Gavriel Holtzberg

Gavriel Holtzberg

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Gavriel Noach Holtzberg was an Orthodox
Orthodoxy
The word orthodox, from Greek orthos + doxa , is generally used to mean the adherence to accepted norms, more specifically to creeds, especially in religion...

 rabbi
Rabbi
In Judaism, a rabbi is a teacher of Torah. This title derives from the Hebrew word רבי , meaning "My Master" , which is the way a student would address a master of Torah...

 and the Chabad emissary
Shaliach (Chabad)
A Chabad shliach is a Chabad member sent out to promulgate Judaism and Chasidut around the world.Chabad shluchim as of 2010 number about 4,500 worldwide, and can be found in many of even the most remote worldly locales.-Origins:...

 to Mumbai
Mumbai
Mumbai , formerly known as Bombay in English, is the capital of the Indian state of Maharashtra. It is the most populous city in India, and the fourth most populous city in the world, with a total metropolitan area population of approximately 20.5 million...

, India
India
India , officially the Republic of India , is a country in South Asia. It is the seventh-largest country by geographical area, the second-most populous country with over 1.2 billion people, and the most populous democracy in the world...

, where he and his wife Rivka ran the Mumbai Chabad House
Nariman House
The Nariman House , renamed as Chabad House , is a five-story landmark in the Colaba area in southern Mumbai, India. The building was home to a Chabad house, a Jewish outreach center run by Gavriel and Rivka Holtzberg, and they have owned the Building since around 2006. The center had an...

. He was also a religious leader and community builder for the local Jewish Indian community, and led the Friday-night Shabbat
Shabbat
Shabbat is the seventh day of the Jewish week and a day of rest in Judaism. Shabbat is observed from a few minutes before sunset on Friday evening until a few minutes after when one would expect to be able to see three stars in the sky on Saturday night. The exact times, therefore, differ from...

 services at the Knesset Eliyahoo
Knesset Eliyahoo
The Knesset Eliyahoo, also Knesset Eliyahu, is an 1885 synagogue in Fort in downtown Mumbai. It was built by Jacob Elias Sassoon and his brothers to commemorate their father and is run by the Jacob Sassoon Trust....

 synagogue. Holtzberg and his wife were murdered by Pakistani Islamic terrorists in the November 2008 attacks in Mumbai.

Early life and family


Holtzberg was born in Israel
Israel
The State of Israel is a parliamentary republic located in the Middle East, along the eastern shore of the Mediterranean Sea...

 to Nachman and Freida Holtzberg. He and his family moved to the Crown Heights
Crown Heights, Brooklyn
Crown Heights is a neighborhood in the central portion of the New York City borough of Brooklyn. The main thoroughfare through this neighborhood is Eastern Parkway, a tree-lined boulevard designed by Frederick Law Olmsted extending two miles east-west.Originally, the area was known as Crow Hill....

 neighborhood in Brooklyn
Brooklyn
Brooklyn is the most populous of New York City's five boroughs, with nearly 2.6 million residents, and the second-largest in area. Since 1896, Brooklyn has had the same boundaries as Kings County, which is now the most populous county in New York State and the second-most densely populated...

, New York, when he was nine years old. He had eight siblings. During his years in elementary school, he memorised the entire Second Order (Hebrew: Seder) of the Mishnah
Mishnah
The Mishnah or Mishna is the first major written redaction of the Jewish oral traditions called the "Oral Torah". It is also the first major work of Rabbinic Judaism. It was redacted c...

, Moed
Moed
Moed is the second Order of the Mishnah, the first written recording of the Oral Torah of the Jewish people . Of the six orders of the Mishna, Moed is the third shortest. The order of Moed consists of 12 tractates:# Shabbat: or Shabbath deals with the 39 prohibitions of "work" on the Shabbat...

, verbatim and was a two-time champion in a competition of memorizing the Mishnah
Mishnah
The Mishnah or Mishna is the first major written redaction of the Jewish oral traditions called the "Oral Torah". It is also the first major work of Rabbinic Judaism. It was redacted c...

. During his high school years, Holtzberg was known for his knowledge of the Talmud
Talmud
The Talmud is a central text of mainstream Judaism. It takes the form of a record of rabbinic discussions pertaining to Jewish law, ethics, philosophy, customs and history....

. He traveled to Jerusalem for an international Talmudic competition, where he came in second.

He studied at yeshiva
Yeshiva
Yeshiva is a Jewish educational institution that focuses on the study of traditional religious texts, primarily the Talmud and Torah study. Study is usually done through daily shiurim and in study pairs called chavrutas...

s in New York and Argentina
Argentina
Argentina , officially the Argentine Republic , is the second largest country in South America by land area, after Brazil. It is constituted as a federation of 23 provinces and an autonomous city, Buenos Aires...

, and as a rabbinical student served communities in Thailand
Thailand
Thailand , officially the Kingdom of Thailand , formerly known as Siam , is a country located at the centre of the Indochina peninsula and Southeast Asia. It is bordered to the north by Burma and Laos, to the east by Laos and Cambodia, to the south by the Gulf of Thailand and Malaysia, and to the...

 and China
China
Chinese civilization may refer to:* China for more general discussion of the country.* Chinese culture* Greater China, the transnational community of ethnic Chinese.* History of China* Sinosphere, the area historically affected by Chinese culture...

 under the Summer Rabbinical Visitation Program run by Merkos L'Inyonei Chinuch
Merkos L'Inyonei Chinuch
Merkos L'Inyonei Chinuch is the central educational arm of the Chabad-Lubavitch movement. Founded by the sixth Rebbe, Rabbi Yosef Yitzchok Schneersohn, in 1943, the organization was initially directed by his son-in-law, Rabbi Menachem Mendel Schneerson, who would later become the seventh Rebbe...

, the educational arm of Chabad-Lubavitch
Chabad-Lubavitch
Chabad-Lubavitch is a Chasidic movement in Orthodox Judaism. One of the world's larger and best-known Chasidic movements, its official headquarters is in the Crown Heights section of Brooklyn, New York...

.

Holtzberg had long desired to become a Chabad emissary. He spent time as a student in the Chabad house
Chabad house
A Chabad house is a centre for disseminating Orthodox Judaism by the Chabad movement. Chabad Houses are run by the local Shaliach , who was sent to that place by the Lubavitcher Rebbe, Rabbi Menachem Mendel Schneerson, who founded all Chabad Houses...

 in Bangkok
Bangkok
Bangkok is the capital and largest urban area city in Thailand. It is known in Thai as Krung Thep Maha Nakhon or simply Krung Thep , meaning "city of angels." The full name of Bangkok is Krung Thep Mahanakhon Amon Rattanakosin Mahintharayutthaya Mahadilok Phop Noppharat Ratchathani Burirom...

, and helped open a Chabad house in south Thailand.

His future rebbetzin
Rebbetzin
Rebbitzin or Rabbanit is the title used for the wife of a rabbi, typically from the Orthodox, or Haredi, and Hasidic Jewish groups...

, Rivka Holtzberg née Rosenberg was born in Israel to Rabbi Shimon and Yehudit Rosenberg, and was raised in Afula
Afula
Afula is a city in the North District of Israel, often known as the "Capital of the Valley", referring to the Jezreel Valley. The city had a population of 40,500 at the end of 2009.-History:...

. She studied at a Bais Rivka
Bais Rivka
Bais Rivka is a network of Beis Yaakov-type private girls' schools affiliated with the Chabad Lubavitch Hasidic movement....

 seminary in Kfar Chabad
Kfar Chabad
Kfar Chabad is a Chabad-Lubavitch village in central Israel. Located between Beit Dagan and Lod, it falls under the jurisdiction of Lod Valley Regional Council. In 2007 it had a population of 5,100.-History:...

, Israel. Her uncle was Rabbi Yitzchak Dovid Grossman
Yitzchak Dovid Grossman
Not to be confused with his distant cousin Rabbi Dovid GrossmanYitzchak Dovid Grossman is the Chief Rabbi of Migdal Ha'Emek, founder and president of Migdal Ohr, and member of the Chief Rabbinate Council.-Early life:Grossman is a sixth generation Jerusalemite, born in 1946...

, Chief Rabbi
Chief Rabbi
Chief Rabbi is a title given in several countries to the recognized religious leader of that country's Jewish community, or to a rabbinic leader appointed by the local secular authorities...

 of Migdal Ha'Emek, Israel.

The Holtzbergs married in 2002. Their firstborn son, Menachem Mendel, was born a year later, afflicted with Tay-Sachs disease
Tay-Sachs disease
Tay–Sachs disease is an autosomal recessive genetic disorder...

. He died of this disease at the age of 3. Their second son, DovBer, was born with the same ailment and was institutionalized in a pediatric long-term care facility in Israel under the care of his grandparents. He died at the age of 4 in December 2008, one month after his parents' murder. Their third son, Moshe, was born healthy and lived with them in Mumbai. They lived together on the fifth floor of the Chabad House. It was revealed by her father during her funeral that Rivka was five months pregnant with her fourth child at the time she was slain.

Chabad House



After Gavriel and Rivka Holtzberg married, they subsequently moved to Mumbai to serve as Chabad emissaries and open the first Chabad House in Mumbai. Under His leadership, he acquired the Nariman House
Nariman House
The Nariman House , renamed as Chabad House , is a five-story landmark in the Colaba area in southern Mumbai, India. The building was home to a Chabad house, a Jewish outreach center run by Gavriel and Rivka Holtzberg, and they have owned the Building since around 2006. The center had an...

. He ran the synagogue in addition to him and his wife being directors of the Chabad house, it was also the Mumabi Chabad headquarters. He installed a kosher kitchen and a mikvah
Mikvah
Mikveh is a bath used for the purpose of ritual immersion in Judaism...

 at the Chabad house, and taught Torah
Torah
Torah- A scroll containing the first five books of the BibleThe Torah , is name given by Jews to the first five books of the bible—Genesis , Exodus , Leviticus , Numbers and Deuteronomy Torah- A scroll containing the first five books of the BibleThe Torah , is name given by Jews to the first five...

, offered drug prevention services, and ran a hostel
Hostel
Hostels provide budget oriented, sociable accommodation where guests can rent a bed, usually a bunk bed, in a dormitory and share a bathroom, lounge and sometimes a kitchen. Rooms can be mixed or single-sex, although private rooms may also be available...

 there. They led Shabbat
Shabbat
Shabbat is the seventh day of the Jewish week and a day of rest in Judaism. Shabbat is observed from a few minutes before sunset on Friday evening until a few minutes after when one would expect to be able to see three stars in the sky on Saturday night. The exact times, therefore, differ from...

 meals every week at the Chabad house with between 50-60 people and 30-40 people per night during the week, where they hosted Jews from all walks of life from notable figures such as Sir Martin Gilbert
Martin Gilbert
Sir Martin John Gilbert, CBE, PC is a British historian and Fellow of Merton College, University of Oxford. He is the author of over eighty books, including works on the Holocaust and Jewish history...

 and Rabbi Joseph Telushkin
Joseph Telushkin
Joseph Telushkin is an American rabbi, lecturer, and author.-Biography:Telushkin attended the Yeshiva of Flatbush, was ordained at Yeshiva University, and studied Jewish history at Columbia University....

, to humanitarian workers, business people and Israeli backpackers visiting India.

In an article published in 2006, the Rabbi said he understood the nature of the Israeli traveler's needs saying they "need relief" from the army, from work, from real life. He said, "they come here to do everything the army didn’t allow them to do. Their shoes had to be polished and tied – here they wear sandals. They had to cut their hair – here they grow their hair long."

Local Jewish community


Between 4,500 and 5,000 Jews live in Mumbai (see Indian Jews
Indian Jews
The history of the Jews in India reaches back to ancient times.Indian Jews are a religious minority of India. Judaism was one of the first foreign religions to arrive in India in recorded history. The better-established ancient communities have assimilated a large number of local traditions through...

). Rabbi Holtzberg was a religious leader for that community, leading Friday night services at the Knesset Eliyahoo
Knesset Eliyahoo
The Knesset Eliyahoo, also Knesset Eliyahu, is an 1885 synagogue in Fort in downtown Mumbai. It was built by Jacob Elias Sassoon and his brothers to commemorate their father and is run by the Jacob Sassoon Trust....

 synagogue, also performing marriages for them, acting as the shochet
Shechita
Shechita is the ritual slaughter of mammals and birds according to Jewish dietary laws...

 (the kosher slaughtering of animals) and supplying the community with kosher meat, answering halakhic
Halakha
Halakha — also transliterated Halocho , or Halacha — is the collective body of Jewish law, including biblical law and later talmudic and rabbinic law, as well as customs and traditions.Judaism classically draws no distinction in its laws between religious and ostensibly non-religious life; Jewish...

 principles for them, such as what is to be done in the rites and customs of Judaism, as well as being a trained Mohel
Mohel
A mohel is a Jewish person trained in the practice of brit milah "covenant of circumcision."-Etymology of the Hebrew and Aramaic term:...

 (performing the circumcision
Circumcision
Male circumcision is the surgical removal of some or all of the foreskin from the penis. The word "circumcision" comes from Latin and ....

 or "bris
Brit milah
The brit milah is a Jewish religious circumcision ceremony performed on 8-day old male infants by a mohel. The brit milah is followed by a celebratory meal .-Biblical references:...

" of Jewish babies). In addition to helping to gather donations and do fund-raising for one of their synagogues, T'feret Israel, and helping them build an additional mikvah
Mikvah
Mikveh is a bath used for the purpose of ritual immersion in Judaism...

 for that synagogue, he and his wife also taught Jewish studies and Torah
Torah
Torah- A scroll containing the first five books of the BibleThe Torah , is name given by Jews to the first five books of the bible—Genesis , Exodus , Leviticus , Numbers and Deuteronomy Torah- A scroll containing the first five books of the BibleThe Torah , is name given by Jews to the first five...

 to local Jews and tourists, and provided their mikveh to be used by local Jews, and made challah
Challah
Challah also khale ,, berches , barkis , bergis , chałka , vánočka , zopf and kitke , is a special braided bread eaten on...

 available to them.

Attack



On Nov. 26, 2008, terrorists invaded the Chabad House and took the Holtzbergs hostage. Moshe's Indian nanny and a cook at the house, Sandra Samuel
Sandra Samuel
Sandra Samuel is an Indian nanny who saved the life of two-year-old Moshe Holtzberg during the November 2008 Mumbai terrorist attacks. The government of Israel is considering granting Samuel the title Righteous among the Nations....

, escaped with the two-year-old boy. As the siege began, Sandra locked the doors and hid in a room. She heard Rivka screaming, "Sandra, Sandra, help, Sandra," The gunmen reportedly went door-to-door, searching for targets so Samuel unlocked her door, but they did not find her. She then ran upstairs to find the Holtzbergs shot and lying on the ground with their son crying over them, so she picked him up and ran to the exit.

Two days after the siege of the house began, Indian security forces seized the house and found the Holtzbergs and six others dead. It was concluded that the Rabbi's wife had been killed many hours before, and several of the bodies were covered in tallit
Tallit
A tallit pl. tallitot is a Jewish prayer shawl. The tallit is worn over the outer clothes during the morning prayers on weekdays, Shabbat and holidays...

, including Rivka Holtzberg, leading witnesses to speculate that the rabbi managed to cover the bodies before he was killed.

Response from the United States


Several high ranking American politicians released statements on the Mumbai attacks, specifically referencing Gavriel and Rivka Holtzberg by name, including US
United States
The United States of America is a federal constitutional republic comprising fifty states and a federal district...

 President-elect
President-elect
An -elect is a political candidate who has been elected to an office but who has not yet been sworn in or officially taken office. These may include an incoming president, senator, representative, governor and mayor.Analogously, the term "designate" An -elect is a political candidate who has been...

 Barack Obama
Barack Obama
Barack Hussein Obama II is the 44th and current President of the United States. He is the first African American to hold the office. Obama previously served as a United States Senator from Illinois, from January 2005 until he resigned following his victory in the 2008 presidential election.Born in...

, Senator Hillary Clinton, Mayor Michael Bloomberg
Michael Bloomberg
Michael Rubens Bloomberg is the current Mayor of New York City. With a net worth of $19.5 billion in 2011, he is also the 12th-richest person in the United States...

 of New York City
New York City
New York is the most populous city in the United States and the center of the New York Metropolitan Area, one of the most populous metropolitan areas in the world. New York exerts a significant impact upon global commerce, finance, media, art, fashion, research, technology, education, and...

, and Governor
Governor of New York
The Governor of the State of New York is the chief executive of the State of New York. The governor is the head of the executive branch of New York's state government and the commander-in-chief of the state's military and naval forces. The officeholder is afforded the courtesy title of His/Her...

 David Paterson of New York
New York
New York is a state in the Northeastern region of the United States. It is the nation's third most populous state. New York is bordered by New Jersey and Pennsylvania to the south, and by Connecticut, Massachusetts and Vermont to the east...

.

Response from Australia


In December 2008, Australian prime minister Kevin Rudd
Kevin Rudd
Kevin Michael Rudd is an Australian politician who was the 26th Prime Minister of Australia from 2007 to 2010. He has been Minister for Foreign Affairs since 2010...

 told more than 1,000 people at a memorial service at the Yeshiva Center in New South Wales
New South Wales
New South Wales is a state of :Australia, located in the east of the country. It is bordered by Queensland, Victoria and South Australia to the north, south and west respectively. To the east, the state is bordered by the Tasman Sea, which forms part of the Pacific Ocean. New South Wales...

 that Rabbi Gavriel Holtzberg and his wife, Rivkah, had “devoted their lives to acts of goodness and kindness and compassion for others ... but they lost their lives in a senseless act of hatred. In the face of this terror we must not bow to fear. We must respond by spreading our own message of tolerance and respect for people of other backgrounds and other beliefs.” Federal Opposition leader Malcolm Turnbull
Malcolm Turnbull
Malcolm Bligh Turnbull is an Australian politician. He has been a member of the Australian House of Representatives since 2004, and was Leader of the Opposition and parliamentary leader of the Liberal Party from 16 September 2008 to 1 December 2009.Turnbull has represented the Division...

 and U.S. Consul-General Judith Fergin also spoke at the memorial service. A representative from the Indian Consulate was also present.

In a speech to Federal Parliament, Michael Danby
Michael Danby
Michael David Danby is an Australian politician and has been an Australian Labor Party member of the Australian House of Representatives since October 1998, representing the Division of Melbourne Ports, Victoria...

, a Jewish member of the ruling Labor Party, said it was important to remember the names of the innocent victims of Mumbai attacks, stating that “I raise my voice in this national parliament and praise the memory of those innocent kedoshim who were killed in the Chabad House in Mumbai only because they were Jews.”.

Funeral


Thousands of people attended the funeral of Holtzberg,his parents and wife, with eulogies delivered in the town of Kfar Chabad
Kfar Chabad
Kfar Chabad is a Chabad-Lubavitch village in central Israel. Located between Beit Dagan and Lod, it falls under the jurisdiction of Lod Valley Regional Council. In 2007 it had a population of 5,100.-History:...

 followed by a procession to Jerusalem's ancient Mount of Olives
Mount of Olives
The Mount of Olives is a mountain ridge in East Jerusalem with three peaks running from north to south. The highest, at-Tur, rises to 818 meters . It is named for the olive groves that once covered its slopes...

 cemetery, where the couples were buried. Among those who attended were the two Chief Rabbi
Chief Rabbinate of Israel
The Chief Rabbinate of Israel is recognized by law as the supreme halakhic and spiritual authority for the Jewish people in Israel. The Chief Rabbinate Council assists the two chief rabbis, who alternate in its presidency. It has legal and administrative authority to organize religious...

s of Israel, President
President of Israel
The President of the State of Israel is the head of state of Israel. The position is largely an apolitical ceremonial figurehead role, with the real executive power lying in the hands of the Prime Minister. The current president is Shimon Peres who took office on 15 July 2007...

 Shimon Peres
Shimon Peres
GCMG is the ninth President of the State of Israel. Peres served twice as the eighth Prime Minister of Israel and once as Interim Prime Minister, and has been a member of 12 cabinets in a political career spanning over 66 years...

, former Prime Minister
Prime Minister of Israel
The Prime Minister of Israel is the head of the Israeli government and the most powerful political figure in Israel . The prime minister is the country's chief executive. The official residence of the prime minister, Beit Rosh Hamemshala is in Jerusalem...

 and Defense Minister Ehud Barak
Ehud Barak
Ehud Barak is an Israeli politician who served as Prime Minister from 1999 until 2001. He was leader of the Labor Party until January 2011 and holds the posts of Minister of Defense and Deputy Prime Minister in Binyamin Netanyahu's government....

, former Prime Minister
Prime Minister of Israel
The Prime Minister of Israel is the head of the Israeli government and the most powerful political figure in Israel . The prime minister is the country's chief executive. The official residence of the prime minister, Beit Rosh Hamemshala is in Jerusalem...

 and Likud
Likud
Likud is the major center-right political party in Israel. It was founded in 1973 by Menachem Begin in an alliance with several right-wing and liberal parties. Likud's victory in the 1977 elections was a major turning point in the country's political history, marking the first time the left had...

 leader Binyamin Netanyahu, several Shas
Shas
Shas is an ultra-orthodox religious political party in Israel, primarily representing Sephardic and Mizrahi Haredi Judaism.Shas was founded in 1984 by dissident members of the Ashkenazi dominated Agudat Israel, to represent the interests of religiously observant Sephardic and Mizrahi ...

 ministers and MKs, government ministers, Knesset members
MKS
MKS Inc was a multinational independent software vendor which became a wholly owned subsidiary of Parametric Technology Corporation on May 31, 2011 and is now operated as a business unit within PTC...

, Chabad emissaries from around the world, the American and Indian ambassadors to Israel, and Rabbi Abraham Shemtov
Abraham Shemtov
Rabbi Abraham Shemtov is a leading Chabad-Lubavitch Rabbi who was one of the closest confidants of the late Lubavitcher Rebbe, Menachem Mendel Schneerson....

, head of Agudas Hassidei Chabad International, the movement's umbrella organization.

Rabbi Moshe Kotlarsky vice chairman of Chabad's educational arm, Merkos L'Inyonei Chinuch
Merkos L'Inyonei Chinuch
Merkos L'Inyonei Chinuch is the central educational arm of the Chabad-Lubavitch movement. Founded by the sixth Rebbe, Rabbi Yosef Yitzchok Schneersohn, in 1943, the organization was initially directed by his son-in-law, Rabbi Menachem Mendel Schneerson, who would later become the seventh Rebbe...

, from New York, eulogized the couple at the funeral, saying "I vow that we will avenge the deaths of Gabi and Rivki. But not with AK-47s, not with grenades and tanks. We will take revenge in a different way. We will add light. We will add good deeds. We will make sure that there is not one Jewish man who does not put on tefillin. We will make sure that there is not one Jewish woman who does not light candles," speaking of one of the aims
Mitzvah Campaigns
Mitzvah Campaigns, or Mivtzo'im is a term coined by the Lubavitcher Rebbe, Rabbi Menachem Mendel Schneerson, leader of the Chabad movement, to refer to his various initiatives calling his followers, and all Jews, to reach out to less affiliated Jews and encourage them to undertake specific...

 of the Chabad movement. Kotlarsky also said that the Chabad House would be rebuilt, and that it would be named after the Holtzbergs. Kotlarsky also aimed his message at the couple's son Moshe saying "You don’t have a mother who will hug you. You are the child of all of Israel." In Toronto
Toronto
Toronto is the provincial capital of Ontario and the largest city in Canada. It is located in Southern Ontario on the northwestern shore of Lake Ontario. A relatively modern city, Toronto's history dates back to the late-18th century, when its land was first purchased by the British monarchy from...

, Ontario
Ontario
Ontario is a province of Canada, located in east-central Canada. It is Canada's most populous province and second largest in total area. It is home to the nation's most populous city, Toronto, and the nation's capital, Ottawa....

, Canada
Canada
Canada is a North American country consisting of ten provinces and three territories. Located in the northern part of the continent, it extends from the Atlantic Ocean in the east to the Pacific Ocean in the west, and northward into the Arctic Ocean...

, a memorial service was held for the Gavriel and his wife at a Chabad synagogue, where almost 1,500 people attended.

Child


Moshe, an orphan after the attack, and his nanny Sandra Samuel
Sandra Samuel
Sandra Samuel is an Indian nanny who saved the life of two-year-old Moshe Holtzberg during the November 2008 Mumbai terrorist attacks. The government of Israel is considering granting Samuel the title Righteous among the Nations....

, subsequently moved to Israel where Moshe's grandparents live. The Israeli Government under Foreign Minister Tzipi Livni awarded Samuel a special visa offering immigration status. Samuel has stated she will continue to care for Moshe for as long as necessary. Israel is considering honouring her as a Righteous Gentile
Righteous gentile
Righteous gentile may refer to:* Ger toshav, "stranger-foreigner", Aramaic and Hebrew term for a resident alien in a Jewish state.* Righteous among the Nations, an honorific bestowed by the State of Israel to non-Jews who risked their lives to save Jews from the Nazis...

, the highest Israeli award that may be presented to non-Jews, allowing her to remain in Israel for an extended period of time

A video of Moshe crying at the funeral service for his parents and crying "Imma, Imma," which means "Mommy, Mommy" in Hebrew was widely published.

External links