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Fumage is a surrealist painting technique
Surrealist techniques
Surrealism in art, poetry, and literature uses numerous techniques and games to provide inspiration. Many of these are said to free imagination by producing a creative process free of conscious control. The importance of the unconscious as a source of inspiration is central to the nature of...

 invented by Wolfgang Paalen
Wolfgang Paalen
Wolfgang Paalen was an Austrian-Mexican painter and theorist.-Early life:Wolfgang Paalen was born in Vienna in 1905, as the first of four sons of the Austrian-Jewish merchant and inventor Gustav Robert Paalen, and his German wife, the actress Clothilde Emilie Gunkel...

 in which impressions are made by the smoke
Smoke is a collection of airborne solid and liquid particulates and gases emitted when a material undergoes combustion or pyrolysis, together with the quantity of air that is entrained or otherwise mixed into the mass. It is commonly an unwanted by-product of fires , but may also be used for pest...

 of a candle
A candle is a solid block or cylinder of wax with an embedded wick, which is lit to provide light, and sometimes heat.Today, most candles are made from paraffin. Candles can also be made from beeswax, soy, other plant waxes, and tallow...

 or kerosene lamp
Kerosene lamp
The kerosene lamp is a type of lighting device that uses kerosene as a fuel. This article refers to kerosene lamps that have a wick and a tall glass chimney. Kerosene lanterns that have a wick and a glass globe are related to kerosene lamps and are included here as well...

 on a piece of paper or canvas.

It was later employed by Salvador Dalí
Salvador Dalí
Salvador Domènec Felip Jacint Dalí i Domènech, Marquis de Púbol , commonly known as Salvador Dalí , was a prominent Spanish Catalan surrealist painter born in Figueres,Spain....

, who called it "sfumato"http://www.constant-content.com/article/3511/Paintbrush-of-Fire!-The-Art-of-Fumage/.

Both Paalen and Dali used the technique as a basis for their oil paintings. Paalen's elongated surreal landscapes and Dali's elongated, wavy treatment of animals and objects reveal the influence of the technique on their imagery.

Hugh Parker Guiler
Hugh Parker Guiler
Hugh Parker Guiler also known as Ian Hugo was Anaïs Nin's husband from 1923 until her death in 1977, and a skilled engraver and filmmaker in his own right.-Biography:...

, the husband of author Anaïs Nin
Anaïs Nin
Anaïs Nin was a French-Cuban author, based at first in France and later in the United States, who published her journals, which span more than 60 years, beginning when she was 11 years old and ending shortly before her death, her erotic literature, and short stories...

, began his art career as a fumage artist. Some of his fumage work, under the name "Ian Hugo", was used as cover art for Nin's books. The 1987 film Henry and June
Henry and June
Henry and June: From the Unexpurgated Diary of Anaïs Nin is a 1986 book that is based upon material excerpted from the unpublished diaries of Anais Nin...

briefly depicts Guiler experimenting with fumage. A living artist who is using fumage is the Turkish-American painter Burhan Doğançay
Burhan Dogançay
-Biography:Burhan Dogançay obtained his artistic training from his father Adil Doğançay, and Arif Kaptan, both well-known Turkish painters. In his youth, Dogançay played on the Turkish Gençlerbirliği soccer team. In 1950, he received a law degree from the University of Ankara, Turkey...

 (one example being his Cones Series
Cones Series
The Cones Series is a series of 87 abstract paintings by Turkish artist Burhan Doğançay, executed between 1986 and 1995 and featuring cones.In almost all of the paintings in the series the collage and fumage techniques are applied.-External links:*...


British artist Adam Blakemore produces stunning portraits using only smoke on wood. His work can be found here.