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Gasoline direct injection

Gasoline direct injection

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In internal combustion engine
Internal combustion engine
The internal combustion engine is an engine in which the combustion of a fuel occurs with an oxidizer in a combustion chamber. In an internal combustion engine, the expansion of the high-temperature and high -pressure gases produced by combustion apply direct force to some component of the engine...

s, gasoline direct injection (GDI), also known as petrol direct injection or direct petrol injection, is a variant of fuel injection
Fuel injection
Fuel injection is a system for admitting fuel into an internal combustion engine. It has become the primary fuel delivery system used in automotive petrol engines, having almost completely replaced carburetors in the late 1980s....

 employed in modern two-stroke and four-stroke gasoline engine
Petrol engine
A petrol engine is an internal combustion engine with spark-ignition, designed to run on petrol and similar volatile fuels....

s. The gasoline
Gasoline
Gasoline , or petrol , is a toxic, translucent, petroleum-derived liquid that is primarily used as a fuel in internal combustion engines. It consists mostly of organic compounds obtained by the fractional distillation of petroleum, enhanced with a variety of additives. Some gasolines also contain...

 is highly pressurized, and injected via a common rail
Common rail
Common rail direct fuel injection is a modern variant of direct fuel injection system for petrol and diesel engines.On diesel engines, it features a high-pressure fuel rail feeding individual solenoid valves, as opposed to low-pressure fuel pump feeding unit injectors...

 fuel line directly into the combustion chamber
Combustion chamber
A combustion chamber is the part of an engine in which fuel is burned.-Internal combustion engine:The hot gases produced by the combustion occupy a far greater volume than the original fuel, thus creating an increase in pressure within the limited volume of the chamber...

 of each cylinder
Cylinder (engine)
A cylinder is the central working part of a reciprocating engine or pump, the space in which a piston travels. Multiple cylinders are commonly arranged side by side in a bank, or engine block, which is typically cast from aluminum or cast iron before receiving precision machine work...

, as opposed to conventional multi-point fuel injection that happens in the intake tract
Inlet manifold
In automotive engineering, an inlet manifold or intake manifold is the part of an engine that supplies the fuel/air mixture to the cylinders...

, or cylinder port.

In some applications, gasoline direct injection enables a stratified fuel charge (ultra lean burn
Lean burn
Lean burn refers to the use of lean mixtures in an internal combustion engine. The air-fuel ratios can be as high as 65:1, so the mixture has considerably less fuel in comparison to the stoichiometric combustion ratio ....

) combustion for improved fuel efficiency
Fuel efficiency
Fuel efficiency is a form of thermal efficiency, meaning the efficiency of a process that converts chemical potential energy contained in a carrier fuel into kinetic energy or work. Overall fuel efficiency may vary per device, which in turn may vary per application, and this spectrum of variance is...

, and reduced emission levels at low load.

Theory of operation


The major advantages of a GDI engine are increased fuel efficiency
Fuel efficiency
Fuel efficiency is a form of thermal efficiency, meaning the efficiency of a process that converts chemical potential energy contained in a carrier fuel into kinetic energy or work. Overall fuel efficiency may vary per device, which in turn may vary per application, and this spectrum of variance is...

 and high power
Power (physics)
In physics, power is the rate at which energy is transferred, used, or transformed. For example, the rate at which a light bulb transforms electrical energy into heat and light is measured in watts—the more wattage, the more power, or equivalently the more electrical energy is used per unit...

 output. Emissions levels can also be more accurately controlled with the GDI system. The cited gains are achieved by the precise control over the amount of fuel and injection timings that are varied according to the load conditions. In addition, there are no throttling losses in some GDI engines, when compared to a conventional fuel injected
Fuel injection
Fuel injection is a system for admitting fuel into an internal combustion engine. It has become the primary fuel delivery system used in automotive petrol engines, having almost completely replaced carburetors in the late 1980s....

 or carbureted
Carburetor
A carburetor , carburettor, or carburetter is a device that blends air and fuel for an internal combustion engine. It is sometimes shortened to carb in North America and the United Kingdom....

 engine, which greatly improves efficiency, and reduces 'pumping losses' in engines without a throttle plate. Engine speed is controlled by the engine control unit/engine management system
Engine control unit
An engine control unit is a type of electronic control unit that determines the amount of fuel, ignition timing and other parameters an internal combustion engine needs to keep running...

 (EMS), which regulates fuel injection function and ignition timing, instead of having a throttle plate that restricts the incoming air supply. Adding this function to the EMS requires considerable enhancement of its processing and memory, as direct injection plus the engine speed management must have very precise algorithms for good performance and drivability.

The engine management system continually chooses among three combustion modes: ultra lean burn
Lean burn
Lean burn refers to the use of lean mixtures in an internal combustion engine. The air-fuel ratios can be as high as 65:1, so the mixture has considerably less fuel in comparison to the stoichiometric combustion ratio ....

, stoichiometric, and full power output. Each mode is characterized by the air-fuel ratio
Air-fuel ratio
Air–fuel ratio is the mass ratio of air to fuel present in an internal combustion engine. If exactly enough air is provided to completely burn all of the fuel, the ratio is known as the stoichiometric mixture, often abbreviated to stoich...

. The stoichiometric
Stoichiometry
Stoichiometry is a branch of chemistry that deals with the relative quantities of reactants and products in chemical reactions. In a balanced chemical reaction, the relations among quantities of reactants and products typically form a ratio of whole numbers...

 air-fuel ratio for gasoline
Gasoline
Gasoline , or petrol , is a toxic, translucent, petroleum-derived liquid that is primarily used as a fuel in internal combustion engines. It consists mostly of organic compounds obtained by the fractional distillation of petroleum, enhanced with a variety of additives. Some gasolines also contain...

 is 14.7:1 by weight, but ultra lean mode can involve ratios as high as 65:1 (or even higher in some engines, for very limited periods). These mixtures are much leaner than in a conventional engine and reduce fuel consumption considerably.
  • Ultra lean burn mode is used for light-load running conditions, at constant or reducing road speeds, where no acceleration is required. The fuel is not injected at the intake stroke
    Otto cycle
    An Otto cycle is an idealized thermodynamic cycle which describes the functioning of a typical reciprocating piston engine, the thermodynamic cycle most commonly found in automobile engines....

     but rather at the latter stages of the compression stroke, so that the small amount of air-fuel mixture is optimally placed near the spark plug
    Spark plug
    A spark plug is an electrical device that fits into the cylinder head of some internal combustion engines and ignites compressed fuels such as aerosol, gasoline, ethanol, and liquefied petroleum gas by means of an electric spark.Spark plugs have an insulated central electrode which is connected by...

    . This stratified charge is surrounded mostly by air, which keeps the fuel and the flame away from the cylinder walls for lowest emissions and heat losses. The combustion takes place in a toroid
    Toroid
    Toroid may refer to*Toroid , a doughnut-like solid whose surface is a torus.*Toroidal inductors and transformers which have wire windings on circular ring shaped magnetic cores.*Vortex ring, a toroidal flow in fluid mechanics....

    al (donut-shaped) cavity on the piston
    Piston
    A piston is a component of reciprocating engines, reciprocating pumps, gas compressors and pneumatic cylinders, among other similar mechanisms. It is the moving component that is contained by a cylinder and is made gas-tight by piston rings. In an engine, its purpose is to transfer force from...

    's surface.http://www.mazda.com/mazdaspirit/skyactiv/engine/skyactiv-g.html The cavity is displaced to one side of the piston, the side that has the fuel injector. This technique enables the use of ultra-lean mixtures that would be impossible with carburetors or conventional fuel injection.
  • Stoichiometric mode is used for moderate load conditions. Fuel is injected during the intake stroke
    Otto cycle
    An Otto cycle is an idealized thermodynamic cycle which describes the functioning of a typical reciprocating piston engine, the thermodynamic cycle most commonly found in automobile engines....

    , creating a homogenous fuel-air mixture in the cylinder. From the stoichiometric ratio, an optimum burn results in a clean exhaust emission, further cleaned by the catalytic converter
    Catalytic converter
    A catalytic converter is a device used to convert toxic exhaust emissions from an internal combustion engine into non-toxic substances. Inside a catalytic converter, a catalyst stimulates a chemical reaction in which noxious byproducts of combustion are converted to less toxic substances by dint...

    .
  • Full power mode is used for rapid acceleration and heavy loads (as when climbing a hill). The air-fuel mixture is homogenous and the ratio is slightly richer than stoichiometric, which helps prevent knock
    Engine knocking
    Knocking in spark-ignition internal combustion engines occurs when combustion of the air/fuel mixture in the cylinder starts off correctly in response to ignition by the spark plug, but one or more pockets of air/fuel mixture explode outside the envelope of the normal combustion front.The...

     (pinging). The fuel is injected during the intake stroke.


Direct injection may also be accompanied by other engine technologies such as variable valve timing
Variable valve timing
In internal combustion engines, variable valve timing , also known as Variable valve actuation , is a generalized term used to describe any mechanism or method that can alter the shape or timing of a valve lift event within an internal combustion engine...

 (VVT) and tuned/multi path or variable length intake manifold
Variable Length Intake Manifold
In internal combustion engines, a variable length intake manifold , or variable intake manifold is an automobile internal combustion engine manifold technology...

ing (VLIM, or VIM). Water injection
Water injection (engines)
In internal combustion engines, water injection, also known as anti-detonant injection, is spraying water into the cylinder or incoming fuel-air mixture to cool the combustion chambers of the engine, allowing for greater compression ratios and largely eliminating the problem of engine knocking...

 or (more commonly) exhaust gas recirculation
Exhaust gas recirculation
In internal combustion engines, exhaust gas recirculation is a nitrogen oxide emissions reduction technique used in petrol/gasoline and diesel engines. EGR works by recirculating a portion of an engine's exhaust gas back to the engine cylinders. In a gasoline engine, this inert exhaust...

 (EGR) may help reduce the high nitrogen oxide
Nitrogen oxide
Nitrogen oxide can refer to a binary compound of oxygen and nitrogen, or a mixture of such compounds:* Nitric oxide, also known as nitrogen monoxide, , nitrogen oxide* Nitrogen dioxide , nitrogen oxide...

s (NOx) emissions that can result from burning ultra lean
Lean burn
Lean burn refers to the use of lean mixtures in an internal combustion engine. The air-fuel ratios can be as high as 65:1, so the mixture has considerably less fuel in comparison to the stoichiometric combustion ratio ....

 mixtures.

It is also possible to inject more than once during a single cycle. After the first fuel charge has been ignited, it is possible to add fuel as the piston descends. The benefits are more power and economy, but certain octane fuels have been seen to cause exhaust valve erosion. For this reason, most companies have ceased to use the Fuel Stratified Injection (FSI) operation during normal running.

Tuning up an early generation FSI power plant to generate higher power is difficult, since the only time it is possible to inject fuel is during the induction phase. Conventional injection engines can inject throughout the 4-stroke sequence, as the injector squirts onto the back of a closed valve. A direct injection engine, where the injector injects directly into the cylinder, is limited to the suction stroke of the piston. As the RPM increases, the time available to inject fuel decreases. Newer FSI systems that have sufficient fuel pressure to inject even late in compression phase do not suffer to the same extent; however, they still do not inject during the exhaust cycle (they could but it would just waste fuel). Hence, all other factors being equal, an FSI engine needs higher-capacity injectors to achieve the same power as a conventional engine.

Early systems


The first use of direct gasoline injection was on the Hesselman engine
Hesselman engine
The Hesselman engine is a hybrid between a petrol engine and a Diesel engine introduced by Swedish engineer Jonas Hesselman in 1925. It represented the first use of direct gasoline injection on a spark-ignition engine...

 invented by Swedish engineer
Engineer
An engineer is a professional practitioner of engineering, concerned with applying scientific knowledge, mathematics and ingenuity to develop solutions for technical problems. Engineers design materials, structures, machines and systems while considering the limitations imposed by practicality,...

 Jonas Hesselman
Jonas Hesselman
Jonas Hesselman , was a Swedish engineer. He built the first spark ignition engine with direct injection of fuel into the cylinder.Hesselman worked from 1899 to 1916 for AB Diesel Engines in Sickla in Nacka just outside Stockholm, from 1901 as Head of Construction...

 in 1925. Hesselman engines used the ultra lean burn principle and injected the fuel in the end of the compression stroke and then ignited it with a spark plug
Spark plug
A spark plug is an electrical device that fits into the cylinder head of some internal combustion engines and ignites compressed fuels such as aerosol, gasoline, ethanol, and liquefied petroleum gas by means of an electric spark.Spark plugs have an insulated central electrode which is connected by...

, it was often started on gasoline and then switched over to run on diesel or kerosene. The Hesselman engine was a low compression design constructed to run on heavy fuel oils.
Direct gasoline injection was used on production aircraft during WWII, with German (Junkers Jumo 210
Junkers Jumo 210
The Jumo 210 was Junkers Motoren's first production inverted V12 gasoline aircraft engine, produced just before the start of World War II. Depending on version it produced between 610 and 700 PS and can be considered a counterpart of the Rolls-Royce Kestrel in many ways...

, Daimler-Benz DB 601
Daimler-Benz DB 601
|-See also:-Bibliography:* Mankau, Heinz and Peter Petrick. Messerschmitt Bf 110, Me 210, Me 410. Raumfahrt, Germany: Aviatic Verlag, 2001. ISBN 3-92550-562-8.* Neil Gregor Daimler-Benz in the Third Reich. Yale University Press, 1998-External links:...

, both 1937), Soviet (Shvetsov ASh-82FN
Shvetsov ASh-82
The Shvetsov ASh-82 is a 14-cylinder, two-row, air-cooled radial aircraft engine developed from the Shvetsov M-62, itself a development from M-25 a licensed version of the Wright R-1820 Cyclone.-Design and development:...

, 1943, Chemical Automatics Design Bureau - KB Khimavtomatika
Chemical Automatics Design Bureau
Chemical Automatics Design Bureau , also KB Khimavtomatika is a Russian Design Bureau founded by the NKAP in 1941 and led by Semyon Kosberg until his death in 1965. Its origin dates back to a 1940 Moscow carburetor factory, evacuated to Berdsk in 1941, and then relocated to Voronezh in 1945,...

) and US (Wright R-3350
Wright R-3350
The Wright R-3350 Duplex-Cyclone was one of the most powerful radial aircraft engines produced in the United States. It was a twin row, supercharged, air-cooled, radial engine with 18 cylinders. Power ranged from 2,200 to over 3,700 hp , depending on the model...

, 1944) designs. The first automotive direct injection system used to run on gasoline was developed by Bosch
Robert Bosch GmbH
Robert Bosch GmbH is a multinational engineering and electronics company headquartered in Gerlingen, near Stuttgart, Germany. It is the world's largest supplier of automotive components...

, and was introduced by Goliath
Goliath (car)
Goliath was a German car brand started in 1928 and which was part of the Borgward group. Goliath was based in Bremen and specialized in three-wheeler cars and trucks and medium-sized cars.-Early history:...

 and Gutbrod
Gutbrod
Gutbrod was a German car manufacturer. The firm was founded by Wilhelm Gutbrod in 1926. It originally built motorcycles, and from 1933 to 1935, Standard Superior cars were built with rear-mounted engines....

 in 1952. The 1955 Mercedes-Benz 300SL
Mercedes-Benz 300SL
The Mercedes-Benz 300SL was introduced in 1954 as a two-seat, closed sports car with distinctive gull-wing doors. Later it was offered as an open roadster...

, the first production sports car to use fuel injection
Fuel injection
Fuel injection is a system for admitting fuel into an internal combustion engine. It has become the primary fuel delivery system used in automotive petrol engines, having almost completely replaced carburetors in the late 1980s....

, used direct injection. The Bosch fuel injectors were placed into the bores on the cylinder wall used by the spark plugs in other Mercedes-Benz six-cylinder engines (the spark plugs were relocated to the cylinder head). Later, more mainstream applications of fuel injection favored the less-expensive indirect injection methods.

In the early-1970s, research was conducted with the backing of American Motors Corporation
American Motors
American Motors Corporation was an American automobile company formed by the 1954 merger of Nash-Kelvinator Corporation and Hudson Motor Car Company. At the time, it was the largest corporate merger in U.S. history.George W...

 (AMC) to develop a Straticharge Continuous Fuel-Injection (SCFI) system. The conventional spark ignited internal combustion AMC straight-6 engine was modified with a redesigned cylinder head
Cylinder head
In an internal combustion engine, the cylinder head sits above the cylinders on top of the cylinder block. It closes in the top of the cylinder, forming the combustion chamber. This joint is sealed by a head gasket...

. The system incorporated a mechanical device that automatically responded to the engine’s airflow and loading conditions with two separate fuel-control pressures supplied to two sets of continuous-flow injectors. Flexibility was designed into the SCFI system for trimming it to a particular engine. Prototype "straticharge" engine road testing was performed using a 1973 AMC Hornet
AMC Hornet
The AMC Hornet was a compact automobile made by the American Motors Corporation in one generation beginning with the 1970 model year and continuing through the 1977 model year. The Hornet replaced the compact Rambler American marking the end of the Rambler marque in the American and Canadian markets...

, but the mechanical fuel controls had teething problems.

During the late-1970s, the Ford Motor Company
Ford Motor Company
Ford Motor Company is an American multinational automaker based in Dearborn, Michigan, a suburb of Detroit. The automaker was founded by Henry Ford and incorporated on June 16, 1903. In addition to the Ford and Lincoln brands, Ford also owns a small stake in Mazda in Japan and Aston Martin in the UK...

 developed a stratified-charge engine they called "ProCo" (programmed combustion), utilizing a unique high-pressure pump and direct injectors. At least one hundred and fifteen (115) Crown Victoria
Ford Crown Victoria
-1992–1994:Released in March 1991 as an early 1992 model, the Crown Victoria sedan was completely redesigned with a rounder, eight-window roofline . The redesign reduced the coefficient of drag from 0.42 to 0.34; the suspension setup was also heavily revised...

 cars were built at Ford's Atlanta Assembly
Atlanta Assembly
Atlanta Assembly was an automobile factory owned by Ford Motor Company in Hapeville, Georgia. Harbour Consulting rated it as the most efficient auto plant in North America in 2006...

 in Hapeville, Georgia
Hapeville, Georgia
Hapeville is a city in Fulton County, Georgia, United States, located directly adjacent to the city of Atlanta. The population was 6,373 at the 2010 census. It is named for Dr...

 using a ProCo V8 engine. The project was canceled for several reasons: electronic controls, a key element, were in their infancy; pump and injector costs were extremely high; and lean combustion produced nitrogen oxide
Nitrogen oxide
Nitrogen oxide can refer to a binary compound of oxygen and nitrogen, or a mixture of such compounds:* Nitric oxide, also known as nitrogen monoxide, , nitrogen oxide* Nitrogen dioxide , nitrogen oxide...

s in excess of near future United States Environmental Protection Agency
United States Environmental Protection Agency
The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency is an agency of the federal government of the United States charged with protecting human health and the environment, by writing and enforcing regulations based on laws passed by Congress...

 (EPA) limits. The three-way catalytic converter
Catalytic converter
A catalytic converter is a device used to convert toxic exhaust emissions from an internal combustion engine into non-toxic substances. Inside a catalytic converter, a catalyst stimulates a chemical reaction in which noxious byproducts of combustion are converted to less toxic substances by dint...

 proved to be a less expensive solution.

Later systems


In 1996 gasoline direct injection reappeared in the automotive market. Mitsubishi
Mitsubishi Motors
is a multinational automaker headquartered in Minato, Tokyo. In 2009 it was the fifth-largest Japan-based automaker and the 17th-largest in the world measured by production...

 was the first with a GDI engine in the Japanese market with its Galant/Legnum
Mitsubishi Galant
The first generation of the car, initially known as the Colt Galant, was released in December 1969. The design was dubbed "Dynawedge" by Mitsubishi, referring to the influence of aerodynamics on the silhouette. Three models were available, powered by the new 'Saturn' engine in 1.3 or 1.5 L ...

's 4G93 1.8 L inline-four. It was subsequently brought to Europe in 1997 in the Carisma
Mitsubishi Carisma
The Mitsubishi Carisma is a large family car produced for the European market by Mitsubishi Motors from 1995 to 2004. The model name was derived from a combination of the English car and the Greek kharisma, meaning "divine gift"...

, although Europe's then high-sulfur
Sulfur
Sulfur or sulphur is the chemical element with atomic number 16. In the periodic table it is represented by the symbol S. It is an abundant, multivalent non-metal. Under normal conditions, sulfur atoms form cyclic octatomic molecules with chemical formula S8. Elemental sulfur is a bright yellow...

 unleaded fuel led to emissions problems, and fuel efficiency
Fuel efficiency
Fuel efficiency is a form of thermal efficiency, meaning the efficiency of a process that converts chemical potential energy contained in a carrier fuel into kinetic energy or work. Overall fuel efficiency may vary per device, which in turn may vary per application, and this spectrum of variance is...

 was less than expected. It also developed the first six-cylinder GDI powerplant, the 6G74 3.5 L V6
V6 engine
A V6 engine is a V engine with six cylinders mounted on the crankcase in two banks of three cylinders, usually set at either a right angle or an acute angle to each other, with all six pistons driving a common crankshaft...

, in 1997. Mitsubishi applied this technology widely, producing over one million GDI engines in four families by 2001.

In 1997 Nissan
Nissan Motors
, usually shortened to Nissan , is a multinational automaker headquartered in Japan. It was a core member of the Nissan Group, but has become more independent after its restructuring under Carlos Ghosn ....

 released the Leopard
Nissan Leopard
The Nissan Leopard is a line of luxury sports cars built by Japanese carmaker Nissan. The Leopard began life in 1980 and was discontinued in 1999. Leopards were initially based on the Japanese market Nissan Skyline and Nissan Laurel and the American Datsun 910/Nissan Maxima, then later based on the...

 featuring the VQ30DD equipped with direct injection.

In 1998, Toyota's D4 direct injection system first appeared on various Japanese market vehicles equipped with the SZ
Toyota SZ engine
The Toyota SZ engine family is a straight-4 piston engine series with its exhaust facing forward. This engine was jointly developed by Daihatsu.-1SZ-FE:...

 and NZ
Toyota NZ engine
The Toyota NZ engine family is a straight-4 piston engine series. The 1NZ series uses aluminum engine blocks and DOHC cylinder heads. It also uses SFI fuel injection, and has 4 valves per cylinder with VVT-i.-1NZ-FXE:...

 engines. Toyota later introduced its D4 system to European markets with the 1AZ-FSE
Toyota AZ engine
The Toyota AZ engine family is a straight-4 piston engine series. The AZ series uses an aluminium engine block with cast iron cylinder liners and aluminium DOHC cylinder heads. The engine series features many advanced technologies including slant-squish combustion chambers,offset cylinder and...

engine found in the 2001 Avensis
Toyota Avensis
The Toyota Avensis is a large family car built in Derbyshire, United Kingdom by Japanese carmaker Toyota since 1997. It is the direct successor to the Carina E and is available as a four-door saloon, five-door liftback and estate...

. and US markets in 2005 with the 3GR-FSE engine found in the Lexus GS 300. Toyota's 2GR-FSE
Toyota GR engine
The Toyota GR engine family is an open-deck, V6 piston engine series. The GR series has a 60° die-cast aluminum block and aluminum DOHC cylinder heads. This engine series also features 4 valves per cylinder, forged steel connecting rods, one-piece cast camshafts, and a cast aluminum lower intake...

V6 uses a more advanced direct injection system, which combines both direct and indirect injection using two fuel injectors per cylinder, a traditional port fuel injector (low pressure) and a direct fuel injector (high-pressure) in a system known as D4-S.

In 1999, Renault
Renault
Renault S.A. is a French automaker producing cars, vans, and in the past, autorail vehicles, trucks, tractors, vans and also buses/coaches. Its alliance with Nissan makes it the world's third largest automaker...

 introduced the 2.0 IDE (Injection Direct Essence), first on the Megane
Renault Mégane
The Renault Mégane is a small family car produced by the French automaker Renault since 1995. It is offered in 3- and 5-door hatchback, saloon, coupé, convertible and estate bodystyles...

. Rather than following the lean burn
Lean burn
Lean burn refers to the use of lean mixtures in an internal combustion engine. The air-fuel ratios can be as high as 65:1, so the mixture has considerably less fuel in comparison to the stoichiometric combustion ratio ....

 approach, Renault's design uses high ratios of exhaust gas recirculation
Exhaust gas recirculation
In internal combustion engines, exhaust gas recirculation is a nitrogen oxide emissions reduction technique used in petrol/gasoline and diesel engines. EGR works by recirculating a portion of an engine's exhaust gas back to the engine cylinders. In a gasoline engine, this inert exhaust...

 to improve economy at low engine loads, with direct injection allowing the fuel to be concentrated around the spark. Later gasoline direct injection engines have been tuned and marketed for their high performance as well as increased fuel efficiency. PSA Peugeot Citroën
PSA Peugeot Citroën
PSA Peugeot Citroën is a French manufacturer of automobiles and motorcycles sold under the Peugeot and Citroën marques. Headquartered in the 16th arrondissement of Paris, PSA is the second largest automaker based in Europe and the number eight in the world.-History:In December 1974 Peugeot S.A....

, Hyundai
Hyundai Motor Company
Hyundai Motor Company is a Korean multinational automaker based in Seoul, South Korea which, along with Kia, comprises the Hyundai Kia Automotive Group, the world's fourth largest automaker as of 2009. As of 2011, it is the world's fastest growing automaker for two years running...

 and Volvo
Volvo
AB Volvo is a Swedish builder of commercial vehicles, including trucks, buses and construction equipment. Volvo also supplies marine and industrial drive systems, aerospace components and financial services...

 licensed Mitsubishi's GDI technology in 1999. Although other companies have since developed gasoline direct injection engines, the acronym 'GDI' (with an uppercase final "I") remains a registered trademark of Mitsubishi Motors.

In 2000, the Volkswagen Group
Volkswagen Group
Volkswagen Group is a German multinational automobile manufacturing group. , Volkswagen was ranked as the world’s third largest motor vehicle manufacturer and Europe's largest....

 introduced its gasoline direct injection engine in the Volkswagen Lupo
Volkswagen Lupo
The Lupo is a city car manufactured by German automaker Volkswagen from 1998 to 2005.-Model history:The Lupo was introduced in 1998 to fill a gap at the bottom of the VW model range caused by the increasing size and weight of the VW Polo. Rivals included the Ford Ka, the Opel/Vauxhall Agila and...

, a 1.4 L inline-four unit, under the product name "Fuel Stratified Injection" (FSI). The technology was adapted from Audi's Le Mans
24 Hours of Le Mans
The 24 Hours of Le Mans is the world's oldest sports car race in endurance racing, held annually since near the town of Le Mans, France. Commonly known as the Grand Prix of Endurance and Efficiency, race teams have to balance speed against the cars' ability to run for 24 hours without sustaining...

 prototype race car
Le Mans Prototype
A Le Mans Prototype is a type of sports prototype race car most notably used in the 24 Hours of Le Mans, American Le Mans Series and Le Mans Series...

 R8. Volkswagen Group marques use direct injection in its 2.0 L FSI turbocharged
Turbocharger
A turbocharger, or turbo , from the Greek "τύρβη" is a centrifugal compressor powered by a turbine that is driven by an engine's exhaust gases. Its benefit lies with the compressor increasing the mass of air entering the engine , thereby resulting in greater performance...

 and naturally aspirated four-cylinder engines. Later, a 2.0 L inline-four unit was introduced in the model year 2003 Audi A4
Audi A4
The first generation Audi A4 debuted in 1994, with production starting November 1994. It was built on the Volkswagen Group B5 platform, which it shared with the fourth generation Volkswagen Passat . It had a front-mounted longitudinal engine and front-wheel drive...

. PSA Peugeot Citroën introduced its first GDi (HPi) engine in 2000 in the Citroën C5
Citroën C5
The Citroën C5 is a large family car produced by the French manufacturer Citroën since early 2001. The C5 replaced the Citroën Xantia in the large family car class.-First generation :...

 and Peugeot 406
Peugeot 406
The Peugeot 406 was a large family car made by the French automaker Peugeot from 1995 to 2004. Available in saloon, estate and coupé bodystyles with a choice of petrol or turbodiesel engines, the 406 replaced the Peugeot 405 in Peugeot's lineup, and was itself replaced by the Peugeot 407...

. It was a 2.0-liter 16-valve EW10 D unit with 140 hp, the system was licensed from Mitsubishi.

In 2002, the Alfa Romeo
Alfa Romeo
Alfa Romeo Automobiles S.p.A. is an Italian manufacturer of cars. Founded as A.L.F.A. on June 24, 1910, in Milan, the company has been involved in car racing since 1911, and has a reputation for building expensive sports cars...

 156
Alfa Romeo 156
The Alfa Romeo 156 is a compact executive car introduced by Italian automaker Alfa Romeo at the 1997 Frankfurt Motor Show as the replacement for the Alfa Romeo 155...

 with a direct-injection engine, the JTS
JTS engine
The JTS engine is a gasoline direct injection engine produced by Alfa Romeo. It exists in two forms, straight-4 and V6, and was introduced into the Alfa lineup in 2002.-2.0:...

 (Jet Thrust Stoichiometric) went on sale and today the technology is used on almost every Alfa Romeo engine.

In 2003, A new 1.8 L Duratec SCi naturally aspirated engine made its production debut in the Ford Mondeo
Ford Mondeo
The Mondeo was launched on 8 January 1993, and sales began on 22 March 1993. Available as a four-door saloon, a five-door hatchback, and a five-door estate, all models for the European market were produced at Ford's plant in the Belgian city of Genk...

 in 2003.
Ford
Ford Motor Company
Ford Motor Company is an American multinational automaker based in Dearborn, Michigan, a suburb of Detroit. The automaker was founded by Henry Ford and incorporated on June 16, 1903. In addition to the Ford and Lincoln brands, Ford also owns a small stake in Mazda in Japan and Aston Martin in the UK...

 introduced its first European Ford engine to use direct injection technology in 2001, badged SCi (Smart Charge injection) for Direct-Injection-Spark-Ignition (DISI). The range will include some turbocharged derivatives, including the 1.1 L, three-cylinder turbocharged unit showcased at the 2002 Geneva Show.

In 2003, BMW
BMW
Bayerische Motoren Werke AG is a German automobile, motorcycle and engine manufacturing company founded in 1916. It also owns and produces the Mini marque, and is the parent company of Rolls-Royce Motor Cars. BMW produces motorcycles under BMW Motorrad and Husqvarna brands...

 introduced a low-pressure gasoline direct injection N73
BMW N73
The N73 was a V12 engine from BMW, built in Munich, Germany.The N73 was among the first BMW engines to receive the revolutionary Valvetronic technology, which surprisingly gives it more economical fuel consumption than older non-Valvetronic V8 BMW engines...

 V12
V12 engine
A V12 engine is a V engine with 12 cylinders mounted on the crankcase in two banks of six cylinders, usually but not always at a 60° angle to each other, with all 12 pistons driving a common crankshaft....

. This initial BMW setup could not enter lean-burn mode, but the company introduced its second-generation High Precision Injection (HPI) system on the updated N52
BMW N52
The BMW N52 is a straight-6 engine made by BMW, which debuted in 2004 on the BMW E63 630Ci. The N52 is BMW's 12th generation production straight-6 engine.Its crankcase is made entirely of magnesium and aluminum, a first in the world of engine construction...

 straight-6 in 2006, which used high-pressure injectors. This system surpasses many others with a wider envelope of lean-burn time, increasing overall efficiency. PSA is cooperating with BMW on a new line of engines that made its first appearance in the 2007 MINI Cooper S
MINI (BMW)
Mini is a British automotive marque owned by BMW which specialises in small cars.Mini originated as a specific vehicle, a small car originally known as the Morris Mini-Minor and the Austin Seven, launched by the British Motor Corporation in 1959, and developed into a brand encompassing a range of...

. Honda
Honda
is a Japanese public multinational corporation primarily known as a manufacturer of automobiles and motorcycles.Honda has been the world's largest motorcycle manufacturer since 1959, as well as the world's largest manufacturer of internal combustion engines measured by volume, producing more than...

 released their own direct injection system on the Stream
Honda Stream
The Honda Stream is a compact MPV manufactured by the Japanese automaker Honda since 2001. Japanese models have gasoline direct injection 1.7 L and 2.0 L engines with improved fuel efficiency...

 sold in Japan. Honda's fuel injector is placed directly atop the cylinder at a 90-degree angle rather than a slanted angle.

Since 2004, General Motors has released three such direct injected engines: in 2004, a 155 hp version of the 2.2 L Ecotec used in the Opel
Opel
Adam Opel AG, generally shortened to Opel, is a German automobile company founded by Adam Opel in 1862. Opel has been building automobiles since 1899, and became an Aktiengesellschaft in 1929...

/Vauxhall
Vauxhall
-Demography:Many Vauxhall residents live in social housing. There are several gentrified areas, and areas of terraced townhouses on streets such as Fentiman Road and Heyford Avenue have higher property values in the private market, however by far the most common type of housing stock within...

 Vectra
Opel Vectra
The Opel Vectra is a large family car that was engineered and produced by Opel. In the United Kingdom, the car was sold under the Vauxhall marque as the Vauxhall Cavalier and later as the Vauxhall Vectra, from 1995 onwards...

 and Signum
Opel Signum
The Opel Signum was a large family car/executive hatchback engineered and manufactured by Opel in Germany between 2003 and 2008. It was almost exclusively sold in Europe. In the United Kingdom it was sold under the Vauxhall Signum nameplate...

 in 2005, a 2.0 L turbocharged Ecotec for the new Opel GT
Opel GT
The Opel GT is a two-seat sports car first presented as a styling exercise in 1965 at the Paris and Frankfurt motor shows, and introduced as a production model late in 1968 by Opel, a German subsidiary of General Motors...

, Pontiac Solstice GXP, and the Saturn Sky
Saturn Sky
The Saturn Sky was the only roadster from the Saturn marque of American automaker General Motors, and was initially released in the first quarter of 2006 as a 2007 model. It uses the Kappa automobile platform shared with the Pontiac Solstice and Opel GT...

 Red Line, in 2007 the same engine was used in the Super Sport
Super Sport
Super Sport, or SS, is the signature performance option package offered by Chevrolet, a United States Auto Maker, on a limited number of its vehicles. All SS models come with distinctive "SS" markings on their exterior. The package was first made available for the 1961 Impala...

 versions of the Chevrolet Cobalt
Chevrolet Cobalt
The Chevrolet Cobalt is a compact car introduced by Chevrolet in 2004 for the 2005 model year. The Cobalt replaced both the Cavalier and the Prizm as Chevrolet's compact car....

 and the HHR
Chevrolet HHR
The Chevrolet HHR was a retro-styled station wagon launched by the Chevrolet division of American automaker General Motors at the 2005 Los Angeles Auto Show as a 2006 model — and designed by Bryan Nesbitt. Smaller than the Equinox, the HHR shared the GM Delta platform with the Chevrolet...

. Also in 2007, the 3.6 L LLT became available in the redesigned Cadillac CTS
Cadillac CTS
The Cadillac CTS is a mid-size car manufactured by the Cadillac marque of General Motors currently available in three body styles: Sedan, Coupe, and Sport Wagon. It was introduced in 2002 as a sports sedan, replacing the Cadillac Catera. The CTS and the supercharged CTS-V variant have been named...

 and STS
Cadillac STS
The STS is a mid-size luxury sports sedan / executive car manufactured and sold by Cadillac. It is equipped with a six-speed automatic transmission with performance algorithm shifting and driver shift control.- Origins :...

. The 3.6 L was added to the 2009 model GMC Acadia
GMC Acadia
The GMC Acadia is a full-size crossover SUV from GM. The GMC Acadia, Chevrolet Traverse, Buick Enclave and Saturn Outlook share the new GM Lambda platform. The Acadia went on sale in the United States in December 2006, and in Canada in January, 2007...

, Chevrolet Traverse
Chevrolet Traverse
The Chevrolet Traverse is a seven/eight seat full-size crossover SUV built on the GM Lambda platform that underpins the Buick Enclave, GMC Acadia and Saturn Outlook. It is a successor to both the Uplander minivan and Trailblazer SUV...

, Saturn Outlook
Saturn Outlook
The Saturn Outlook is a crossover SUV that debuted at the New York International Auto Show, and is based on the new GM Lambda platform, which it shares with the Buick Enclave, Chevrolet Traverse and GMC Acadia...

, Buick Enclave
Buick Enclave
The Buick Enclave is a full-size crossover SUV launched in May 2007 as a 2008 model by the Buick division of General Motors. The Buick Enclave, GMC Acadia, Chevrolet Traverse, and Saturn Outlook all share the GM Lambda platform. The Enclave was previewed at the 2006 North American International...

, and the 2010 Chevy Camaro
Fifth-generation Chevrolet Camaro
The fifth-generation Chevrolet Camaro is a pony car produced by General Motors and marketed under the Chevrolet brand. It is the fifth distinct generation of the Camaro to be produced since its original introduction in 1967...

. In 2004 Isuzu produced the first GDi engine sold in a mainstream American vehicle, standard on the 2004 Axiom and optional on the 2004 Rodeo. Isuzu claimed the benefit of GDi is that the vaporizing fuel has a cooling effect, allowing a higher compression ratio (10.3:1 versus 9.1:1) that boosts output by 20 hp, and that 0-to-60 mph times drop from 8.9 to just 7.5 seconds, with the quarter-mile being cut from 16.5 to 15.8 seconds.

In 2005, Mazda
Mazda
is a Japanese automotive manufacturer based in Fuchū, Aki District, Hiroshima Prefecture, Japan.In 2007, Mazda produced almost 1.3 million vehicles for global sales...

 began to use their own version of direct-injection in the Mazdaspeed6 and later on the CX-7 sport-utility, and the new Mazdaspeed3 in the US and European market. It is referred to as Direct Injection Spark Ignition (DISI).

In 2006, BMW released the new N54
BMW N54
The N54 is a direct injection twin-turbocharged straight-6 automobile engine from BMW. It was launched in late 2006 as a high-performance option for the BMW 3-Series, first to be released along with the new 3-series E92 Coupé, to be followed closely by other existing 3-series models, then with...

 twin-turbo-charged direct injection inline-six engine for its 335i Coupe and later for the 335i Sedan, 535i series and the 135i models. Mercedes-Benz
Mercedes-Benz
Mercedes-Benz is a German manufacturer of automobiles, buses, coaches, and trucks. Mercedes-Benz is a division of its parent company, Daimler AG...

 released its direct injection system (Charged Gasoline Injection, or "CGI") on the CLS 350 CGI featuring common rail, piezo-electric direct fuel injectors. The CLS 350 CGI offers 292 BHP versus 272 BHP for the CLS 350, with reduced carbon dioxide emissions and improved fuel economy.

In 2007, Ford
Ford Motor Company
Ford Motor Company is an American multinational automaker based in Dearborn, Michigan, a suburb of Detroit. The automaker was founded by Henry Ford and incorporated on June 16, 1903. In addition to the Ford and Lincoln brands, Ford also owns a small stake in Mazda in Japan and Aston Martin in the UK...

 introduced its new Ford EcoBoost
Ford EcoBoost engine
EcoBoost is a family of turbocharged and direct injected six-cylinder and four-cylinder gasoline engines produced by the Ford Motor Company. Engines equipped with EcoBoost technology are designed to deliver power and torque consistent with larger displacement, naturally aspirated engines while...

 engine technology designed for a range of global vehicles (from small cars to large trucks). The engine first appeared in the 2007 Lincoln MKR Concept under the name TwinForce. The new global EcoBoost family of 4-cylinder and 6-cylinder engines features turbocharging and direct injection technology (GTDI - Gasoline Turbocharged Direct Injection). A 2.0 L version was unveiled in the 2008 Ford Explorer America Concept.

In 2008, BMW
BMW
Bayerische Motoren Werke AG is a German automobile, motorcycle and engine manufacturing company founded in 1916. It also owns and produces the Mini marque, and is the parent company of Rolls-Royce Motor Cars. BMW produces motorcycles under BMW Motorrad and Husqvarna brands...

 released the X6 xDrive50i equipped with a direct injected twin turbo N63
BMW N63
The N63 is a family of 4.4L, direct-injected, twin-turbocharged V8 automobile engines produced by BMW since 2008.-Specifications:The N63B44 features a reverse-flow air design in which the turbochargers are mounted in the engine valley and the intake manifolds are located on the sides of the block...

 V8 engine.

In 2009, Ferrari
Ferrari
Ferrari S.p.A. is an Italian sports car manufacturer based in Maranello, Italy. Founded by Enzo Ferrari in 1929, as Scuderia Ferrari, the company sponsored drivers and manufactured race cars before moving into production of street-legal vehicles as Ferrari S.p.A. in 1947...

 began selling the front-engine California
Ferrari California
The Ferrari California is a grand touring sports car that was launched by Ferrari at the 2008 Paris Motor Show. It is a two door "2+2" hard top convertible. The California is powered by front-mid mounted gasoline direct injection V8 with...

 with a direct injection system, and announced that its new 458 Italia car will also feature a direct injection system, a first for Ferrari mid-rear engine setups. Porsche
Porsche
Porsche Automobil Holding SE, usually shortened to Porsche SE a Societas Europaea or European Public Company, is a German based holding company with investments in the automotive industry....

 also began selling the 997
Porsche 997
The Porsche Type 997 , also simply called the 997 is the current version of the 911 family sports car built by German manufacturer Porsche in Stuttgart-Zuffenhausen...

 and Cayman
Porsche Cayman
The Porsche Cayman is a mid-engined, rear wheel drive 2-seat sports car produced by Porsche AG of Germany. First launched in the 2006 model year, the Cayman is a coupé derived from Porsche's second generation Boxster convertible. Like the Boxster, most Caymans were assembled in Finland for Porsche...

 equipped with direct injection. Ford produced the new generation Taurus SHO
Ford Taurus SHO
The Ford Taurus SHO is a full-size performance sedan based on the Ford Taurus that was originally produced by the Ford Motor Company from 1989 until 1999. It returned in 2009 for the 2010 model year....

 and Flex
Ford Flex
The Ford Flex is a full-size crossover manufactured by Ford Motor Company. Its styling is based on the Ford Fairlane concept unveiled at the 2005 North American International Auto Show. The production vehicle made its debut at the 2007 New York International Auto Show. Sales of the Flex began in...

 with a 3.5 L twin-turbo EcoBoost V-6
Ford EcoBoost engine
EcoBoost is a family of turbocharged and direct injected six-cylinder and four-cylinder gasoline engines produced by the Ford Motor Company. Engines equipped with EcoBoost technology are designed to deliver power and torque consistent with larger displacement, naturally aspirated engines while...

 with direct injection.
Holden
Holden
GM Holden Ltd is an automaker that operates in Australia, based in Port Melbourne, Victoria. The company was founded in 1856 as a saddlery manufacturer. In 1908 it moved into the automotive field, before becoming a subsidiary of the U.S.-based General Motors in 1931...

 has also added two direct injection engines as standard on the V6 variant Commodores
Holden Commodore
The Holden Commodore is an automobile manufactured since 1978 by the Holden subsidiary of General Motors in Australia, and, formerly, in New Zealand. In the mid-1970s, Holden established proposals to replace the long-serving Kingswood nameplate with a smaller, Opel-based model...

 under the name of SIDI or Spark Ignition Direct Injection. The Infiniti
Infiniti
is the luxury division of automaker Nissan. Infiniti officially started selling vehicles on November 8, 1989 in North America. Marketing operations have since grown to include the Middle East, South Korea, Russia, Taiwan, China, Ukraine and the United Kingdom. Infiniti began sales in additional...

 Essence concept car is powered by a direct injected twin turbo V6. The Jaguar Land Rover AJ-V8 Gen III 5.0 L engine (introduced in August 2009 for the 2010 model year) features spray-guided direct injection.

In 2010 Infiniti will produce the M56 which includes DI. Motus Motorcycles is developing, with Katech Engines, a direct-injected V4 engine named the KMV4 as the powertrain for their MST motorcycles
Motus MST
The Motus MST is a sport touring motorcycle that will be produced from 2012. The manufacturer, Motus Corp. of Birmingham, Alabama, was at the time of its announcement the newest motorcycle manufacturer in the United States...

.
The Hyundai Sonata
Hyundai Sonata
The Hyundai Sonata is a mid-size car/full-size car manufactured and marketed globally by Hyundai Motor Company. From the sixth generation onwards, it is known as the i45 in the Australian, Singaporean and New Zealand markets...

 2011 model will come with GDI engines. Hyundai's Theta I-4 engine family is a proprietary design, engineered in Namyang, Korea and currently in production for applications all over the world.

In two-stroke engines


The benefits of direct injection are even more pronounced in two-stroke engines, because it eliminates much of the pollution they cause. In all two-strokes, the exhaust and intake ports are both open at the same time, at the bottom of the piston stroke, for "scavenging". In coventional two-strokes, a large portion of the fuel/air mixture entering the cylinder from the crankcase through the intake ports goes directly out, unburned, through the exhaust port. With direct injection, only air (and usually some oil) comes from the crankcase, and fuel is not injected until the piston rises and all ports are closed.

Some Goliath
Goliath (car)
Goliath was a German car brand started in 1928 and which was part of the Borgward group. Goliath was based in Bremen and specialized in three-wheeler cars and trucks and medium-sized cars.-Early history:...

 two stroke cars built in the early 1950s had direct injection, but their engines were soon superseded by four strokes.

Two types of GDi are used in two-strokes: low-pressure air-assisted, and high-pressure. The former, developed by Orbital Engine Corporation of Australia (now Orbital Corporation) injects a mixture of fuel and compressed air into the combustion chamber. When the air expands it atomizes the fuel. The Orbital system is used in motor scooters
Scooter (motorcycle)
A scooter is a motorcycle with step-through frame and a platform for the operator's feet. Elements of scooter design have been present in some of the earliest motorcycles, and motorcycles identifiable as scooters have been made from 1914 or earlier...

 manufactured by Aprilia, Piaggio, Peugeot and Kymco, in outboard motors manufactured by Mercury and Tohatsu, and in personal watercraft manufactured by Bombardier Recreational Products
Bombardier Recreational Products
Bombardier Recreational Products or BRP is a Canadian company that traces its roots back to the year 1942 when Joseph-Armand Bombardier founded L'Auto-Neige Bombardier Limitée in Valcourt in the Eastern Townships, Quebec.In 2003, Bombardier Inc...

 (BRP).

The high-pressure direct injector for two strokek engines was developed in the early 1990s by Ficht GmbH of Kirchseeon
Kirchseeon
Kirchseeon is a market town in the Upper Bavarian district of Ebersberg and lies 15 km east of Munich city limits.The nearest communities are Grafing and Ebersberg. The Bavarian capital, Munich, can be reached by S-Bahn , which runs over the Munich–Salzburg line...

 Germany. Outboard Marine Corporation (OMC) licensed the technology in 1995 and introduced it on a production outboard engine in 1996. OMC purchased a controlling interest in Ficht in 1998. Beset by extensive warranty claims for its Ficht outboards and prior and concurrent management-financial problems, OMC declared bankruptcy in December 2000 and the engine manufacturing portion and brands (Evinrude Outboard Motors
Evinrude Outboard Motors
Evinrude Outboard Motors is a company that builds a major brand of outboard motors for boats. Founded by Ole Evinrude in Milwaukee, Wisconsin in 1907, it was formerly owned by the publicly traded Outboard Marine Corporation , and is now owned by privately held Bombardier Recreational Products.-...

 and Johnson Outboards
Johnson Outboards
Johnson Outboards was a US based manufacturer of outboard motors. The original company to make Johnson inboard motors and outboard motors was the Johnson Bros. Motor Company of Terre Haute, Indiana, United States...

), including the Ficht technology, were purchased by BRP in 2001.

Evinrude introduced the E-Tec system, an improvement to the Ficht fuel injection, in 2003, based on U.S. patent
Patent
A patent is a form of intellectual property. It consists of a set of exclusive rights granted by a sovereign state to an inventor or their assignee for a limited period of time in exchange for the public disclosure of an invention....

 6,398,511. In 2004, Evinrude received the EPA Clean Air Excellence Award for their outboards utilizing the E-Tec system. The E-Tec system has recently also been adapted for use in performance two-stroke snowmobiles.

Yamaha also has a high-pressure direct injection (HPDI) system for two-stroke outboards. It differs from the Ficht/E-Tec and Orbital direct injection systems because it uses a separate, belt driven, high-pressure, mechanical fuel pump to generate the pressure necessary for injection in a closed chamber. This is similar to most current 4-stroke
Four-stroke cycle
A four-stroke engine, also known as four-cycle, is an internal combustion engine in which the piston completes four separate strokes—intake, compression, power, and exhaust—during two separate revolutions of the engine's crankshaft, and one single thermodynamic cycle.There are two...

 automotive designs.

EnviroFit
Envirofit
Envirofit International is a nonprofit project that develops technology that reduces pollution and enhances energy efficiency in developing countries, particularly in Asia. Envirofit hopes that its endeavors will "promote environmental benefits, improve public health, foster economic growth, and...

, a non-profit corporation sponsored by Colorado State University
Colorado State University
Colorado State University is a public research university located in Fort Collins, Colorado. The university is the state's land grant university, and the flagship university of the Colorado State University System.The enrollment is approximately 29,932 students, including resident and...

, has developed direct injection retrofit kits for two-stroke motorcycles in a project to reduce air pollution
Air pollution
Air pollution is the introduction of chemicals, particulate matter, or biological materials that cause harm or discomfort to humans or other living organisms, or cause damage to the natural environment or built environment, into the atmosphere....

 in Southeast Asia
Southeast Asia
Southeast Asia, South-East Asia, South East Asia or Southeastern Asia is a subregion of Asia, consisting of the countries that are geographically south of China, east of India, west of New Guinea and north of Australia. The region lies on the intersection of geological plates, with heavy seismic...

, using technology developed by Orbital Corporation
Orbital Corporation Limited
Orbital Corporation Limited , formerly Orbital Engine Corporation Limited pioneered by Ralph Sarich, is an Australian company based at Balcatta, Western Australia, that aims to provide clean engine technologies and alternative fuel systems with reduced environmental impact from gas emissions and...

 of Australia.
The World Health Organization
World Health Organization
The World Health Organization is a specialized agency of the United Nations that acts as a coordinating authority on international public health. Established on 7 April 1948, with headquarters in Geneva, Switzerland, the agency inherited the mandate and resources of its predecessor, the Health...

 says air pollution in Southeast Asia and the Pacific causes 537,000 premature deaths each year. The 100-million two-stroke taxis and motorcycles in that part of the world are a major cause.

Twin-fuel engines


Code named Bobcat, the new twin-fuel engine from Ford is based on a 5.0L V8 engine block but uses E85
E85
E85 is an abbreviation for an ethanol fuel blend of up to 85% denatured ethanol fuel and gasoline or other hydrocarbon by volume. E85 is commonly used by flex-fuel vehicles in the US, Canada, and Europe. Some of the benefits of E85 over conventional gasoline powered vehicles include the potential...

 cylinder injection and gasoline port injection. The engine was co-developed with Ethanol Boosting Systems, LLC of Cambridge, Massachusetts
Cambridge, Massachusetts
Cambridge is a city in Middlesex County, Massachusetts, United States, in the Greater Boston area. It was named in honor of the University of Cambridge in England, an important center of the Puritan theology embraced by the town's founders. Cambridge is home to two of the world's most prominent...

, which calls its trademarked process DI Octane Boost. The direct injection of ethanol increases the octane of regular gasoline from 88-91 octane
Octane rating
Octane rating or octane number is a standard measure of the anti-knock properties of a motor or aviation fuel. The higher the octane number, the more compression the fuel can withstand before detonating...

 to more than 150 octane. The Bobcat project was unveiled to the United States Department of Energy
United States Department of Energy
The United States Department of Energy is a Cabinet-level department of the United States government concerned with the United States' policies regarding energy and safety in handling nuclear material...

 and the SAE International
SAE International
SAE International is an organization for engineering professionals in the aerospace, automotive, and commercial vehicle industries. The Society is a standards development organization for the engineering of powered vehicles of all kinds, including cars, trucks, boats, aircraft, and others.SAE...

 in April 2009.

Formula One


As part of the rule changes under discussion for the 2013 season, GDI has been mentioned as a potential technology of interest by Ferrari.

See also

  • Alfa Romeo JTS engine
    JTS engine
    The JTS engine is a gasoline direct injection engine produced by Alfa Romeo. It exists in two forms, straight-4 and V6, and was introduced into the Alfa lineup in 2002.-2.0:...

  • BMW N53
    BMW N53
    The BMW N53 is BMW's 14th generation production straight 6 engine, released in 2007 in the facelifted BMW 5 Series and the BMW 3 Series . It is an improvement on the N52 Naturally Aspirated engine mainly since it has gasoline direct injection technology and can burn stratified...

  • BMW N63
    BMW N63
    The N63 is a family of 4.4L, direct-injected, twin-turbocharged V8 automobile engines produced by BMW since 2008.-Specifications:The N63B44 features a reverse-flow air design in which the turbochargers are mounted in the engine valley and the intake manifolds are located on the sides of the block...

  • Ford EcoBoost engine
    Ford EcoBoost engine
    EcoBoost is a family of turbocharged and direct injected six-cylinder and four-cylinder gasoline engines produced by the Ford Motor Company. Engines equipped with EcoBoost technology are designed to deliver power and torque consistent with larger displacement, naturally aspirated engines while...

  • Mitsubishi 4G93
  • Nissan VQ engine
    Nissan VQ engine
    The VQ is a V6 piston engine produced by Nissan with displacements varying from 2.0 L to 4.0 L. It is an aluminum block DOHC 4-valve design with aluminum heads. It is fitted with Nissan's EGI/ECCS sequential multi-point fuel injection system...

  • Nissan VK engine
    Nissan VK engine
    The VK engine is a V8 piston engine from Nissan. It is an aluminum DOHC 4-valve design.The VK56 engine was originally based on Nissan's VQ V6 rather than the VH V8 used in previous Q45/Cima models. Changes include: a variable polymer intake manifold, newly designed heads, and a larger drive by...