Gateshead

Gateshead

Overview
Gateshead is a town in Tyne and Wear
Tyne and Wear
Tyne and Wear is a metropolitan county in north east England around the mouths of the Rivers Tyne and Wear. It came into existence as a metropolitan county in 1974 after the passage of the Local Government Act 1972...

, England
England
England is a country that is part of the United Kingdom. It shares land borders with Scotland to the north and Wales to the west; the Irish Sea is to the north west, the Celtic Sea to the south west, with the North Sea to the east and the English Channel to the south separating it from continental...

 and is the main settlement in the Metropolitan Borough of Gateshead
Metropolitan Borough of Gateshead
The Metropolitan Borough of Gateshead is a metropolitan borough of Tyne and Wear, in North East England. It is named after its largest town, Gateshead, but also spans the towns of Rowlands Gill, Whickham, Blaydon and Ryton; suburban areas include Felling, Pelaw, Dunston and Low Fell.It is bordered...

. Historically
Historic counties of England
The historic counties of England are subdivisions of England established for administration by the Normans and in most cases based on earlier Anglo-Saxon kingdoms and shires...

 a part of County Durham
County Durham
County Durham is a ceremonial county and unitary district in north east England. The county town is Durham. The largest settlement in the ceremonial county is the town of Darlington...

, it lies on the southern bank of the River Tyne
River Tyne
The River Tyne is a river in North East England in Great Britain. It is formed by the confluence of two rivers: the North Tyne and the South Tyne. These two rivers converge at Warden Rock near Hexham in Northumberland at a place dubbed 'The Meeting of the Waters'.The North Tyne rises on the...

 opposite Newcastle upon Tyne
Newcastle upon Tyne
Newcastle upon Tyne is a city and metropolitan borough of Tyne and Wear, in North East England. Historically a part of Northumberland, it is situated on the north bank of the River Tyne...

 and together they form the urban core of Tyneside
Tyneside
Tyneside is a conurbation in North East England, defined by the Office of National Statistics, which is home to over 80% of the population of Tyne and Wear. It includes the city of Newcastle upon Tyne and the Metropolitan Boroughs of Gateshead, North Tyneside and South Tyneside — all settlements on...

. Gateshead town centre and Newcastle City Centre are joined by seven different bridges across the Tyne, including the landmark Gateshead Millennium Bridge
Gateshead Millennium Bridge
The Gateshead Millennium Bridge is a pedestrian and cyclist tilt bridge spanning the River Tyne in England between Gateshead's Quays arts quarter on the south bank, and the Quayside of Newcastle upon Tyne on the north bank. The award-winning structure was conceived and designed by architects...

. The town is becoming increasingly well known for several examples of iconic architecture such as the Sage Gateshead, the Angel of the North
Angel of the North
The Angel of the North is a contemporary sculpture, designed by Antony Gormley, which is located in Gateshead,formerly County Durham, England.It is a steel sculpture of an angel, standing tall, with wings measuring across...

 and the Baltic Centre for Contemporary Art
BALTIC Centre for Contemporary Art
The Baltic Centre for Contemporary Art is an international centre for contemporary art located on the south bank of the River Tyne alongside the Gateshead Millennium Bridge in Gateshead, North East England, United Kingdom...

.

There has been a settlement on the Gateshead side of the River Tyne, around the old river crossing where the Swing Bridge
Swing Bridge, River Tyne
The Swing Bridge is a swing bridge over the River Tyne, England connecting Newcastle upon Tyne and Gateshead, and lies between the Tyne Bridge and the High Level Bridge. The hydraulic power to move the bridge is derived from electrically driven pumps...

 now stands, since Roman times.

Theories of the derivation of the name 'Gateshead' include 'head of the (Roman) road' or 'goat’s headland', as the River Tyne at this point was once roamed by goats.

The first recorded mention of Gateshead is in the writings of the Venerable
Bede
Bede
Bede , also referred to as Saint Bede or the Venerable Bede , was a monk at the Northumbrian monastery of Saint Peter at Monkwearmouth, today part of Sunderland, England, and of its companion monastery, Saint Paul's, in modern Jarrow , both in the Kingdom of Northumbria...

 who referred to an Abbot of Gateshead called Utta in 623.
In 1068 William the Conqueror defeated the forces of Edgar the Ætheling and Malcolm
Malcolm III of Scotland
Máel Coluim mac Donnchada , was King of Scots...

 king of Scotland (Shakespeare's Malcolm) on Gateshead Fell (now Low Fell
Low Fell
Low Fell is a fell in the English Lake District. It overlooks the lake of Loweswater to the south and to the north is bordered by its neighbour Fellbarrow. It is usually climbed from the villages of Loweswater or Thackthwaite. The fell is largely occupied by grassed enclosures, although there are...

 and Sheriff Hill
Sheriff Hill
Sheriff Hill is a settlement situated in the Metropolitan Borough of Gateshead in Tyne and Wear, England. It is bordered by the villages of High Fell and Deckham to the North, Beacon Lough to the South, Windy Nook and Carr Hill to the East and Low Fell to the West...

).

During medieval times Gateshead was under the jurisdiction of the Bishop of Durham.
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Encyclopedia
Gateshead is a town in Tyne and Wear
Tyne and Wear
Tyne and Wear is a metropolitan county in north east England around the mouths of the Rivers Tyne and Wear. It came into existence as a metropolitan county in 1974 after the passage of the Local Government Act 1972...

, England
England
England is a country that is part of the United Kingdom. It shares land borders with Scotland to the north and Wales to the west; the Irish Sea is to the north west, the Celtic Sea to the south west, with the North Sea to the east and the English Channel to the south separating it from continental...

 and is the main settlement in the Metropolitan Borough of Gateshead
Metropolitan Borough of Gateshead
The Metropolitan Borough of Gateshead is a metropolitan borough of Tyne and Wear, in North East England. It is named after its largest town, Gateshead, but also spans the towns of Rowlands Gill, Whickham, Blaydon and Ryton; suburban areas include Felling, Pelaw, Dunston and Low Fell.It is bordered...

. Historically
Historic counties of England
The historic counties of England are subdivisions of England established for administration by the Normans and in most cases based on earlier Anglo-Saxon kingdoms and shires...

 a part of County Durham
County Durham
County Durham is a ceremonial county and unitary district in north east England. The county town is Durham. The largest settlement in the ceremonial county is the town of Darlington...

, it lies on the southern bank of the River Tyne
River Tyne
The River Tyne is a river in North East England in Great Britain. It is formed by the confluence of two rivers: the North Tyne and the South Tyne. These two rivers converge at Warden Rock near Hexham in Northumberland at a place dubbed 'The Meeting of the Waters'.The North Tyne rises on the...

 opposite Newcastle upon Tyne
Newcastle upon Tyne
Newcastle upon Tyne is a city and metropolitan borough of Tyne and Wear, in North East England. Historically a part of Northumberland, it is situated on the north bank of the River Tyne...

 and together they form the urban core of Tyneside
Tyneside
Tyneside is a conurbation in North East England, defined by the Office of National Statistics, which is home to over 80% of the population of Tyne and Wear. It includes the city of Newcastle upon Tyne and the Metropolitan Boroughs of Gateshead, North Tyneside and South Tyneside — all settlements on...

. Gateshead town centre and Newcastle City Centre are joined by seven different bridges across the Tyne, including the landmark Gateshead Millennium Bridge
Gateshead Millennium Bridge
The Gateshead Millennium Bridge is a pedestrian and cyclist tilt bridge spanning the River Tyne in England between Gateshead's Quays arts quarter on the south bank, and the Quayside of Newcastle upon Tyne on the north bank. The award-winning structure was conceived and designed by architects...

. The town is becoming increasingly well known for several examples of iconic architecture such as the Sage Gateshead, the Angel of the North
Angel of the North
The Angel of the North is a contemporary sculpture, designed by Antony Gormley, which is located in Gateshead,formerly County Durham, England.It is a steel sculpture of an angel, standing tall, with wings measuring across...

 and the Baltic Centre for Contemporary Art
BALTIC Centre for Contemporary Art
The Baltic Centre for Contemporary Art is an international centre for contemporary art located on the south bank of the River Tyne alongside the Gateshead Millennium Bridge in Gateshead, North East England, United Kingdom...

.

History


There has been a settlement on the Gateshead side of the River Tyne, around the old river crossing where the Swing Bridge
Swing Bridge, River Tyne
The Swing Bridge is a swing bridge over the River Tyne, England connecting Newcastle upon Tyne and Gateshead, and lies between the Tyne Bridge and the High Level Bridge. The hydraulic power to move the bridge is derived from electrically driven pumps...

 now stands, since Roman times.

Theories of the derivation of the name 'Gateshead' include 'head of the (Roman) road' or 'goat’s headland', as the River Tyne at this point was once roamed by goats.

The first recorded mention of Gateshead is in the writings of the Venerable
Bede
Bede
Bede , also referred to as Saint Bede or the Venerable Bede , was a monk at the Northumbrian monastery of Saint Peter at Monkwearmouth, today part of Sunderland, England, and of its companion monastery, Saint Paul's, in modern Jarrow , both in the Kingdom of Northumbria...

 who referred to an Abbot of Gateshead called Utta in 623.
In 1068 William the Conqueror defeated the forces of Edgar the Ætheling and Malcolm
Malcolm III of Scotland
Máel Coluim mac Donnchada , was King of Scots...

 king of Scotland (Shakespeare's Malcolm) on Gateshead Fell (now Low Fell
Low Fell
Low Fell is a fell in the English Lake District. It overlooks the lake of Loweswater to the south and to the north is bordered by its neighbour Fellbarrow. It is usually climbed from the villages of Loweswater or Thackthwaite. The fell is largely occupied by grassed enclosures, although there are...

 and Sheriff Hill
Sheriff Hill
Sheriff Hill is a settlement situated in the Metropolitan Borough of Gateshead in Tyne and Wear, England. It is bordered by the villages of High Fell and Deckham to the North, Beacon Lough to the South, Windy Nook and Carr Hill to the East and Low Fell to the West...

).

During medieval times Gateshead was under the jurisdiction of the Bishop of Durham. At this time the area was largely forest with some agricultural land. The forest was the subject of Gateshead's first charter, granted in the 12th century by Hugh du Puiset, Bishop of Durham.

The earliest recorded coal mining in the Gateshead area is dated to 1344. As trade on the Tyne prospered there were several attempts by the burghers of Newcastle to annex Gateshead. In 1576 a small group of Newcastle merchants acquired the 'Grand Lease' of the manors of Gateshead and Whickham
Whickham
Whickham is a town in North East England, four miles south west of Newcastle upon Tyne and four and a half miles west of Gateshead. Whickham is part of the Metropolitan Borough of Gateshead. Its postal address is Whickham, Newcastle upon Tyne. Whickham is situated on high ground overlooking the...

. In the hundred years from 1574 coal shipments from Newcastle increased elevenfold while the population of Gateshead doubled to approximately 5,500. However, the lease and the abundant coal supplies ended in 1680. The pits were shallow as problems of ventilation and flooding defeated attempts to mine coal from the deeper seams.

William Hawks, originally a blacksmith
Blacksmith
A blacksmith is a person who creates objects from wrought iron or steel by forging the metal; that is, by using tools to hammer, bend, and cut...

, started business in Gateshead in 1747, working with the iron brought to the Tyne as ballast by the Tyne colliers. Hawks and Co. eventually became one of the biggest iron businesses in the North
Northern England
Northern England, also known as the North of England, the North or the North Country, is a cultural region of England. It is not an official government region, but rather an informal amalgamation of counties. The southern extent of the region is roughly the River Trent, while the North is bordered...

, producing anchors, chains and so on to meet a growing demand. There was keen contemporary rivalry between 'Hawks' Blacks' and 'Crowley's Crew'. The famous 'Hawks' men' including Ned White, went on to be celebrated in Geordie song and story.

Throughout the Industrial Revolution
Industrial Revolution
The Industrial Revolution was a period from the 18th to the 19th century where major changes in agriculture, manufacturing, mining, transportation, and technology had a profound effect on the social, economic and cultural conditions of the times...

 the population of Gateshead expanded rapidly; between 1801 and 1901 the increase was over 100,000. This expansion resulted in the spread southwards of the town.

In 1854, a catastrophic explosion
Great fire of Newcastle and Gateshead
The Great fire of Newcastle and Gateshead was a tragic and spectacular series of events starting on Friday 6 October 1854, in which a substantial amount of property in the two North East of England towns was destroyed in a series of fires and an explosion which killed 53 and injured...

 on the quayside destroyed most of Gateshead's mediaeval heritage, and caused widespread damage on the Newcastle side of the river.

Robert Stirling Newall
Robert Stirling Newall
Robert Stirling Newall FRS was a Scottish engineer and astronomer.Born in Dundee, he was befriended by civil engineer L.D.B. Gordon. In 1838, whilst studying at the Freiburg School of Mines, Germany, Gordon visited the mines at Clausthal, and met Wilhelm Albert...

 took out a patent on the manufacture of wire ropes in 1840 and in partnership with Messrs. Liddell and Gordon, set up his headquarters at Gateshead. A worldwide industry of wire-drawing resulted. The submarine telegraph cable received its definitive form through Newall's initiative, involving the use of gutta percha surrounded by strong wires. The first successful Dover
Dover
Dover is a town and major ferry port in the home county of Kent, in South East England. It faces France across the narrowest part of the English Channel, and lies south-east of Canterbury; east of Kent's administrative capital Maidstone; and north-east along the coastline from Dungeness and Hastings...

-Calais
Calais
Calais is a town in Northern France in the department of Pas-de-Calais, of which it is a sub-prefecture. Although Calais is by far the largest city in Pas-de-Calais, the department's capital is its third-largest city of Arras....

 cable on 25 September 1851, was made in Newall's works. In 1853, he invented the brake-drum and cone for laying cable in deep seas. Half of the first Atlantic cable was manufactured in Gateshead. Newall was interested in astronomy, and his giant 25 inches (635 mm) telescope was set up in the garden at Ferndene, his Gateshead residence in 1871.

In 1831 a locomotive works was established by the Newcastle and Darlington Railway, later part of the York, Newcastle and Berwick Railway. In 1854 the works moved to the Greenesfield site and became the manufacturing headquarters of North Eastern Railway
North Eastern Railway (UK)
The North Eastern Railway , was an English railway company. It was incorporated in 1854, when four existing companies were combined, and was absorbed into the London and North Eastern Railway at the Grouping in 1923...

. In 1909, locomotive construction was moved to Darlington and the rest of the works were closed in 1932.

Sir Joseph Swan lived at Underhills, Kells Lane from 1869–83, where his experiments led to the invention of the electric light bulb. The house was the first in the world to be wired for domestic electric light.

In 1835, Gateshead was established as a municipal borough
Municipal borough
Municipal boroughs were a type of local government district which existed in England and Wales between 1835 and 1974, in Northern Ireland from 1840 to 1973 and in the Republic of Ireland from 1840 to 2002...

 within the historic County Durham
County Durham
County Durham is a ceremonial county and unitary district in north east England. The county town is Durham. The largest settlement in the ceremonial county is the town of Darlington...

. By 1889 it had been made a county borough
County borough
County borough is a term introduced in 1889 in the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland , to refer to a borough or a city independent of county council control. They were abolished by the Local Government Act 1972 in England and Wales, but continue in use for lieutenancy and shrievalty in...

, but in the same year one of the largest employers, Hawks, Crawshay and Company, closed down and unemployment has since been a burden. Up to the Second World War there were repeated newspaper reports of the unemployed sending deputations to the council to provide work. The depression years of the 1920s and '30s created even more joblessness and the Team Valley
Team Valley
Team Valley is a traditionally heavily industrial area of Gateshead in Tyne and Wear, England. More recently it has become home to the 'Retail World' retail park, which makes up just a small percentage of the entirety of the Team Valley Trading Estate...

 Trading Estate was built in the mid-1930s to alleviate the situation.

In 1974, following the Local Government Act 1972
Local Government Act 1972
The Local Government Act 1972 is an Act of Parliament in the United Kingdom that reformed local government in England and Wales on 1 April 1974....

, the County Borough of Gateshead was merged with the urban district
Urban district
In the England, Wales and Ireland, an urban district was a type of local government district that covered an urbanised area. Urban districts had an elected Urban District Council , which shared local government responsibilities with a county council....

s of Felling, Whickham
Whickham
Whickham is a town in North East England, four miles south west of Newcastle upon Tyne and four and a half miles west of Gateshead. Whickham is part of the Metropolitan Borough of Gateshead. Its postal address is Whickham, Newcastle upon Tyne. Whickham is situated on high ground overlooking the...

, Blaydon
Blaydon
Blaydon-on-Tyne is a town in the North East of England in the Metropolitan Borough of Gateshead. The former urban district, however, extends much further, its fourteen and a half square miles constituting the largest administrative district, after Newcastle, on Tyneside...

 and Ryton
Ryton, Tyne and Wear
Ryton is a semi-rural small town near the western border of Tyne and Wear, England. Once an independent town in County Durham it became incorporated into the metropolitan county of Tyne and Wear and the Metropolitan Borough of Gateshead in 1974. It has a population of 15,742.- Location :Ryton lies...

 and part of the rural district
Rural district
Rural districts were a type of local government area – now superseded – established at the end of the 19th century in England, Wales, and Ireland for the administration of predominantly rural areas at a level lower than that of the administrative counties.-England and Wales:In England...

 of Chester-le-Street
Chester-le-Street (district)
Chester-le-Street was a local government district in County Durham, England. Its council was based in Chester-le-Street. Other places in the district included Great Lumley and Sacriston.- Formation :...

 to create the much larger Metropolitan Borough of Gateshead
Metropolitan Borough of Gateshead
The Metropolitan Borough of Gateshead is a metropolitan borough of Tyne and Wear, in North East England. It is named after its largest town, Gateshead, but also spans the towns of Rowlands Gill, Whickham, Blaydon and Ryton; suburban areas include Felling, Pelaw, Dunston and Low Fell.It is bordered...

.

In the past decade, Gateshead Council has begun developing plans to regenerate the town, with the long-term aim of making Gateshead a city. The most extensive transformation thus far has occurred in the Quayside
Quayside
The Quayside is an area along the banks of the River Tyne in Newcastle upon Tyne and Gateshead in the North East of England, United Kingdom....

, with almost all the structures there being constructed or refurbished in this time.

Geography


The town of Gateshead is situated in the North East of England
North East England
North East England is one of the nine official regions of England. It covers Northumberland, County Durham, Tyne and Wear, and Teesside . The only cities in the region are Durham, Newcastle upon Tyne and Sunderland...

 in the ceremonial county of Tyne and Wear
Tyne and Wear
Tyne and Wear is a metropolitan county in north east England around the mouths of the Rivers Tyne and Wear. It came into existence as a metropolitan county in 1974 after the passage of the Local Government Act 1972...

 and within the historical boundaries of County Durham
County Durham
County Durham is a ceremonial county and unitary district in north east England. The county town is Durham. The largest settlement in the ceremonial county is the town of Darlington...

. It is located on the southern bank of the River Tyne
River Tyne
The River Tyne is a river in North East England in Great Britain. It is formed by the confluence of two rivers: the North Tyne and the South Tyne. These two rivers converge at Warden Rock near Hexham in Northumberland at a place dubbed 'The Meeting of the Waters'.The North Tyne rises on the...

 at a latitude
Latitude
In geography, the latitude of a location on the Earth is the angular distance of that location south or north of the Equator. The latitude is an angle, and is usually measured in degrees . The equator has a latitude of 0°, the North pole has a latitude of 90° north , and the South pole has a...

 of 54.57° N and a longitude
Longitude
Longitude is a geographic coordinate that specifies the east-west position of a point on the Earth's surface. It is an angular measurement, usually expressed in degrees, minutes and seconds, and denoted by the Greek letter lambda ....

 of 1.35° W.

Gateshead experiences a temperate
Temperate
In geography, temperate or tepid latitudes of the globe lie between the tropics and the polar circles. The changes in these regions between summer and winter are generally relatively moderate, rather than extreme hot or cold...

 climate which is considerably warmer than some other locations at similar latitudes as a result of the warming influence of the Gulf Stream
Gulf Stream
The Gulf Stream, together with its northern extension towards Europe, the North Atlantic Drift, is a powerful, warm, and swift Atlantic ocean current that originates at the tip of Florida, and follows the eastern coastlines of the United States and Newfoundland before crossing the Atlantic Ocean...

 (via the North Atlantic drift
North Atlantic Drift
North Atlantic Drift is:* An ocean current that continues from the North Atlantic Current* An album by Ocean Colour Scene: North Atlantic Drift this doesn't make any goddamn sense....

). It is located in the rain shadow
Rain shadow
A rain shadow is a dry area on the lee side of a mountainous area. The mountains block the passage of rain-producing weather systems, casting a "shadow" of dryness behind them. As shown by the diagram to the right, the warm moist air is "pulled" by the prevailing winds over a mountain...

 of the North Pennines
North Pennines
The North Pennines is the northernmost section of the Pennine range of hills which runs north-south through northern England. It lies between Carlisle to the west and Darlington to the east...

 and is therefore in one of the driest regions of the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern IrelandIn the United Kingdom and Dependencies, other languages have been officially recognised as legitimate autochthonous languages under the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages...

.
One of the most distinguishing features of Gateshead is its topography
Topography
Topography is the study of Earth's surface shape and features or those ofplanets, moons, and asteroids...

. The land rises 70 metres from Gateshead Quays to the town centre and continues rising to a height of 160 metres at Queen Elizabeth Hospital in Sheriff Hill
Sheriff Hill
Sheriff Hill is a settlement situated in the Metropolitan Borough of Gateshead in Tyne and Wear, England. It is bordered by the villages of High Fell and Deckham to the North, Beacon Lough to the South, Windy Nook and Carr Hill to the East and Low Fell to the West...

. This is in contrast to the flat and low lying Team Valley
Team Valley
Team Valley is a traditionally heavily industrial area of Gateshead in Tyne and Wear, England. More recently it has become home to the 'Retail World' retail park, which makes up just a small percentage of the entirety of the Team Valley Trading Estate...

 located on the western edges of town. The high elevations allow for impressive views over the Tyne valley into Newcastle
Newcastle upon Tyne
Newcastle upon Tyne is a city and metropolitan borough of Tyne and Wear, in North East England. Historically a part of Northumberland, it is situated on the north bank of the River Tyne...

 and across Tyneside
Tyneside
Tyneside is a conurbation in North East England, defined by the Office of National Statistics, which is home to over 80% of the population of Tyne and Wear. It includes the city of Newcastle upon Tyne and the Metropolitan Boroughs of Gateshead, North Tyneside and South Tyneside — all settlements on...

 to Sunderland and the North Sea
North Sea
In the southwest, beyond the Straits of Dover, the North Sea becomes the English Channel connecting to the Atlantic Ocean. In the east, it connects to the Baltic Sea via the Skagerrak and Kattegat, narrow straits that separate Denmark from Norway and Sweden respectively...

 from lookouts in Windmill Hills and Windy Nook respectively

The Office for National Statistics
Office for National Statistics
The Office for National Statistics is the executive office of the UK Statistics Authority, a non-ministerial department which reports directly to the Parliament of the United Kingdom.- Overview :...

 defines the town as an urban sub-division which largely shares the same boundaries as the historic pre-1974 County Borough of Gateshead. However, the administrative divisions of the larger Metropolitan Borough of Gateshead
Metropolitan Borough of Gateshead
The Metropolitan Borough of Gateshead is a metropolitan borough of Tyne and Wear, in North East England. It is named after its largest town, Gateshead, but also spans the towns of Rowlands Gill, Whickham, Blaydon and Ryton; suburban areas include Felling, Pelaw, Dunston and Low Fell.It is bordered...

 do not correspond to these borders, meaning the town is almost entirely indistinguishable from surrounding areas in regards to local governance.

Unofficially speaking, the town of Gateshead typically refers to the urban area directly to the south of Newcastle City Centre as well as various surrounding suburbs. Felling, Heworth
Heworth, Tyne and Wear
Heworth is a village in the Metropolitan Borough of Gateshead, Tyne and Wear, England. The village's name appears in written records from 1091 as Hewarde, and later as Hewrtha, and in 1300 as Hewrthe....

, Pelaw
Pelaw
Pelaw is a district that forms part of the Metropolitan Borough of Gateshead in Tyne and Wear, in north-east England.It lies in between the older settlements of Heworth to the West and Bill Quay to the East with Wardley to the south and the southern bank of the river Tyne forming the northern...

 and Bill Quay
Bill Quay
Bill Quay is an area in the east of Gateshead in North East England, situated between Hebburn to the east and Pelaw to the west. It lies on the south bank of the River Tyne, facing Walker-on-Tyne.- History :...

, in a separate ONS urban sub-division and not part of the historical County Borough, are sometimes considered to be within the town of Gateshead due to their closeness to the town centre and because they are in the same contiguous urban area
Urban area
An urban area is characterized by higher population density and vast human features in comparison to areas surrounding it. Urban areas may be cities, towns or conurbations, but the term is not commonly extended to rural settlements such as villages and hamlets.Urban areas are created and further...

.

Given the proximity of Gateshead to Newcastle
Newcastle upon Tyne
Newcastle upon Tyne is a city and metropolitan borough of Tyne and Wear, in North East England. Historically a part of Northumberland, it is situated on the north bank of the River Tyne...

, just south of the River Tyne
River Tyne
The River Tyne is a river in North East England in Great Britain. It is formed by the confluence of two rivers: the North Tyne and the South Tyne. These two rivers converge at Warden Rock near Hexham in Northumberland at a place dubbed 'The Meeting of the Waters'.The North Tyne rises on the...

 from the city centre
Newcastle upon Tyne City Centre
Newcastle City Centre, is the central business district of Newcastle upon Tyne, England.The area may be divided into the areas of Haymarket, Quayside, Central Station, Grainger Town, Monument, Chinatown and Gallowgate.-Haymarket:...

, it is sometimes referred to as being a part of Newcastle. Gateshead Council and Newcastle City Council
Newcastle City Council
Newcastle City Council is the local government authority for Newcastle upon Tyne, a city in Tyne and Wear, England. The council consists of 78 councillors, three for each of the city's 26 wards...

 teamed up in 2000 to create a unified marketing brand name, NewcastleGateshead
NewcastleGateshead
NewcastleGateshead is a brand-name associated with the joint promotion of culture, business and tourism within the conurbation formed by Newcastle upon Tyne and Gateshead. With the use of printed matter and a web-site, the organisation produces, assembles activities and information into effective...

, to better promote the Tyneside conurbation. A resident of Gateshead outside the North East of England
North East England
North East England is one of the nine official regions of England. It covers Northumberland, County Durham, Tyne and Wear, and Teesside . The only cities in the region are Durham, Newcastle upon Tyne and Sunderland...

 would most likely say they are from Newcastle, as it is largest and most recognized city in the region and because few people will have heard of Gateshead. Within the North East however, they would usually state that they live in Gateshead or more specifically give their neighbourhood within the town, such as Deckham
Deckham
Deckham is a suburb of Gateshead, bordered by Low Fell, Felling & Sheriff Hill.It is situated on the B1296 Old Durham Road which is a former route of the famous Great North Road....

 or Dunston
Dunston, Tyne and Wear
Dunston was originally an independent village on the south bank of the River Tyne. It has now been absorbed into the Metropolitan Borough of Gateshead in the English county of Tyne and Wear...

.

Districts


The town of Gateshead consists of the following districts. Some of them were once separate settlements that were absorbed by encroaching urban sprawl, while others consist entirely of retail, industrial and housing estates. Many of these areas overlap each other and their boundaries are by no means official or fixed.
  • Gateshead Quays
  • Gateshead town centre
  • Salt Meadows
  • Sunderland Road
  • Windmill Hills
  • Bensham
  • Teams
  • Saltwell
    Saltwell Park
    Saltwell Park is a Victorian park situated in Gateshead, England. The major part of the park was designed by Edward Kemp. Also known as the "People's Park" and part of Gateshead's heritage since it opened to the public in 1876, the park is steeped in history...

  • Mount Pleasant
  • Deckham
    Deckham
    Deckham is a suburb of Gateshead, bordered by Low Fell, Felling & Sheriff Hill.It is situated on the B1296 Old Durham Road which is a former route of the famous Great North Road....

  • Carr Hill
  • Sheriff Hill
    Sheriff Hill
    Sheriff Hill is a settlement situated in the Metropolitan Borough of Gateshead in Tyne and Wear, England. It is bordered by the villages of High Fell and Deckham to the North, Beacon Lough to the South, Windy Nook and Carr Hill to the East and Low Fell to the West...

  • Beacon Lough
  • Wrekenton
    Wrekenton
    Wrekenton is an area of the Metropolitan Borough of Gateshead, in Tyne and Wear, England, that was formerly a separate village.Wrekenton is probably best known to passers by as the location of a large branch of the Co-op supermarket...

  • Eighton Banks
  • Low Fell
    Low Fell
    Low Fell is a fell in the English Lake District. It overlooks the lake of Loweswater to the south and to the north is bordered by its neighbour Fellbarrow. It is usually climbed from the villages of Loweswater or Thackthwaite. The fell is largely occupied by grassed enclosures, although there are...

  • Leam Lane
  • Felling
  • Harlow Green
  • Chowdene
  • Team Valley
    Team Valley
    Team Valley is a traditionally heavily industrial area of Gateshead in Tyne and Wear, England. More recently it has become home to the 'Retail World' retail park, which makes up just a small percentage of the entirety of the Team Valley Trading Estate...

  • Lobley Hill
    Lobley Hill
    Lobley Hill is a village located on the outskirts of the Metropolitan Borough of Gateshead in Tyne and Wear, North East England. It has an approximate population of 8,000...

  • Dunston
    Dunston, Tyne and Wear
    Dunston was originally an independent village on the south bank of the River Tyne. It has now been absorbed into the Metropolitan Borough of Gateshead in the English county of Tyne and Wear...

  • Metro Centre

Economy


Gateshead is the home of the MetroCentre, the largest shopping centre in the European Union
European Union
The European Union is an economic and political union of 27 independent member states which are located primarily in Europe. The EU traces its origins from the European Coal and Steel Community and the European Economic Community , formed by six countries in 1958...

. The Team Valley
Team Valley
Team Valley is a traditionally heavily industrial area of Gateshead in Tyne and Wear, England. More recently it has become home to the 'Retail World' retail park, which makes up just a small percentage of the entirety of the Team Valley Trading Estate...

 Trading Estate, initially the largest and still one of the largest purpose built commercial estates in the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern IrelandIn the United Kingdom and Dependencies, other languages have been officially recognised as legitimate autochthonous languages under the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages...

 is located in Gateshead.

Architecture



JB Priestley, writing of Gateshead in his "An English Journey" (1934) said that "no true civilisation could have produced such a town", adding that it appeared to have been designed "by an enemy of the human race". This dismal impression, typical of the author's view of industrial towns, has proved influential in defining the popular image of Gateshead. Much, however, has changed since his time.
William Wailes
William Wailes
William Wailes, , was the proprietor of one of England’s largest and most prolific stained glass workshops.- Biographical :Wailes was born and grew up in Newcastle on Tyne, England’s centre of domestic glass and bottle manufacturing. His first business was as a grocer and tea merchant...

 the celebrated stained-glass maker, lived at South Dene from 1853-60. In 1860, he designed Saltwell Towers as a fairy-tale palace for himself. It is an imposing Victorian mansion in its own park with a romantic skyline of turrets and battlements. It was originally furnished sumptuously by Gerrard Robinson. Wailes sold it to the corporation in 1876 for use as a public park, provided he could use the house for the rest of his life.

The brutalist
Brutalist architecture
Brutalist architecture is a style of architecture which flourished from the 1950s to the mid 1970s, spawned from the modernist architectural movement.-The term "brutalism":...

 Trinity Centre Car Park
Trinity Centre Multi-Storey Car Park
Trinity Square was a shopping centre and multi-storey car park situated in Gateshead, North East England, demolished in 2010. It was particularly noted for the Brutalist design of its car park, designed by the Owen Luder Partnership. The concrete structure, which dominated the skyline of the town,...

, which was designed by Owen Luder
Owen Luder
Owen Luder, CBE is a British architect who designed a number of notable and sometimes controversial buildings in the United Kingdom in the 1960s and 1970s...

, dominated the town centre for many years until its demolition in 2010. A product of attempts to regenerate the area in the 1960s, the car park gained an iconic status due to its appearance in the 1971 film Get Carter
Get Carter
Get Carter is a 1971 British crime film directed by Mike Hodges and starring Michael Caine as Jack Carter, a gangster who sets out to avenge the death of his brother in a series of unrelenting and brutal killings played out against the grim background of derelict urban housing in the city of...

, starring Michael Caine
Michael Caine
Sir Michael Caine, CBE is an English actor. He won Academy Awards for best supporting actor in both Hannah and Her Sisters and The Cider House Rules ....

. An unsuccessful campaign to have the structure listed was backed by Sylvester Stallone
Sylvester Stallone
Michael Sylvester Gardenzio Stallone , commonly known as Sylvester Stallone, and nicknamed Sly Stallone, is an American actor, filmmaker, screenwriter, film director and occasional painter. Stallone is known for his machismo and Hollywood action roles. Two of the notable characters he has portrayed...

, who played the main role in the 2000 remake
Get Carter (2000 film)
Get Carter is the 2000 remake of the 1971 crime film of the same name, starring Sylvester Stallone in the title role. The film also features Miranda Richardson, Rachel Leigh Cook, Alan Cumming, Mickey Rourke, and Rhona Mitra. Michael Caine, who starred in the original, plays a supporting role...

 of the film. The car park was scheduled for demolition in 2009, but this was delayed as a result of a disagreement between Tesco
Tesco
Tesco plc is a global grocery and general merchandise retailer headquartered in Cheshunt, United Kingdom. It is the third-largest retailer in the world measured by revenues and the second-largest measured by profits...

 (who plan to re-develop the site) and Gateshead Council. The council had not been given firm assurances that Tesco would build the previously envisioned town centre development which was to include a Tesco mega-store as well as shops, restaurants, cafes, bars, offices and student accommodation. The council effectively used the car park as a bargaining tool to ensure that the company adhered to the original proposals and blocked its demolition until they submitted a suitable planning application. Demolition finally took place in July-August 2010.

The Derwent Tower
Derwent Tower
Derwent Tower is a 29-storey residential apartment building in Dunston, United Kingdom. Due to the tower block's unusual shape, the building was nicknamed the "Dunston Rocket" during construction and the name has remained with locals throughout its life.The tower was designed by the Owen Luder...

, another well known example of Brutalist architecture
Brutalist architecture
Brutalist architecture is a style of architecture which flourished from the 1950s to the mid 1970s, spawned from the modernist architectural movement.-The term "brutalism":...

, was also designed by Owen Luder
Owen Luder
Owen Luder, CBE is a British architect who designed a number of notable and sometimes controversial buildings in the United Kingdom in the 1960s and 1970s...

 and stands in the neighbourhood of Dunston
Dunston, Tyne and Wear
Dunston was originally an independent village on the south bank of the River Tyne. It has now been absorbed into the Metropolitan Borough of Gateshead in the English county of Tyne and Wear...

. Like the Trinity Car Park it has been ear-marked for demolition and has also failed in its bid to become a listed building.

The council has recently sponsored the development of the Gateshead Quays cultural quarter. The development includes the Gateshead Millennium Bridge
Gateshead Millennium Bridge
The Gateshead Millennium Bridge is a pedestrian and cyclist tilt bridge spanning the River Tyne in England between Gateshead's Quays arts quarter on the south bank, and the Quayside of Newcastle upon Tyne on the north bank. The award-winning structure was conceived and designed by architects...

, erected in 2001 which won the James Stirling Prize for Architecture in 2002. The Baltic Centre for Contemporary Art
BALTIC Centre for Contemporary Art
The Baltic Centre for Contemporary Art is an international centre for contemporary art located on the south bank of the River Tyne alongside the Gateshead Millennium Bridge in Gateshead, North East England, United Kingdom...

 has been established in a converted flour mill. The Sage Gateshead, a Norman Foster-designed venue for music and the performing arts opened on 17 December 2004. Gateshead also hosted the Gateshead Garden Festival
Gateshead Garden Festival
The Gateshead Garden Festival was the fourth of the United Kingdom's five National Garden Festivals. Held between May and October 1990, in Gateshead, Tyne and Wear, it lasted 157 days, and received over three million visitors. Attractions included public art displays, a Ferris wheel, and dance,...

 in 1990, rejuvenating 200 acre (0.809372 km²) of derelict land (now mostly replaced with housing).

Gateshead is also home to a number of public art works, including the Angel of the North
Angel of the North
The Angel of the North is a contemporary sculpture, designed by Antony Gormley, which is located in Gateshead,formerly County Durham, England.It is a steel sculpture of an angel, standing tall, with wings measuring across...

, one of Britain's largest sculptures, measuring 20 metres high with a 54 metre wing span. Designed by Antony Gormley
Antony Gormley
Antony Mark David Gormley OBE RA is a British sculptor. His best known works include the Angel of the North, a public sculpture in the North of England, commissioned in 1995 and erected in February 1998, Another Place on Crosby Beach near Liverpool, and Event Horizon, a multi-part site...

 it was erected in 1998. It is visible from the A1 to the south of Gateshead, as well as from the East Coast Main Line
East Coast Main Line
The East Coast Main Line is a long electrified high-speed railway link between London, Peterborough, Doncaster, Wakefield, Leeds, York, Darlington, Newcastle and Edinburgh...

.

Other public art include works by Richard Deacon, Colin Rose, Sally Matthews, Andy Goldsworthy
Andy Goldsworthy
Andy Goldsworthy, OBE is a British sculptor, photographer and environmentalist producing site-specific sculpture and land art situated in natural and urban settings. He lives and works in Scotland.-Life and career:The son of F...

 and Gordon Young.

Sport


Gateshead International Stadium
Gateshead International Stadium
Gateshead International Stadium is a multi-purpose stadium, in Gateshead, Tyne and Wear, England. The stadium is primarily set up for athletics, with a running track, but it is home to Gateshead Thunder rugby league club, Gateshead Senators American Football and Gateshead FC. It has also held a...

 regularly holds international athletics meetings over the summer months. It is also host to rugby league
Rugby league
Rugby league football, usually called rugby league, is a full contact sport played by two teams of thirteen players on a rectangular grass field. One of the two codes of rugby football, it originated in England in 1895 by a split from Rugby Football Union over paying players...

 fixtures, and the home ground of both Gateshead Thunder
Gateshead Thunder
Gateshead Thunder is a professional rugby league club based in Gateshead, Tyne and Wear in England. They currently play in the Championship 1 competition, the third tier of rugby league in the United Kingdom...

 Rugby League Football Club and Gateshead Football Club
Gateshead F.C.
Gateshead Football Club are a professional Association football club, based in Gateshead, England. They currently play in the Conference National, the fifth level of the English football league system.Ian Bogie is the current manager....

. Both clubs have had their problems: Gateshead F.C.
Gateshead F.C.
Gateshead Football Club are a professional Association football club, based in Gateshead, England. They currently play in the Conference National, the fifth level of the English football league system.Ian Bogie is the current manager....

 were controversially elected out of the Football League
The Football League
The Football League, also known as the npower Football League for sponsorship reasons, is a league competition featuring professional association football clubs from England and Wales. Founded in 1888, it is the oldest such competition in world football...

 to make way for Peterborough United
Peterborough United F.C.
Peterborough United Football Club are a professional English football club based in Peterborough. Peterborough United formed in 1934 and played in the old Midland League, which they won six times; eventually being admitted to the Football League in 1960, replacing Gateshead. Their home ground is...

 in the 1960s, whilst Gateshead Thunder
Gateshead Thunder
Gateshead Thunder is a professional rugby league club based in Gateshead, Tyne and Wear in England. They currently play in the Championship 1 competition, the third tier of rugby league in the United Kingdom...

 lost their place in Super League
Super League
Super League is the top-level professional rugby league football club competition in Europe. As a result of sponsorship from engage Mutual Assurance the competition is currently officially known as the engage Super League. The League features fourteen teams: thirteen from England and one from...

 as a result of a takeover (officially termed a merger) by Hull. Both Gateshead clubs continue to ply their trade at lower levels in their respective sports, thanks mainly to the efforts of their supporters. The Gateshead Senators American Football
American football
American football is a sport played between two teams of eleven with the objective of scoring points by advancing the ball into the opposing team's end zone. Known in the United States simply as football, it may also be referred to informally as gridiron football. The ball can be advanced by...

 team also use the International Stadium, as well as this is was used in the 2006 Northern Conference champions in the British American Football League. Gateshead Miners are Gateshead's first and only Aussie Rules Football team and compete in the Aussie Rules UK National League.

Transport



Tyne and Wear Metro
Tyne and Wear Metro
The Tyne and Wear Metro, also known as the Metro, is a light rail system in North East England, serving Newcastle upon Tyne, Gateshead, South Tyneside, North Tyneside and Sunderland. It opened in 1980 and in 2007–2008 provided 40 million public journeys on its network of nearly...

 stations at Gateshead Interchange
Gateshead Interchange
Gateshead Interchange is a transport interchange in the centre of the town of Gateshead, England. It is served by the Tyne and Wear Metro, whose station is underground, as well as local bus services...

 and Gateshead Stadium
Gateshead Stadium Metro station
Gateshead Stadium Metro station is a station on the Tyne and Wear Metro, serving the town of Gateshead, England.It is named after the nearby Gateshead International Stadium...

 provide direct light-rail access to Newcastle Central Station
Newcastle Central station
Newcastle railway station , is the mainline station of the city of Newcastle upon Tyne, England and is a principal stop on the East Coast Main Line. It opened in 1850 and is a Grade I listed building...

, Newcastle International Airport, Sunderland, Tynemouth
Tynemouth
Tynemouth is a town and a historic borough in Tyne and Wear, England, at the mouth of the River Tyne, between North Shields and Cullercoats . It is administered as part of the borough of North Tyneside, but until 1974 was an independent county borough in its own right...

 and South Shields
South Shields
South Shields is a coastal town in Tyne and Wear, England, located at the mouth of the River Tyne to Tyne Dock, and about downstream from Newcastle upon Tyne...

.

Gateshead Interchange
Gateshead Interchange
Gateshead Interchange is a transport interchange in the centre of the town of Gateshead, England. It is served by the Tyne and Wear Metro, whose station is underground, as well as local bus services...

 is the busiest bus station in Tyne and Wear
Tyne and Wear
Tyne and Wear is a metropolitan county in north east England around the mouths of the Rivers Tyne and Wear. It came into existence as a metropolitan county in 1974 after the passage of the Local Government Act 1972...

 and was used by 3.9 million bus passengers in 2008.

National Rail
National Rail
National Rail is a title used by the Association of Train Operating Companies as a generic term to define the passenger rail services operated in Great Britain...

 services are provided by Northern Rail
Northern Rail
Northern Rail is a British train operating company that has operated local passenger services in Northern England since 2004. Northern Rail's owner, Serco-Abellio, is a consortium formed of Abellio and Serco, an international operator of public transport systems...

 at Dunston
Dunston railway station
Dunston railway station serves Dunston, an area of Gateshead, in Tyne and Wear, northern England. It is located on the Tyne Valley Line which runs from Newcastle upon Tyne to Carlisle....

 and MetroCentre
MetroCentre railway station
MetroCentre railway station is a railway station that serves the MetroCentre shopping and leisure complex in Gateshead, Tyne and Wear. It is located on the Tyne Valley Line from Newcastle upon Tyne to Carlisle, and is managed by Northern Rail....

 stations. The East Coast Main Line
East Coast Main Line
The East Coast Main Line is a long electrified high-speed railway link between London, Peterborough, Doncaster, Wakefield, Leeds, York, Darlington, Newcastle and Edinburgh...

, which runs from London
London
London is the capital city of :England and the :United Kingdom, the largest metropolitan area in the United Kingdom, and the largest urban zone in the European Union by most measures. Located on the River Thames, London has been a major settlement for two millennia, its history going back to its...

 to Edinburgh
Edinburgh
Edinburgh is the capital city of Scotland, the second largest city in Scotland, and the eighth most populous in the United Kingdom. The City of Edinburgh Council governs one of Scotland's 32 local government council areas. The council area includes urban Edinburgh and a rural area...

, cuts directly through the town on its way between Newcastle Central
Newcastle railway station
Newcastle railway station , is the mainline station of the city of Newcastle upon Tyne, England and is a principal stop on the East Coast Main Line. It opened in 1850 and is a Grade I listed building...

 and Chester-le-Street
Chester-le-Street railway station
Chester-le-Street railway station serves the town of Chester-le-Street in County Durham, England. The station is on the East Coast Main Line south of Newcastle upon Tyne...

 stations. There are presently no stations on this line within Gateshead, as Low Fell, Bensham and West Gateshead stations were closed in 1952, 1954 and 1965 respectively.

Several major road links pass through Gateshead, including the A1 which links London
London
London is the capital city of :England and the :United Kingdom, the largest metropolitan area in the United Kingdom, and the largest urban zone in the European Union by most measures. Located on the River Thames, London has been a major settlement for two millennia, its history going back to its...

 to Edinburgh
Edinburgh
Edinburgh is the capital city of Scotland, the second largest city in Scotland, and the eighth most populous in the United Kingdom. The City of Edinburgh Council governs one of Scotland's 32 local government council areas. The council area includes urban Edinburgh and a rural area...

 and the A184 which connects the town to Sunderland.

Various bicycle trails traverse the town, most notably the recreational Keelmans Way (National Cycle Route 14), which is located on the south bank of the Tyne and takes riders along the entire Gateshead foreshore. Other prominent routes include the East Gateshead Cycleway, which connects to Felling, the West Gateshead Cycleway, which links the town centre to Dunston
Dunston, Tyne and Wear
Dunston was originally an independent village on the south bank of the River Tyne. It has now been absorbed into the Metropolitan Borough of Gateshead in the English county of Tyne and Wear...

 and the MetroCentre, and routes along both the old and new Durham roads, which take cyclists to Birtley
Birtley, Tyne and Wear
Birtley is a town in the Metropolitan Borough of Gateshead, in Tyne and Wear, England. It is situated to the south of Gateshead town and is physically linked to Chester-le-Street across the County boundary in County Durham. Until 1974, Birtley and the adjoining areas of Barley Mow, Vigo and...

, Wrekenton
Wrekenton
Wrekenton is an area of the Metropolitan Borough of Gateshead, in Tyne and Wear, England, that was formerly a separate village.Wrekenton is probably best known to passers by as the location of a large branch of the Co-op supermarket...

 and The Angel of the North.

Religion


Christianity has been present in the town since at least the 7th century, when Bede
Bede
Bede , also referred to as Saint Bede or the Venerable Bede , was a monk at the Northumbrian monastery of Saint Peter at Monkwearmouth, today part of Sunderland, England, and of its companion monastery, Saint Paul's, in modern Jarrow , both in the Kingdom of Northumbria...

 mentioned a monastery in Gateshead. A church in the town was burned down in 1080 with the Bishop of Durham inside. St. Mary's Church was built near to the site of that building, and was the only church in the town until the 1820s. Undoubtedly the oldest building on the Quayside, St Mary's has now re-opened to the public as the town's first heritage centre, Gateshead Heritage @ St Mary's.

Many of the Anglican churches in the town date from the 19th century, when the population of the town grew dramatically and expanded into new areas. The town presently has a number of notable and large churches of many denominations.

The Bensham district is home to a community of Haredi Jews consisting of about 500 families and is referred to as Little Jerusalem by its non-Jewish residents. Within the community is the Gateshead Yeshiva
Gateshead Talmudical College
Gateshead Talmudical College , popularly known as Gateshead Yeshiva, is located in the town of Gateshead in England. It is the largest yeshiva in Europe and considered to be one of the most prestigious advanced yeshivas in the Orthodox world. The student body currently numbers 350...

, the largest Yeshiva
Yeshiva
Yeshiva is a Jewish educational institution that focuses on the study of traditional religious texts, primarily the Talmud and Torah study. Study is usually done through daily shiurim and in study pairs called chavrutas...

 in Europe
Europe
Europe is, by convention, one of the world's seven continents. Comprising the westernmost peninsula of Eurasia, Europe is generally 'divided' from Asia to its east by the watershed divides of the Ural and Caucasus Mountains, the Ural River, the Caspian and Black Seas, and the waterways connecting...

, and other Jewish educational institutions with international enrolments. Following the holocaust, the area became home to the largest Orthodox Jewish education complex in postwar Europe and the most significant outside of the United States and Israel.

Islam is practiced by a small minority of people in Gateshead and there is a Kurdish Mosque located in the Bensham area.

In the 2001 Census, more than 10% of people residing in the wider Metropolitan Borough of Gateshead
Metropolitan Borough of Gateshead
The Metropolitan Borough of Gateshead is a metropolitan borough of Tyne and Wear, in North East England. It is named after its largest town, Gateshead, but also spans the towns of Rowlands Gill, Whickham, Blaydon and Ryton; suburban areas include Felling, Pelaw, Dunston and Low Fell.It is bordered...

 stated that they practiced No religion.

Famous residents

  • Eliezer Adler
    Eliezer Adler
    Eliezer Adler, born in 1866, was the founder of the Jewish Community in Gateshead, England. In honor of his historical importance, his seat in the Gateshead synagogue remains vacant....

     - Founder of Jewish Community.
  • Marcus Bentley
    Marcus Bentley
    Marcus Bentley is a British actor, broadcaster and voice-over artist. Born in Gateshead, he was brought up in Stockton on Tees and attended East 15 Acting School in Essex....

     - Narrator of Big Brother
  • William Booth
    William Booth
    William Booth was a British Methodist preacher who founded The Salvation Army and became its first General...

     - Founder of the Salvation Army
  • Catherine Booth
    Catherine Booth
    Catherine Booth was the wife of the founder of The Salvation Army, William Booth. Because of her influence in the formation of The Salvation Army she was known as the 'Army Mother'....

     - William's daughter. Known as 'La Marechale' she founded the Salvation Army in continental Europe
  • Mary Bowes - 'The Unhappy Countess' Author and celebrity
  • Ian Branfoot
    Ian Branfoot
    Ian Grant Branfoot is an English former footballer and manager.He played as a defender, and after starting at Gateshead joined Sheffield Wednesday, making his Football League debut in 1965. After 42 senior appearances for the club he left in 1969-70 for Doncaster Rovers...

     - Football manager
  • Andy Carroll
    Andy Carroll
    Andrew Thomas "Andy" Carroll is an English footballer who plays as a striker for Premier League club Liverpool and the England national team....

     - Footballer
  • Frank Clark - Footballer and Manager
  • David Clelland
    David Clelland
    David Gordon Clelland is a British Labour Party politician. He was the Member of Parliament for Tyne Bridge from 1985 until 2010.-Early life:...

     - Labour politician and M.P.
  • Joseph Cowen
    Joseph Cowen
    Joseph Cowen, Jr., , English politician and journalist, son of Sir Joseph Cowen, a prominent citizen and Member of Parliament for Newcastle upon Tyne from 1865 to 1873, was born at Stella Hall, Blaydon...

     - Radical politician
  • Steve Cram
    Steve Cram
    Stephen "Steve" Cram MBE is a British retired athlete. Along with fellow Britons Sebastian Coe and Steve Ovett, he was one of the world's dominant middle distance runners during the 1980s. Nicknamed "The Jarrow Arrow", Cram set world records in the 1500 metres, 2000 metres and the mile during a...

     - Athlete Middle distance runner
  • Emily Davies
    Emily Davies
    Sarah Emily Davies was an English feminist, suffragist and a pioneering campaigners fore women's rights to university access. She was born in Southampton, England to an evangelical clergyman and a teacher in 1830, although she spent most of her youth in Gateshead...

     - Educational reformer and feminist. Founder of Girton College Cambridge
  • Daniel Defoe
    Daniel Defoe
    Daniel Defoe , born Daniel Foe, was an English trader, writer, journalist, and pamphleteer, who gained fame for his novel Robinson Crusoe. Defoe is notable for being one of the earliest proponents of the novel, as he helped to popularise the form in Britain and along with others such as Richardson,...

     - Writer and government agent
  • Ruth Dodds
    Ruth Dodds
    Ruth Dodds lived in Gateshead, England and was an author, playwright and councillor of Newcastle upon Tyne. She was made the first woman freeman of Gateshead in 1965....

     - Prominent politician, writer and co-founder of the Little Theatre
  • Jonathan Edwards
    Jonathan Edwards (athlete)
    Jonathan David Edwards, CBE, is a former British triple jumper. He is a former Olympic, Commonwealth, European and World champion, and has held the world record in the event since 1995....

     - Athlete and television presenter
  • George Elliot
    Sir George Elliot, 1st Baronet
    Sir George Elliot, 1st Baronet, JP was a self-made businessman from Gateshead in the North-East of England. A colliery labourer who went on to own several coal mines, he later bought a wire rope manufacturing company which manufactured the first Transatlantic telegraph cable...

     - Industrialist and M.P.
  • Paul Gascoigne
    Paul Gascoigne
    Paul John Gascoigne , commonly referred to as Gazza, is a retired English professional footballer.Playing in the position of midfield, Gascoigne's career included spells at Newcastle United, Tottenham Hotspur, Lazio, Rangers, Middlesbrough, Everton and Gansu Tianma, where he scored at least a goal...

     - Footballer
  • Alex Glasgow
    Alex Glasgow
    Alex Glasgow was a singer/songwriter from Low Fell, Gateshead, England. He was educated at Gateshead Grammar School where he founded the Caprians, a choir that, 55 years on and still counting, is thriving. He graduated in German at the University of Leeds...

     - Singer/Songwriter
  • Avrohom Gurwicz
    Avrohom Gurwicz
    Avrohom Gurwicz is an English-born Orthodox rabbi and Talmudic scholar. Since 1983 he has been the rosh yeshivah of Gateshead Talmudical College, a yeshiva in Gateshead, England, where he gives the largest shiur in Europe with approximately 350 students attending.Rabbi Gurwicz is the second son of...

     - Rabbi, Dean of Gateshead Yeshiva.
  • Leib Gurwicz
    Leib Gurwicz
    Aryeh Ze'ev Gurwicz was an influential Orthodox rabbi and Talmudic scholar. He was the son-in-law of Rabbi Elyah Lopian and best known as Rosh Yeshiva of the Gateshead Yeshiva in Gateshead, England, where he taught for over 30 years.He studied at various yeshivas in Lithuania and Poland before...

     - Rabbi, former Dean of Gateshead Yeshiva.
  • James Hall
    James Hall
    -Actors, Entertainment, Broadcasting:* James Hall , American actor* Jamie Hall , Canadian TV producer-Authors:* James Hall , American academic* James Baker Hall , American author...

    - Influential 19th century fiddler
  • Jill Halfpenny
    Jill Halfpenny
    Jill Halfpenny is an English actress.Halfpenny is best known for her roles as Rebecca Hopkins in the British soap opera Coronation Street from 1999–2000, and as Kate Mitchell in rival soap EastEnders, from 2002-2005...

     - Actress
  • David Hodgson
    David Hodgson (footballer)
    David James Hodgson , is an English former footballer who played for Middlesbrough, Liverpool, Norwich City, Sunderland and Sheffield Wednesday, as well as lower division clubs and teams in France, Japan, and Spain....

     Football manager.
  • Sharon Hodgson
    Sharon Hodgson
    Sharon Hodgson is a British Labour Party politician, who has been the Member of Parliament for Washington and Sunderland West since 2010...

     - Member of Parliament
  • Norman Hunter - Footballer. Member of 1966 World Cup winning England squad.
  • Don Hutchison
    Don Hutchison
    Donald Hutchison is a Scottish ex-footballer who generally played in midfield but sometimes as a forward. He was a much travelled player with spells at both Liverpool and Everton as well as Sheffield United, Sunderland and West Ham United twice...

     Footballer
  • Brian Johnson
    Brian Johnson
    Brian Johnson is an English singer and lyricist who has been the lead singer for the rock band AC/DC since 1980. He was inducted into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame in 2003 along with the other members of the band....

     - AC/DC Frontman
  • Tommy Johnson
    Tommy Johnson (footballer born 1971)
    Thomas "Tommy" Johnson is a retired footballer who played as a striker for clubs including Notts County, Celtic and Aston Villa.-Notts County:...

     Footballer, ex Celtic.
  • Howard Kendall
    Howard Kendall
    Howard Kendall is an English football manager and former player. He is most famous for his connection to Everton, a club that he both played for and managed. His uncle Harry Taylor played for Newcastle United and Fulham in the 1950s....

     - Footballer and Manager
  • John Thomas Looney - Shakespeare scholar
  • Gary Madine
    Gary Madine
    Gary Lee Madine is an English footballer who plays for Sheffield Wednesday as a striker.He began his career with Carlisle United, where he made his first team debut in 2007. He was sent out on loan in 2009, first with Rochdale and then Coventry City before joining Chesterfield in 2010 on loan...

     - Sheffield Wednesday Footballer
  • Lawrie McMenemy
    Lawrie McMenemy
    Lawrie McMenemy MBE is a retired English football coach, best known for his spell as manager of Southampton Football Club...

     - Soccer manager/Pundit
  • Robert Stirling Newall
    Robert Stirling Newall
    Robert Stirling Newall FRS was a Scottish engineer and astronomer.Born in Dundee, he was befriended by civil engineer L.D.B. Gordon. In 1838, whilst studying at the Freiburg School of Mines, Germany, Gordon visited the mines at Clausthal, and met Wilhelm Albert...

     - Industrialist
  • Bezalel Rakow
    Bezalel Rakow
    Rabbi Bezalel Rakow was an orthodox rabbi who headed Gateshead’s Jewish community. He was the chair of the Council of Torah Sages of Agudas Yisroel of Great Britain....

     - Communal rabbi
  • James Renforth
    James Renforth
    James Renforth was a famous Tyneside professional oarsman. He became the World Sculling Champion in 1868 and was one of three great Tyneside oarsmen, the other two being Harry Clasper and Robert Chambers.-Early history:...

     - Oarsman
  • Sir Robert (Bobby) Robson
    Bobby Robson
    Sir Robert William "Bobby" Robson, CBE was an English footballer and manager, who coached seven European clubs and the England national team during his career....

     - Football Player/Manager, notably for England, across Europe, and Newcastle United
  • William Shield
    William Shield
    William Shield was an English composer, violinist and violist who was born in Swalwell near Gateshead, the son of William Shield and his wife, Mary, née Cash.-Life and musical career:...

     - Master of the King's Musick
  • Christina Stead
    Christina Stead
    Christina Stead was an Australian novelist and short-story writer acclaimed for her satirical wit and penetrating psychological characterisations.-Biography:...

     - Australian novelist
  • John Steel (drummer)
    John Steel (drummer)
    For other persons named John Steele, see John Steele .John Steel was the original drummer of the band, The Animals, and is the owner of the rights to the band's name, by virtue of a trademark registration.Steel went to the Gateshead Grammar School...

     - Drummer, The Animals
  • Steve Stone
    Steve Stone (footballer)
    Steven Brian "Steve" Stone is an English former footballer and now part of the coaching staff at Newcastle United.-Club career:...

     - Footballer
  • Sir Joseph Swan - Inventor of the electric light bulb
  • Chris Waddle
    Chris Waddle
    Christopher Roland "Chris" Waddle is a former footballer from England. He played for a number of clubs in the 1980s and 90s, including Newcastle United, Tottenham Hotspur and Sheffield Wednesday in England, and Olympique de Marseille in France...

     - Footballer
  • William Wailes
    William Wailes
    William Wailes, , was the proprietor of one of England’s largest and most prolific stained glass workshops.- Biographical :Wailes was born and grew up in Newcastle on Tyne, England’s centre of domestic glass and bottle manufacturing. His first business was as a grocer and tea merchant...

     - Stained glass maker
  • Taylor Wane
    Taylor Wane
    Taylor Wane is the stage name of a British pornographic actress, director, and model. She was inducted into the AVN Hall of Fame in 2005....

     - Adult entertainer
  • Robert Spence Watson
    Robert Spence Watson
    Robert Spence Watson was a solicitor, reformer, politician and writer. He became famous for pioneering labour arbitrations.On the 9th June 1863 he married Elizabeth Spence Watson....

     - public benefactor
  • Sylvia Waugh
    Sylvia Waugh
    Sylvia Waugh is a British children's author.-Biography:Sylvia Waugh was born in Gateshead, County Durham in Northern England in 1935. She attended Gateshead Grammar School. Having worked full-time as a grammar teacher for seventeen years, Waugh began her writing career in her late fifties...

     - Author of the 'Mennyms' series for children
  • Chris Wilkie
    Dubstar
    Dubstar are an English band, performing mostly dream pop and indie dance music, as well as occasional pop ballads and, on later releases, guitar-heavy rock with an industrial influence. The group was formed in 1992 by Steve Hillier and Chris Wilkie in Newcastle-upon-Tyne...

     Born in Gateshead, plays guitar in the internationally successful band Dubstar.
  • Peter Wilson (Australian soccer) Born in Gateshead, played for Gateshead F.C, captained Australia.
  • Thomas Wilson
    Thomas Wilson (poet)
    Thomas Wilson was a Tyneside poet, from Low Fell in Gateshead. His most famous work, an example of Tyneside Dialect Literature, is The Pitman's Pay, originally published between 1826 and 1830.-Works:*The Pitman's Pay...

     - Poet/school founder
  • (William) Robert Wood - (migrated to Australia 1963) - activist and Senator

Tourism


A article in the Daily Telegraph stated that a woman was denied entry into England at some time prior to 2007 for giving her reason for visiting as wanting to go to Gateshead. "British visa officials ruled this as "not credible". The research into Britain's confused immigration policies was taken up by Steve Boggan in The Guardian in a piece dated 23 January 2007, which expressed incredulity at the ignorance of London officials, echoed by Newcastle-Gateshead tourism heads.

External links