vowel ranges from ~~~...

 to the area and attempted to conquer the capital of Ghazni but the local tribes fiercely resisted. Its resistance was so famed that Yaqub Saffari
Ya'qub bin Laith as-Saffar
Ya'qub bin Laith as-Saffar or Ya'qub-i Laith Saffari was the founder of the Saffarid dynasty in Sistan, with its capital at Zaranj . He ruled territories that are now in Iran and Afghanistan, as well as portions of West Pakistan...

 (840-879) from Zaranj
Zaranj
Zaranj or Zarang is a border town in south-western Afghanistan, with a population of approximately 49,851 people as of 2004. It is the capital of Nimruz province and is situated next to Milak, Iran. It is linked by highways with Lashkar Gah to the east, Farah to the north and Zabol in Iran to the...

 made an example of Ghazni when he ranged the vast region conquering in the name of Islam. The city was completely destroyed by the Saffarids in 869.Nancy Hatch Dupree - Chapter 9 (Ghazni)...
Link
A substantial portion of the local population including Hindus and Buddhists were converted to Islam by Mahmud of Ghazni
After the rebuilding of the city by Yaqub's brother, it became the dazzling capital of the Ghaznavid Empire
Ghaznavid Empire
The Ghaznavids were a Persianate Muslim dynasty of Turkic slave origin which existed from 975 to 1187 and ruled much of Persia, Transoxania, and the northern parts of the Indian subcontinent. The Ghaznavid state was centered in Ghazni, a city in modern-day Afghanistan...

 from 994 to 1160, encompassing much of northern India
India
India , officially the Republic of India , is a country in South Asia. It is the seventh-largest country by geographical area, the second-most populous country with over 1.2 billion people, and the most populous democracy in the world...

, Persia and Central Asia
Central Asia
Central Asia is a core region of the Asian continent from the Caspian Sea in the west, China in the east, Afghanistan in the south, and Russia in the north...

. Many iconoclastic campaigns were launched from Ghazni into India. The Ghaznavids took Islam to India and returned with fabulous riches taken from both prince and temple god. Contemporary visitors and residents at Ghazni write with wonder of the ornateness of the buildings, the great libraries, the sumptuousness of the court ceremonies and of the wealth of precious objects owned by Ghazni's citizens.

Attack by Mahomed Ghori


The historian Ferishta records attacks by Mahomed Ghori: "at the same time most of the infidels who inhabited the mountains between Ghazni and the Indus were also converted , some by force and others by persuasion." Ghazni's eponymous capital was razed in 1151 by the Ghorid
Ghurids
The Ghurids or Ghorids were a medieval Muslim dynasty of Iranian origin that ruled during the 12th and 13th centuries in Khorasan. At its zenith, their empire, centred at Ghōr , stretched over an area that included the whole of modern Afghanistan, the eastern parts of Iran and the northern section...

 Alauddin. It again flourished but only to be permanently devastated, this time in 1221 by Genghis Khan
Genghis Khan
Genghis Khan , born Temujin and occasionally known by his temple name Taizu , was the founder and Great Khan of the Mongol Empire, which became the largest contiguous empire in history after his death....

 and his Mongol armies
Mongols
Mongols ) are a Central-East Asian ethnic group that lives mainly in the countries of Mongolia, China, and Russia. In China, ethnic Mongols can be found mainly in the central north region of China such as Inner Mongolia...

 after 6 years of Khwarezmid rule. Ghazni's strategic position, both economically and militarily, assured its revival, albeit without its dazzling former grandeur. Through the centuries the city figures prominently as the all important key to the possession of Kabul.

Ghazni is also famous for its minaret
Minaret
A minaret مناره , sometimes مئذنه) is a distinctive architectural feature of Islamic mosques, generally a tall spire with an onion-shaped or conical crown, usually either free standing or taller than any associated support structure. The basic form of a minaret includes a base, shaft, and gallery....

s built on a stellar plan. They date from the middle of the twelfth century and are the surviving element of the mosque
Mosque
A mosque is a place of worship for followers of Islam. The word is likely to have entered the English language through French , from Portuguese , from Spanish , and from Berber , ultimately originating in — . The Arabic word masjid literally means a place of prostration...

 of Bahramshah. Their sides are decorated with geometric patterns. Upper sections of the minarets have been damaged or destroyed. The most important mausoleum
Mausoleum
A mausoleum is an external free-standing building constructed as a monument enclosing the interment space or burial chamber of a deceased person or persons. A monument without the interment is a cenotaph. A mausoleum may be considered a type of tomb or the tomb may be considered to be within the...

 located in Ghazni is that of Sultan Mahmud's
Mahmud of Ghazni
Mahmud of Ghazni , actually ', was the most prominent ruler of the Ghaznavid dynasty who ruled from 997 until his death in 1030 in the eastern Iranian lands. Mahmud turned the former provincial city of Ghazni into the wealthy capital of an extensive empire which covered most of today's Iran,...

. Others include the tombs of poets and scientists, for example Al Biruni and Sanayee
Sanai
Hakim Abul-Majd Majdūd ibn Ādam Sanā'ī Ghaznavi was a Afghan Sufi poet who lived in Ghazna, in what is now Afghanistan between the 11th century and the 12th century. Some people spell his name as Sanayee. He died around 1131.-Life:...

. The only ruins in Old Ghazni retaining a semblance of architectural form are two towers, about 43 m (140 ft) high and some 365 m (1,200 ft) apart. According to inscriptions, the towers were constructed by Mahmud of Ghazni
Mahmud of Ghazni
Mahmud of Ghazni , actually ', was the most prominent ruler of the Ghaznavid dynasty who ruled from 997 until his death in 1030 in the eastern Iranian lands. Mahmud turned the former provincial city of Ghazni into the wealthy capital of an extensive empire which covered most of today's Iran,...

 and his son.

Preservation of historical artifacts


During the First Anglo-Afghan War
First Anglo-Afghan War
The First Anglo-Afghan War was fought between British India and Afghanistan from 1839 to 1842. It was one of the first major conflicts during the Great Game, the 19th century competition for power and influence in Central Asia between the United Kingdom and Russia, and also marked one of the worst...

, the Ghazni's capital city was stormed and taken over by the British forces on July 23, 1839 in the Battle of Ghazni
Battle of Ghazni
The Battle of Ghazni took place in city of Ghazni in central Afghanistan on July 23, 1839 during the First Anglo-Afghan War.-Prelude:...

. The Afghan Civil War and the continued conflict between the Taliban and the Afghan Northern Alliance during the 1990s put the relics of Ghazni in jeopardy. The Taliban placed Fazl Uddin in charge of protecting the artifacts. In the 1960s a 15-meter female Buddha was discovered lying on its back and surrounded by empty pillars that once held rows of smaller male Buddhas. Parts of the female Buddha have been stolen. In the 1980s a mud brick shelter was created to protect the sculpture, but the wood supports were stolen for firewood and the shelter partially collapsed.

Political and security situation



Like many southern Afghan provinces, Ghazni has a precarious security situation. The Taliban are reported to control most of the rural areas outside of the capital, and are heavily involved in attacks on provincial schools and government infrastructure. The province has avoided the outright warfare seen in other areas of Afghanistan such as Helmand Province
Helmand Province
Helmand is one of the 34 provinces of Afghanistan. It is in the southwest of the country. Its capital is Lashkar Gah. The Helmand River flows through the mainly desert region, providing water for irrigation....

 and Kandahar Province
Kandahar Province
Kandahar or Qandahar is one of the largest of the thirty-four provinces of Afghanistan. It is located in southern Afghanistan, between Helmand, Oruzgan and Zabul provinces. Its capital is the city of Kandahar, which is located on the Arghandab River. The province has a population of nearly...

, but that is due more to political expediency and the tactical plans of the NATO ISAF
International Security Assistance Force
The International Security Assistance Force is a NATO-led security mission in Afghanistan established by the United Nations Security Council on 20 December 2001 by Resolution 1386 as envisaged by the Bonn Agreement...

 force than the existence of a stable security situation in the province. Ex-Governor Taj Mohammad was killed by terrorists in 2006 after being appointed police chief of the province with a mandate to quell the power of the Taliban. On the same day there was an unsuccessful attempt on the life of the governor at the time, Sher Alam Ibrahimi. There is a Polish and American Provincial Reconstruction Team
Provincial reconstruction team
A Provincial Reconstruction Team is a unit introduced by the United States government, consisting of military officers, diplomats, and reconstruction subject matter experts, working to support reconstruction efforts in unstable states. PRTs were first established in Afghanistan in late 2001 or...

 base located in Ghazni
Ghazni
For the Province of Ghazni see Ghazni ProvinceGhazni is a city in central-east Afghanistan with a population of about 141,000 people...

 City.

Since the U.S. invasion of Afghanistan
War in Afghanistan (2001–present)
The War in Afghanistan began on October 7, 2001, as the armed forces of the United States of America, the United Kingdom, Australia, and the Afghan United Front launched Operation Enduring Freedom...

 in October 2001, there has been a Provincial reconstruction base
Provincial reconstruction team
A Provincial Reconstruction Team is a unit introduced by the United States government, consisting of military officers, diplomats, and reconstruction subject matter experts, working to support reconstruction efforts in unstable states. PRTs were first established in Afghanistan in late 2001 or...

 and a Nato forces
International Security Assistance Force
The International Security Assistance Force is a NATO-led security mission in Afghanistan established by the United Nations Security Council on 20 December 2001 by Resolution 1386 as envisaged by the Bonn Agreement...

 base. These western forces (mostly Polish Armed Forces
Polish Armed Forces
Siły Zbrojne Rzeczypospolitej Polskiej are the national defense forces of Poland...

) are hunting Taliban militants and al-Qaida, who are still active in the area causing deaths to Afghan government employees and local civilian population of the province as well. Ghazni has seen a steady increase in violence. NATO and Afghan forces fight regularly with insurgents in the area, but there has not been a push to roll back their gains comparable to efforts in the southern Taliban heartlands of Kandahar and Helmand.
  • In late April 2007, news agencies reported that Taliban fighters had taken control of Giro District in the province. The Taliban reportedly killed the district administrator, chief of police (who had been on the job for only one month) and three police officers. The Taliban withdrew from the district center one day later.

  • In July 2007, 23 South Korean volunteers were kidnapped in the Ghazni province by the Taliban. Two of them were killed and their bodies were dumped in various places. As of August 1, security force was planned to be deployed to secure the release of those kidnapped.

  • On September 28, 2010, the Deputy Governor of Ghazni and five others were killed after a suicide bomber on a motorized rickshaw attacked their vehicle. Deputy Governor Mohammad Kazim Allahyar and several men travelling with him were killed instantly when the attacker detonated his explosives at the back of their car near the airport in Ghazni City. The bodies were so badly burnt that there was some confusion about the identity of the other victims. Provincial police chief Delawar Zahid reported Allahyar's son, nephew and driver died, along with two civilians passing by on a bicycle.
  • In early December 2010, Afghanistan's election commission, defying President Hamid Karzai
    Hamid Karzai
    Hamid Karzai, GCMG is the 12th and current President of Afghanistan, taking office on 7 December 2004. He became a dominant political figure after the removal of the Taliban regime in late 2001...

    , certified the final tally from the September 18 elections
    Afghan parliamentary election, 2010
    The Afghan parliamentary election, 2010 to elect members of the Wolesi Jirga took place on 18 September 2010. The Afghan Independent Election Commission - established in accordance with the article 156 of the Constitution of Afghanistan for the purpose of organizing and supervising all elections in...

     with a controversial decision to give all 11 seats in Ghazni Province, where Taliban kept the Pashtun
    Pashtun people
    Pashtuns or Pathans , also known as ethnic Afghans , are an Eastern Iranic ethnic group with populations primarily between the Hindu Kush mountains in Afghanistan and the Indus River in Pakistan...

     majority from the polls, to members of the ethnic Hazara minority. The Afghan attorney general declared the publication of election results illegitimate and opened a criminal probe against officials at both election commissions (Afghan and international), accusing them of accepting bribes and falsifying vote tallies.

Natural disasters


In recent years, Ghazni has been beset by droughts, heavy snow, and flooding, all at different times. During the periods of drought, many parts of the province, especially Ghazni City, saw heavy building in the flood plains of the province's rivers. Flooding caused by heavy rain and snow in recent years have taken heavy tolls in property in lives in these newly constructed areas.

Natural resources


Recent geologic surveys have indicated Ghazni may have one of the world's richest deposits of lithium. Gold and copper were also found in the Zarkashan area of Ghazni province with an estimated value of $30 billion while Lithium deposits valued at around $60 billion were discovered in four eastern and western provinces of Afghanistan, Together with other newly (2010) discovered mineral deposits, the total value of US $3 trillion the estimate is based on a survey of 30 percent of the country's land mass.

Governors



The current governor
Governor
A governor is a governing official, usually the executive of a non-sovereign level of government, ranking under the head of state...

 of the province is Musa Khan.

Demographics and geography


The major ethnic groups in the province are Pashtuns (51%), and Persian speaking Hazaras and Tajiks (47%). There are also some Burki
Burki
The Burki are a Pushtun tribe of South Waziristan, Pakistan, whose homeland is Kaniguram...

, and Uzbeks
Uzbeks
The Uzbeks are a Turkic ethnic group in Central Asia. They comprise the majority population of Uzbekistan, and large populations can also be found in Afghanistan, Tajikstan, Kyrgyzstan, Turkmenistan, Kazakhstan, Russia, Pakistan, Mongolia and the Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region of China...

. Ghazni is made up of 19 districts (district capitals are given in parentheses).

District name District Center Ethnical data(%)
Ab Band Haji Khel
Haji Khel
Haji Khel is a town located at at 2,117 m altitude in the northern part of Ab Band district, Ghazni Province, Afghanistan and is the capital of the district....

100% Pashtun
Ajristan Sangar 97% Pashtun, 3% Hazara
Andar
Andar District
Andar is one of the eastern districts of Ghazni Province in Afghanistan. The population has been estimated at 106,000, all Pashtun. The district center is Miray....

Miray
Miray
Miray is the district center of Andar District, Ghazni Province, Afghanistan. It is located at at 2,069 m altitude.we have one High School Sultan Shahabudden Ghori and one small Hospital there, a small bazar in which every thing available...

100% Pashtun
Pashtun people
Pashtuns or Pathans , also known as ethnic Afghans , are an Eastern Iranic ethnic group with populations primarily between the Hindu Kush mountains in Afghanistan and the Indus River in Pakistan...

Dih Yak Ramak
Ramak
Ramak Village is the district center of Dih Yak District, Ghazni Province, Afghanistan. It is 30 km east of Ghazni on at 2,163 altitude....

89% Pashtun
Pashtun people
Pashtuns or Pathans , also known as ethnic Afghans , are an Eastern Iranic ethnic group with populations primarily between the Hindu Kush mountains in Afghanistan and the Indus River in Pakistan...

, 11% Tajik
Gelan
Gelan District
Gelan is a district in the south of Ghazni Province, Afghanistan. Its population, which is 100% Pashtun, was estimated at 78,408 in 2002. The district capital is Janda.-References:* , accessed 2006-04-25 .-External links:*...

Janda
Janda
Jadna is a village and the district center of Gelan District, Ghazni Province, Afghanistan. It is situated in the central part of the district at at 1,983 m altitude. The houses are made of mud bricks and the streets are unpaved....

100% Pashtun
Pashtun people
Pashtuns or Pathans , also known as ethnic Afghans , are an Eastern Iranic ethnic group with populations primarily between the Hindu Kush mountains in Afghanistan and the Indus River in Pakistan...

Ghazni Ghazni
Ghazni
For the Province of Ghazni see Ghazni ProvinceGhazni is a city in central-east Afghanistan with a population of about 141,000 people...

50% Tajik, 25% Hazara, 25% Pashtun
Pashtun people
Pashtuns or Pathans , also known as ethnic Afghans , are an Eastern Iranic ethnic group with populations primarily between the Hindu Kush mountains in Afghanistan and the Indus River in Pakistan...

Giro Pana 100% Pashtun
Pashtun people
Pashtuns or Pathans , also known as ethnic Afghans , are an Eastern Iranic ethnic group with populations primarily between the Hindu Kush mountains in Afghanistan and the Indus River in Pakistan...

Jaghatu
Jaghatu District
Jaghatu is a district in Wardak province, Afghanistan, 40 km northwest of Ghazni. In 2004 it was shifted from Ghazni province to Wardak. According to 2005 data, the population is more than 27,000, most of whom are Hazara...

Gul Bahawari 73% Hazara, 27% Pashtun
Jaghori
Jaghori District
Jaghori is a major business center and one of the main districts of Ghazni province in Afghanistan. It is situated in the highlands of the central region. The population was estimated at 192,216 in 2002, making it one of the most populous districts in Afghanistan. Sange-e-Masha is a small bazaar...

Sange-e-Masha
Sange-e-Masha
Sange-e-Masha is the administrative center of Jaghori District, Ghazni Province, Afghanistan. It is located on at 2,433 m altitude....

100% Hazara
Khugiani
Khugiani District
Khugiani is a district in Ghazni Province, Afghanistan. It was previously part of Jaghatu District. Its territory had been enlarged during the Taliban regime and after then the district was returned to its original borders...

Khugiani 99.9% Pashtun
Pashtun people
Pashtuns or Pathans , also known as ethnic Afghans , are an Eastern Iranic ethnic group with populations primarily between the Hindu Kush mountains in Afghanistan and the Indus River in Pakistan...

, 0.1% Hazara, Tajik and Uzbek
Uzbeks
The Uzbeks are a Turkic ethnic group in Central Asia. They comprise the majority population of Uzbekistan, and large populations can also be found in Afghanistan, Tajikstan, Kyrgyzstan, Turkmenistan, Kazakhstan, Russia, Pakistan, Mongolia and the Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region of China...

Khwaja Umari Kwaja Umari 45% Hazara, 35% Tajik and 20% Pashtun
Pashtun people
Pashtuns or Pathans , also known as ethnic Afghans , are an Eastern Iranic ethnic group with populations primarily between the Hindu Kush mountains in Afghanistan and the Indus River in Pakistan...

Malistan Malistan 100% Hazara
Muqur
Muqur District, Ghazni
Muqur is a district in the southwest of Ghazni Province, Afghanistan. Its population, which is mostly Pashtun along with a few Hazara and Tajik, was estimated at 70,900 in 2002, of whom around 20,000 were children under 12.-References:...

Muqur
Muqur, Ghazni
Muqur is located in the southern part of Muqur District, Ghazni, Afghanistan at at 2,003 m altitude.see also Muqur...

80% Pashtun
Pashtun people
Pashtuns or Pathans , also known as ethnic Afghans , are an Eastern Iranic ethnic group with populations primarily between the Hindu Kush mountains in Afghanistan and the Indus River in Pakistan...

, 20% Hazara and Tajik
Nawa Nawa 100% Pashtun
Pashtun people
Pashtuns or Pathans , also known as ethnic Afghans , are an Eastern Iranic ethnic group with populations primarily between the Hindu Kush mountains in Afghanistan and the Indus River in Pakistan...

Nawur Du Abi
Du Abi
Du Abi is a village located at with an altitude of 3091 m in the central part of Nawur District, Ghazni Province, Afghanistan. It is the Nawur district administrative center where the local council sits. The name is also applied to include another village just south of Du Abi, on the same stream....

100% Hazara
Qarabagh
Qarabagh District, Ghazni
Qarabagh district is located 56 km to the south west of Ghazni in eastern Afghanistan. The 1,800 km² area is one of the most populated at 109,000; some reports count more than 200,000...

Qarabagh 50% Hazara, 50% Pashtun
Pashtun people
Pashtuns or Pathans , also known as ethnic Afghans , are an Eastern Iranic ethnic group with populations primarily between the Hindu Kush mountains in Afghanistan and the Indus River in Pakistan...

Rashidan Rashidan 96% Pashtun
Pashtun people
Pashtuns or Pathans , also known as ethnic Afghans , are an Eastern Iranic ethnic group with populations primarily between the Hindu Kush mountains in Afghanistan and the Indus River in Pakistan...

, 4% Hazara
Waghaz Waghaz Mostly Pashtun
Pashtun people
Pashtuns or Pathans , also known as ethnic Afghans , are an Eastern Iranic ethnic group with populations primarily between the Hindu Kush mountains in Afghanistan and the Indus River in Pakistan...

Zana Khan Dado
Dado, Afghanistan
Dado is the district center of Zana Khan district, Afghanistan. It is located 30 km North East of Ghazni on at 2,520 m altitude....

100% Pashtun
Pashtun people
Pashtuns or Pathans , also known as ethnic Afghans , are an Eastern Iranic ethnic group with populations primarily between the Hindu Kush mountains in Afghanistan and the Indus River in Pakistan...



Malistan, Jaghuri, Nawur, parts of Qarabagh, Dih Yak and Jaghatu are part of the Hazarajat
Hazarajat
The Hazarajat is the original homeland of the Hazara people, and lies in the central highlands of Afghanistan, among the Koh-i-Baba mountains and the western extremities of the Hindu Kush. Its physical boundaries, however, are roughly marked by the Bamiyan Basin to the north, the headwaters of...

.

Some Sikhs and Hindus also live in Ghazni province. During the Taliban regime they fled the country, but with the current administration they have returned to Ghazni city.

External links


Archaeology

  • The Buddhist Cave complex at Homay Qala , South Asian archaeology 1975: papers from the third International Conference ...Page 119 By Johanna Engelberta Lohuizen-De Leeuw