Full translation of the Behistun Inscription

Full translation of the Behistun Inscription

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The following translation of the Behistun Inscription
Behistun Inscription
The Behistun Inscription The Behistun Inscription The Behistun Inscription (also Bistun or Bisutun, Modern Persian: بیستون The Behistun Inscription (also Bistun or Bisutun, Modern Persian: بیستون...

was made by L.W. King and R.C. Thompson

Where names are quoted in a Greekified or Biblical form, the Persian original sometimes follows in square brackets.

In original Persian words and names, "x"(like Cyrillic X) means the "kh" sound as German "ch" in "ach".

Introduction: Darius's titles and the extent of his empire


  • (1) I am Darius
    Darius I of Persia
    Darius I , also known as Darius the Great, was the third king of kings of the Achaemenid Empire...

     [Dâryavuš], the great king
    Great King
    Great King and the equivalent in many languages is a semantic title for historical titles of Monarchs, suggesting an elevated status among the host of Kings and Princes...

    , king of kings
    King of Kings
    King of Kings is a title that has been used by several monarchies and empires throughout history. The title originates in the Ancient Near East. It is broadly the equivalent of the later title Emperor....

    , the king of Persia [Pârsa], the king of countries, the son of Hystaspes
    Hystaspes
    Vishtaspa, Hellenized as Hystaspes , may refer to:* Vishtaspa , the first patron of Zoroaster...

    , the grandson of Arsames, the Achaemenid.

  • (2) King Darius
    Darius I of Persia
    Darius I , also known as Darius the Great, was the third king of kings of the Achaemenid Empire...

     says: My father is Hystaspes
    Hystaspes
    Vishtaspa, Hellenized as Hystaspes , may refer to:* Vishtaspa , the first patron of Zoroaster...

     [Vištâspa]; the father of Hystaspes
    Hystaspes
    Vishtaspa, Hellenized as Hystaspes , may refer to:* Vishtaspa , the first patron of Zoroaster...

     was Arsames [Aršâma]; the father of Arsames was Ariaramnes [Ariyâramna]; the father of Ariaramnes was Teispes [Cišpiš]; the father of Teispes was Achaemenes
    Achaemenes
    Achaemenēs was the eponymous ancestor of the Achaemenid Dynasty, who ruled Persia between 705 BC and 675 BC.The name is a bahuvrihi compound literally translating to "having a friend's mind", or "characterized by a follower's spirit"....

     [Haxâmaniš].

  • (3) King Darius
    Darius I of Persia
    Darius I , also known as Darius the Great, was the third king of kings of the Achaemenid Empire...

     says: That is why we are called Achaemenids; from antiquity we have been noble; from antiquity has our dynasty been royal.

  • (4) King Darius
    Darius I of Persia
    Darius I , also known as Darius the Great, was the third king of kings of the Achaemenid Empire...

     says: Eight of my dynasty were kings before me; I am the ninth. Nine in succession we have been kings.

  • (5) King Darius
    Darius I of Persia
    Darius I , also known as Darius the Great, was the third king of kings of the Achaemenid Empire...

     says: By the grace of Ahuramazda am I king; Ahuramazda has granted me the kingdom.

  • (6) King Darius
    Darius I of Persia
    Darius I , also known as Darius the Great, was the third king of kings of the Achaemenid Empire...

     says: These are the countries which are subject unto me, and by the grace of Ahuramazda I became king of them: Persia [Pârsa], Elam
    Elam
    Elam was an ancient civilization located in what is now southwest Iran. Elam was centered in the far west and the southwest of modern-day Iran, stretching from the lowlands of Khuzestan and Ilam Province, as well as a small part of southern Iraq...

     [Ûvja], Babylonia
    Babylonia
    Babylonia was an ancient cultural region in central-southern Mesopotamia , with Babylon as its capital. Babylonia emerged as a major power when Hammurabi Babylonia was an ancient cultural region in central-southern Mesopotamia (present-day Iraq), with Babylon as its capital. Babylonia emerged as...

     [Bâbiruš], Assyria
    Assyria
    Assyria was a Semitic Akkadian kingdom, extant as a nation state from the mid–23rd century BC to 608 BC centred on the Upper Tigris river, in northern Mesopotamia , that came to rule regional empires a number of times through history. It was named for its original capital, the ancient city of Assur...

     [Athurâ], Arabia [Arabâya], Egypt
    Egypt
    Egypt , officially the Arab Republic of Egypt, Arabic: , is a country mainly in North Africa, with the Sinai Peninsula forming a land bridge in Southwest Asia. Egypt is thus a transcontinental country, and a major power in Africa, the Mediterranean Basin, the Middle East and the Muslim world...

     [Mudrâya], the countries by the Sea, Lydia
    Lydia
    Lydia was an Iron Age kingdom of western Asia Minor located generally east of ancient Ionia in the modern Turkish provinces of Manisa and inland İzmir. Its population spoke an Anatolian language known as Lydian....

     [Sparda], the Greeks [Yauna], Media
    Medes
    The MedesThe Medes...

     [Mâda], Armenia
    Armenia
    Armenia , officially the Republic of Armenia , is a landlocked mountainous country in the Caucasus region of Eurasia...

     [Armina], Cappadocia
    Cappadocia
    Cappadocia is a historical region in Central Anatolia, largely in Nevşehir Province.In the time of Herodotus, the Cappadocians were reported as occupying the whole region from Mount Taurus to the vicinity of the Euxine...

     [Katpatuka], Parthia
    Parthia
    Parthia is a region of north-eastern Iran, best known for having been the political and cultural base of the Arsacid dynasty, rulers of the Parthian Empire....

     [Parthava], Drangiana
    Drangiana
    Drangiana or Zarangiana was a historical region of the Achaemenid Empire. This region comprises territory around lake Hâmûn, wetlands in endorheic Sīstān basin on the Irano-Afghan-Pakistan border, and its primary watershed Helmand river in nowadays southwestern Afghanistan and the "Nok Kondi" of...

     [Zraka], Aria [Haraiva], Chorasmia [Uvârazmîy], Bactria
    Bactria
    Bactria and also appears in the Zend Avesta as Bukhdi. It is the ancient name of a historical region located between south of the Amu Darya and west of the Indus River...

     [Bâxtriš], Sogdia [Suguda], Gandara
    Gandara
    Gandara may refer to:People:*Raúl Gándara-Cartagena, long-time Ponce fire chiefPlaces:*Gandara, Samar, a Philippine municipality*Gandara, Buenos Aires, a village in Chascomús Partido, Argentina*Gándara, a river in Cantabria, Spain...

     [Gadâra], Scythia
    Scythia
    In antiquity, Scythian or Scyths were terms used by the Greeks to refer to certain Iranian groups of horse-riding nomadic pastoralists who dwelt on the Pontic-Caspian steppe...

     [Saka] (Ghi-mi-ri or Cimmeria
    Cimmeria
    Cimmeria may refer to:*Cimmeria, an ancient name of the Crimea, a peninsula in the North part of Black Sea, or the Eastern part thereof*Cimmerians, an ancient people who lived in the south of modern-day Ukraine in the 8th and 7th century BC, usually associated with the ancient Cimmeria or Crimea...

     in Babylonian version), Sattagydia
    Sattagydia
    Sattagydia was a satrapy of the Achaemenid Empire, situated east of the Kirthar Mountains on the Indus River, corresponding approximately to southern Indoscythia and to the current Sindh region of Pakistan...

     [Thataguš], Arachosia
    Arachosia
    Arachosia is the Latinized form of the Greek name of an Achaemenid and Seleucid governorate in the eastern part of their respective empires, around modern-day southern Afghanistan. The Greek term "Arachosia" corresponds to the Iranian land of Harauti which was between Kandahar in Afghanistan and...

     [Harauvatiš] and Maka
    Maka
    Maka may refer to:* Maka people, of Cameroon* Maká, a native American people from Paraguay* Lepidium meyenii, a vegetable of the Andes* Makaa language, of Cameroon* Maka, Biffeche, capital of the kingdom of Biffeche in pre-colonial Senegal...

     [Maka]; twenty-three lands in all.

  • (7) King Darius
    Darius I of Persia
    Darius I , also known as Darius the Great, was the third king of kings of the Achaemenid Empire...

     says: These are the countries which are subject to me; by the grace of Ahuramazda they became subject to me; they brought tribute unto me. Whatsoever commands have been laid on them by me, by night or by day, have been performed by them.

  • (8) King Darius
    Darius I of Persia
    Darius I , also known as Darius the Great, was the third king of kings of the Achaemenid Empire...

     says: Within these lands, whosoever was a friend, him have I surely protected; whosoever was hostile, him have I utterly destroyed. By the grace of Ahuramazda these lands have conformed to my decrees; as it was commanded unto them by me, so was it done.

  • (9) King Darius
    Darius I of Persia
    Darius I , also known as Darius the Great, was the third king of kings of the Achaemenid Empire...

     says: Ahuramazda has granted unto me this empire
    Achaemenid Empire
    The Achaemenid Empire , sometimes known as First Persian Empire and/or Persian Empire, was founded in the 6th century BCE by Cyrus the Great who overthrew the Median confederation...

    . Ahuramazda brought me help, until I gained this empire; by the grace of Ahuramazda do I hold this empire.

Murder of Smerdis and coup of Gaumâta the Magian

  • (10) King Darius
    Darius I of Persia
    Darius I , also known as Darius the Great, was the third king of kings of the Achaemenid Empire...

     says: The following is what was done by me after I became king. A son of Cyrus
    Cyrus the Great
    Cyrus II of Persia , commonly known as Cyrus the Great, also known as Cyrus the Elder, was the founder of the Achaemenid Empire. Under his rule, the empire embraced all the previous civilized states of the ancient Near East, expanded vastly and eventually conquered most of Southwest Asia and much...

     [Kûruš], named Cambyses
    Cambyses
    Cambyses can refer to two ancient rulers and two plays:-*Cambyses I, King of Anshan 600 to 559 BCE*Cambyses II, King of Persia 530 to 522 BCE*Cambyses, a tragedy by Thomas Preston...

     [Kabûjiya], one of our dynasty, was king here before me. That Cambyses
    Cambyses
    Cambyses can refer to two ancient rulers and two plays:-*Cambyses I, King of Anshan 600 to 559 BCE*Cambyses II, King of Persia 530 to 522 BCE*Cambyses, a tragedy by Thomas Preston...

     had a brother, Smerdis [Bardiya] by name, of the same mother and the same father as Cambyses
    Cambyses
    Cambyses can refer to two ancient rulers and two plays:-*Cambyses I, King of Anshan 600 to 559 BCE*Cambyses II, King of Persia 530 to 522 BCE*Cambyses, a tragedy by Thomas Preston...

    . Afterwards, Cambyses
    Cambyses
    Cambyses can refer to two ancient rulers and two plays:-*Cambyses I, King of Anshan 600 to 559 BCE*Cambyses II, King of Persia 530 to 522 BCE*Cambyses, a tragedy by Thomas Preston...

     slew this Smerdis. When Cambyses
    Cambyses
    Cambyses can refer to two ancient rulers and two plays:-*Cambyses I, King of Anshan 600 to 559 BCE*Cambyses II, King of Persia 530 to 522 BCE*Cambyses, a tragedy by Thomas Preston...

     slew Smerdis, it was not known unto the people that Smerdis was slain. Thereupon Cambyses
    Cambyses
    Cambyses can refer to two ancient rulers and two plays:-*Cambyses I, King of Anshan 600 to 559 BCE*Cambyses II, King of Persia 530 to 522 BCE*Cambyses, a tragedy by Thomas Preston...

     went to Egypt
    Egypt
    Egypt , officially the Arab Republic of Egypt, Arabic: , is a country mainly in North Africa, with the Sinai Peninsula forming a land bridge in Southwest Asia. Egypt is thus a transcontinental country, and a major power in Africa, the Mediterranean Basin, the Middle East and the Muslim world...

    . When Cambyses
    Cambyses
    Cambyses can refer to two ancient rulers and two plays:-*Cambyses I, King of Anshan 600 to 559 BCE*Cambyses II, King of Persia 530 to 522 BCE*Cambyses, a tragedy by Thomas Preston...

     had departed into Egypt
    Egypt
    Egypt , officially the Arab Republic of Egypt, Arabic: , is a country mainly in North Africa, with the Sinai Peninsula forming a land bridge in Southwest Asia. Egypt is thus a transcontinental country, and a major power in Africa, the Mediterranean Basin, the Middle East and the Muslim world...

    , the people became hostile, and the lie multiplied in the land, even in Persia and Media
    Medes
    The MedesThe Medes...

    , and in the other provinces.

  • (11) King Darius
    Darius I of Persia
    Darius I , also known as Darius the Great, was the third king of kings of the Achaemenid Empire...

     says: Afterwards, there was a certain man, a Magian [maguš], Gaumâta by name, who raised a rebellion in Paishiyauvada
    Paishiyauvada
    Paishiyauvada was a Persian city during the Achaemenid era.Gaumata the Magian pretended to be Smerdis and proclaimed himself king on the mountain Arakadrish near the town Paishiyauvada...

    , in a mountain called Arakadriš. On the fourteenth day of the month Viyaxana (11 March 522 BC) did he rebel. He lied to the people, saying: 'I am Smerdis, the son of Cyrus, the brother of Cambyses
    Cambyses
    Cambyses can refer to two ancient rulers and two plays:-*Cambyses I, King of Anshan 600 to 559 BCE*Cambyses II, King of Persia 530 to 522 BCE*Cambyses, a tragedy by Thomas Preston...

    .' Then were all the people in revolt, and from Cambyses
    Cambyses
    Cambyses can refer to two ancient rulers and two plays:-*Cambyses I, King of Anshan 600 to 559 BCE*Cambyses II, King of Persia 530 to 522 BCE*Cambyses, a tragedy by Thomas Preston...

     they went over unto him, both Persia and Media
    Medes
    The MedesThe Medes...

    , and the other provinces. He seized the kingdom; on the ninth day of the month Garmapada (1 July 522 BC) he seized the kingdom. Afterwards, Cambyses died of natural causes.

  • (12) King Darius
    Darius I of Persia
    Darius I , also known as Darius the Great, was the third king of kings of the Achaemenid Empire...

      says: The kingdom of which Gaumâta, the Magian, dispossessed Cambyses
    Cambyses
    Cambyses can refer to two ancient rulers and two plays:-*Cambyses I, King of Anshan 600 to 559 BCE*Cambyses II, King of Persia 530 to 522 BCE*Cambyses, a tragedy by Thomas Preston...

    , had always belonged to our dynasty. After that Gaumâta, the Magian, had dispossessed Cambyses
    Cambyses
    Cambyses can refer to two ancient rulers and two plays:-*Cambyses I, King of Anshan 600 to 559 BCE*Cambyses II, King of Persia 530 to 522 BCE*Cambyses, a tragedy by Thomas Preston...

     of Persia and Media
    Medes
    The MedesThe Medes...

    , and of the other provinces, he did according to his will. He became king.

Darius kills Gaumâta and restores the kingdom

  • (13) King Darius
    Darius I of Persia
    Darius I , also known as Darius the Great, was the third king of kings of the Achaemenid Empire...

     says: There was no man, either Persian
    Persian people
    The Persian people are part of the Iranian peoples who speak the modern Persian language and closely akin Iranian dialects and languages. The origin of the ethnic Iranian/Persian peoples are traced to the Ancient Iranian peoples, who were part of the ancient Indo-Iranians and themselves part of...

     or Mede or of our own dynasty, who took the kingdom from Gaumâta, the Magian. The people feared him exceedingly, for he slew many who had known the real Smerdis. For this reason did he slay them, 'that they may not know that I am not Smerdis, the son of Cyrus.' There was none who dared to act against Gaumâta, the Magian, until I came. Then I prayed to Ahuramazda; Ahuramazda brought me help. On the tenth day of the month Bâgayâdiš (29 September 522 BC) I, with a few men, slew that Gaumâta, the Magian, and the chief men who were his followers. At the stronghold called Sikayauvatiš, in the district called Nisaia in Media
    Medes
    The MedesThe Medes...

    , I slew him; I dispossessed him of the kingdom. By the grace of Ahuramazda I became king; Ahuramazda granted me the kingdom.

  • (14) King Darius
    Darius I of Persia
    Darius I , also known as Darius the Great, was the third king of kings of the Achaemenid Empire...

     says: The kingdom that had been wrested from our line I brought back and I reestablished it on its foundation. The temples which Gaumâta, the Magian, had destroyed, I restored to the people, and the pasture lands, and the herds and the dwelling places, and the houses which Gaumâta, the Magian, had taken away. I settled the people in their place, the people of Persia, and Media
    Medes
    The MedesThe Medes...

    , and the other provinces. I restored that which had been taken away, as is was in the days of old. This did I by the grace of Ahuramazda, I labored until I had established our dynasty in its place, as in the days of old; I labored, by the grace of Ahuramazda, so that Gaumâta, the Magian, did not dispossess our house.

  • (15) King Darius
    Darius I of Persia
    Darius I , also known as Darius the Great, was the third king of kings of the Achaemenid Empire...

     says: This was what I did after I became king.

Rebellions of ššina of Elam and Nidintu-Bêl of Babylon



  • (16) King Darius
    Darius I of Persia
    Darius I , also known as Darius the Great, was the third king of kings of the Achaemenid Empire...

     says: After I had slain Gaumâta, the Magian, a certain man named ššina, the son of Upadarma, raised a rebellion in Elam
    Elam
    Elam was an ancient civilization located in what is now southwest Iran. Elam was centered in the far west and the southwest of modern-day Iran, stretching from the lowlands of Khuzestan and Ilam Province, as well as a small part of southern Iraq...

    , and he spoke thus unto the people of Elam
    Elam
    Elam was an ancient civilization located in what is now southwest Iran. Elam was centered in the far west and the southwest of modern-day Iran, stretching from the lowlands of Khuzestan and Ilam Province, as well as a small part of southern Iraq...

    : 'I am king in Elam
    Elam
    Elam was an ancient civilization located in what is now southwest Iran. Elam was centered in the far west and the southwest of modern-day Iran, stretching from the lowlands of Khuzestan and Ilam Province, as well as a small part of southern Iraq...

    .' Thereupon the people of Elam
    Elam
    Elam was an ancient civilization located in what is now southwest Iran. Elam was centered in the far west and the southwest of modern-day Iran, stretching from the lowlands of Khuzestan and Ilam Province, as well as a small part of southern Iraq...

     became rebellious, and they went over unto that ššina: he became king in Elam
    Elam
    Elam was an ancient civilization located in what is now southwest Iran. Elam was centered in the far west and the southwest of modern-day Iran, stretching from the lowlands of Khuzestan and Ilam Province, as well as a small part of southern Iraq...

    . And a certain Babylon
    Babylon
    Babylon was an Akkadian city-state of ancient Mesopotamia, the remains of which are found in present-day Al Hillah, Babil Province, Iraq, about 85 kilometers south of Baghdad...

    ian named Nidintu-Bêl, the son of Kîn-Zêr, raised a rebellion in Babylon
    Babylon
    Babylon was an Akkadian city-state of ancient Mesopotamia, the remains of which are found in present-day Al Hillah, Babil Province, Iraq, about 85 kilometers south of Baghdad...

    : he lied to the people, saying: 'I am Nebuchadnezzar
    Nebuchadnezzar IV
    Nebuchadnezzar IV, also known as Arakha, was the last king of Babylon.In 529 BC, with the disturbances that occurred after the death of Cambyses II and the proclamation of Bardiya as King, the Armenians revolted. Darius I of Persia sent an Armenian named Dâdarši to suffocate the revolt, later...

    , the son of Nabonidus
    Nabonidus
    Nabonidus was the last king of the Neo-Babylonian Empire, reigning from 556-539 BCE.-Historiography on Nabonidus:...

    .' Then did all the province of Babylonia
    Babylonia
    Babylonia was an ancient cultural region in central-southern Mesopotamia , with Babylon as its capital. Babylonia emerged as a major power when Hammurabi Babylonia was an ancient cultural region in central-southern Mesopotamia (present-day Iraq), with Babylon as its capital. Babylonia emerged as...

     go over to Nidintu-Bêl, and Babylonia
    Babylonia
    Babylonia was an ancient cultural region in central-southern Mesopotamia , with Babylon as its capital. Babylonia emerged as a major power when Hammurabi Babylonia was an ancient cultural region in central-southern Mesopotamia (present-day Iraq), with Babylon as its capital. Babylonia emerged as...

     rose in rebellion. He seized on the kingdom of Babylonia
    Babylonia
    Babylonia was an ancient cultural region in central-southern Mesopotamia , with Babylon as its capital. Babylonia emerged as a major power when Hammurabi Babylonia was an ancient cultural region in central-southern Mesopotamia (present-day Iraq), with Babylon as its capital. Babylonia emerged as...

     (3 October 522 BC).

  • (17) King Darius
    Darius I of Persia
    Darius I , also known as Darius the Great, was the third king of kings of the Achaemenid Empire...

     says: Then I sent (an envoy?) to Elam
    Elam
    Elam was an ancient civilization located in what is now southwest Iran. Elam was centered in the far west and the southwest of modern-day Iran, stretching from the lowlands of Khuzestan and Ilam Province, as well as a small part of southern Iraq...

    . That ššina was brought unto me in fetters, and I killed him.

  • (18) King Darius
    Darius I of Persia
    Darius I , also known as Darius the Great, was the third king of kings of the Achaemenid Empire...

     says: Then I marched against that Nidintu-Bêl, who called himself Nebuchadnezzar
    Nebuchadnezzar
    Nebuchadnezzar was the name of several kings of Babylonia.* Nebuchadnezzar I, who ruled the Babylonian Empire in the 12th century BC* Nebuchadnezzar II , the Babylonian ruler mentioned in the biblical Book of Daniel...

    . The army of Nidintu-Bêl held the Tigris
    Tigris
    The Tigris River is the eastern member of the two great rivers that define Mesopotamia, the other being the Euphrates. The river flows south from the mountains of southeastern Turkey through Iraq.-Geography:...

    ; there it took its stand, and on account of the waters (the river) was unfordable. Thereupon I supported my army on (inflated) skins, others I made dromedary-borne, for the rest I brought horses. Ahuramazda brought me help; by the grace of Ahuramazda we crossed the Tigris
    Tigris
    The Tigris River is the eastern member of the two great rivers that define Mesopotamia, the other being the Euphrates. The river flows south from the mountains of southeastern Turkey through Iraq.-Geography:...

    . Then did I utterly overthrow that host of Nidintu-Bêl. On the twenty-sixth day of the month Âçiyâdiya (13 December 522 BC) we joined battle.

  • (19) King Darius
    Darius I of Persia
    Darius I , also known as Darius the Great, was the third king of kings of the Achaemenid Empire...

     says: After that I marched against Babylon
    Babylon
    Babylon was an Akkadian city-state of ancient Mesopotamia, the remains of which are found in present-day Al Hillah, Babil Province, Iraq, about 85 kilometers south of Baghdad...

    . But before I reached Babylon
    Babylon
    Babylon was an Akkadian city-state of ancient Mesopotamia, the remains of which are found in present-day Al Hillah, Babil Province, Iraq, about 85 kilometers south of Baghdad...

    , that Nidintu-Bêl, who called himself Nebuchadnezzar
    Nebuchadnezzar
    Nebuchadnezzar was the name of several kings of Babylonia.* Nebuchadnezzar I, who ruled the Babylonian Empire in the 12th century BC* Nebuchadnezzar II , the Babylonian ruler mentioned in the biblical Book of Daniel...

    , came with a host and offered battle at a city called Zâzâna, on the Euphrates
    Euphrates
    The Euphrates is the longest and one of the most historically important rivers of Western Asia. Together with the Tigris, it is one of the two defining rivers of Mesopotamia...

    . Then we joined battle. Ahuramazda brought me help; by the grace of Ahuramazda did I utterly overthrow the host of Nidintu-Bêl. The enemy fled into the water; the water carried them away. On the second day of the month Anâmaka
    Anâmaka
    The month of Anâmaka is one of twelve months in the old Iranian calendar believed to be used in the Persian Empire before the Islamic conquest of Iran. Anâmaka starts on December 17....

     (18 December 522 BC) we joined battle.

Column two

  • (20) King Darius
    Darius I of Persia
    Darius I , also known as Darius the Great, was the third king of kings of the Achaemenid Empire...

     says: Then did Nidintu-Bêl flee with a few horsemen into Babylon
    Babylon
    Babylon was an Akkadian city-state of ancient Mesopotamia, the remains of which are found in present-day Al Hillah, Babil Province, Iraq, about 85 kilometers south of Baghdad...

    . Thereupon I marched to Babylon
    Babylon
    Babylon was an Akkadian city-state of ancient Mesopotamia, the remains of which are found in present-day Al Hillah, Babil Province, Iraq, about 85 kilometers south of Baghdad...

    . By the grace of Ahuramazda I took Babylon
    Babylon
    Babylon was an Akkadian city-state of ancient Mesopotamia, the remains of which are found in present-day Al Hillah, Babil Province, Iraq, about 85 kilometers south of Baghdad...

    , and captured Nidintu-Bêl. Then I slew that Nidintu-Bêl in Babylon
    Babylon
    Babylon was an Akkadian city-state of ancient Mesopotamia, the remains of which are found in present-day Al Hillah, Babil Province, Iraq, about 85 kilometers south of Baghdad...

    .

  • (21) King Darius
    Darius I of Persia
    Darius I , also known as Darius the Great, was the third king of kings of the Achaemenid Empire...

     says: While I was in Babylon
    Babylon
    Babylon was an Akkadian city-state of ancient Mesopotamia, the remains of which are found in present-day Al Hillah, Babil Province, Iraq, about 85 kilometers south of Baghdad...

    , these provinces revolted from me: Persia, Elam
    Elam
    Elam was an ancient civilization located in what is now southwest Iran. Elam was centered in the far west and the southwest of modern-day Iran, stretching from the lowlands of Khuzestan and Ilam Province, as well as a small part of southern Iraq...

    , Media
    Medes
    The MedesThe Medes...

    , Assyria
    Assyria
    Assyria was a Semitic Akkadian kingdom, extant as a nation state from the mid–23rd century BC to 608 BC centred on the Upper Tigris river, in northern Mesopotamia , that came to rule regional empires a number of times through history. It was named for its original capital, the ancient city of Assur...

    , Egypt
    Egypt
    Egypt , officially the Arab Republic of Egypt, Arabic: , is a country mainly in North Africa, with the Sinai Peninsula forming a land bridge in Southwest Asia. Egypt is thus a transcontinental country, and a major power in Africa, the Mediterranean Basin, the Middle East and the Muslim world...

    , Parthia
    Parthia
    Parthia is a region of north-eastern Iran, best known for having been the political and cultural base of the Arsacid dynasty, rulers of the Parthian Empire....

    , Margiana [Marguš], Sattagydia
    Sattagydia
    Sattagydia was a satrapy of the Achaemenid Empire, situated east of the Kirthar Mountains on the Indus River, corresponding approximately to southern Indoscythia and to the current Sindh region of Pakistan...

     [Thataguš], and Scythia
    Scythia
    In antiquity, Scythian or Scyths were terms used by the Greeks to refer to certain Iranian groups of horse-riding nomadic pastoralists who dwelt on the Pontic-Caspian steppe...

     [Saka].

Revolt of Martiya of Elam

  • (22) King Darius
    Darius I of Persia
    Darius I , also known as Darius the Great, was the third king of kings of the Achaemenid Empire...

     says: A certain man named Martiya, the son of Zinzakriš, dwelt in a city in Persia called Kuganakâ. This man revolted in Elam
    Elam
    Elam was an ancient civilization located in what is now southwest Iran. Elam was centered in the far west and the southwest of modern-day Iran, stretching from the lowlands of Khuzestan and Ilam Province, as well as a small part of southern Iraq...

    , and he said to the people: 'I am Ummaniš, king in Elam
    Elam
    Elam was an ancient civilization located in what is now southwest Iran. Elam was centered in the far west and the southwest of modern-day Iran, stretching from the lowlands of Khuzestan and Ilam Province, as well as a small part of southern Iraq...

    .'

  • (23) King Darius
    Darius I of Persia
    Darius I , also known as Darius the Great, was the third king of kings of the Achaemenid Empire...

     says: At that time, I was friendly with Elam
    Elam
    Elam was an ancient civilization located in what is now southwest Iran. Elam was centered in the far west and the southwest of modern-day Iran, stretching from the lowlands of Khuzestan and Ilam Province, as well as a small part of southern Iraq...

    . Then there were Elamites afraid of me, and that Martiya, who was their leader, they seized and slew.


Revolt of Phraortes of Media

  • (24) King Darius
    Darius I of Persia
    Darius I , also known as Darius the Great, was the third king of kings of the Achaemenid Empire...

     says: A certain Mede named Phraortes
    Phraortes
    Phraortes , son of Diyako, was the second king of the Median Empire....

     [Fravartiš] revolted in Media
    Medes
    The MedesThe Medes...

    , and he said to the people: 'I am Khshathrita, of the family of Cyaxares
    Cyaxares
    Cyaxares, Cyaxares the Great or Hvakhshathra , the son of King Phraortes, was the first king of Media. According to Herodotus, Cyaxares, grandson of Deioces, had a far greater military reputation than his father or grandfather, therefore he is often being described as the first official Median...

    .' Then did the Medes
    Medes
    The MedesThe Medes...

     who were in the palace revolt from me and go over to Phraortes
    Phraortes
    Phraortes , son of Diyako, was the second king of the Median Empire....

    . He became king in Media
    Medes
    The MedesThe Medes...

    .

  • (25) King Darius
    Darius I of Persia
    Darius I , also known as Darius the Great, was the third king of kings of the Achaemenid Empire...

     says: The Persian and Median
    Medes
    The MedesThe Medes...

     army, which was with me, was small. Yet I sent forth an(other) army. A Persian
    Persian people
    The Persian people are part of the Iranian peoples who speak the modern Persian language and closely akin Iranian dialects and languages. The origin of the ethnic Iranian/Persian peoples are traced to the Ancient Iranian peoples, who were part of the ancient Indo-Iranians and themselves part of...

     named Hydarnes
    Hydarnes
    Hydarnes was an eminent Persian, the commander of the "Ten Thousand Immortals" during the time of king Xerxes invasion of Greece.Perhaps the most famous episode involving Satrap Hydarnes and his Immortals came at the Thermopylae in 480 BC, when they came into contact with Leonidas of...

    , my servant, I made their leader, and I said unto him: 'Go, smite that Median
    Medes
    The MedesThe Medes...

     host which does not acknowledge me.' Then Hydarnes
    Hydarnes
    Hydarnes was an eminent Persian, the commander of the "Ten Thousand Immortals" during the time of king Xerxes invasion of Greece.Perhaps the most famous episode involving Satrap Hydarnes and his Immortals came at the Thermopylae in 480 BC, when they came into contact with Leonidas of...

     marched forth with the army. When he had come to Media
    Medes
    The MedesThe Medes...

    , at a city in Media
    Medes
    The MedesThe Medes...

     called Maruš
    Marus
    Marus was a Palestinian village 7 km northeast of Safad in the District of Safad, that was captured by Israel during the 1948 Arab-Israeli war during the Israeli military operation Operation Hiram by the Israeli attacking brigade Sheva' Brigade....

    , he gave battle to the Medes
    Medes
    The MedesThe Medes...

    . He who was chief among the Medes
    Medes
    The MedesThe Medes...

     was not there at that time. Ahuramazda brought me help: by the grace of Ahuramazda my army utterly defeated that rebel host. On the twenty-seventh day of the month Anâmaka
    Anâmaka
    The month of Anâmaka is one of twelve months in the old Iranian calendar believed to be used in the Persian Empire before the Islamic conquest of Iran. Anâmaka starts on December 17....

     (12 January 521) the battle was fought by them. Then did my army await me in a district in Media
    Medes
    The MedesThe Medes...

     called Kampanda, until I came into Media
    Medes
    The MedesThe Medes...

    .

Revolt of the Armenians

  • (26) King Darius
    Darius I of Persia
    Darius I , also known as Darius the Great, was the third king of kings of the Achaemenid Empire...

     says: An Armenian
    Armenians
    Armenian people or Armenians are a nation and ethnic group native to the Armenian Highland.The largest concentration is in Armenia having a nearly-homogeneous population with 97.9% or 3,145,354 being ethnic Armenian....

     named Dâdarši
    Dadarsi
    Dadarsi was a Persian general and satrap of Bactria. He served the Persian King Darius I the Great . He was ordered to suppress a revolt in Margiana.-References:...

    , my servant, I sent into Armenia
    Armenia
    Armenia , officially the Republic of Armenia , is a landlocked mountainous country in the Caucasus region of Eurasia...

    , and I said unto him: 'Go, smite that host which is in revolt and does not acknowledge me.' Then Dâdarši
    Dadarsi
    Dadarsi was a Persian general and satrap of Bactria. He served the Persian King Darius I the Great . He was ordered to suppress a revolt in Margiana.-References:...

     went forth. When he came into Armenia
    Armenia
    Armenia , officially the Republic of Armenia , is a landlocked mountainous country in the Caucasus region of Eurasia...

    , the rebels assembled and advanced against Dâdarši
    Dadarsi
    Dadarsi was a Persian general and satrap of Bactria. He served the Persian King Darius I the Great . He was ordered to suppress a revolt in Margiana.-References:...

     to give him battle. At a place in Armenia
    Armenia
    Armenia , officially the Republic of Armenia , is a landlocked mountainous country in the Caucasus region of Eurasia...

     called Zuzza they fought the battle. Ahuramazda brought me help; by the grace of Ahuramazda did my army utterly overthrow that rebel host. On the eighth day of the month Thûravâhara (20 May 521 BC) the battle was fought by them.

  • (27) King Darius
    Darius I of Persia
    Darius I , also known as Darius the Great, was the third king of kings of the Achaemenid Empire...

     says: The rebels assembled for the second time, and they advanced against Dâdarši
    Dadarsi
    Dadarsi was a Persian general and satrap of Bactria. He served the Persian King Darius I the Great . He was ordered to suppress a revolt in Margiana.-References:...

     to give him battle. At a stronghold in Armenia
    Armenia
    Armenia , officially the Republic of Armenia , is a landlocked mountainous country in the Caucasus region of Eurasia...

     called Tigra they joined battle. Ahuramazda brought me help; by the grace of Ahuramazda did my army utterly overthrow that rebel host. On the eighteenth day of the month Thûravâhara (30 May 521 BC) the battle was fought by them.

  • (28) King Darius
    Darius I of Persia
    Darius I , also known as Darius the Great, was the third king of kings of the Achaemenid Empire...

     says: The rebels assembled for the third time and advanced against Dâdarši
    Dadarsi
    Dadarsi was a Persian general and satrap of Bactria. He served the Persian King Darius I the Great . He was ordered to suppress a revolt in Margiana.-References:...

     to give him battle. At a stronghold in Armenia
    Armenia
    Armenia , officially the Republic of Armenia , is a landlocked mountainous country in the Caucasus region of Eurasia...

     called Uyamâ they joined battle. Ahuramazda brought me help; by the grace of Ahuramazda did my army utterly overthrow that rebel host. On the ninth day of the month Thâigaciš (20 June 521 BC) the battle was fought by them. Then Dâdarši
    Dadarsi
    Dadarsi was a Persian general and satrap of Bactria. He served the Persian King Darius I the Great . He was ordered to suppress a revolt in Margiana.-References:...

     waited for me in Armenia
    Armenia
    Armenia , officially the Republic of Armenia , is a landlocked mountainous country in the Caucasus region of Eurasia...

    , until I came into Armenia
    Armenia
    Armenia , officially the Republic of Armenia , is a landlocked mountainous country in the Caucasus region of Eurasia...

    .

  • (29) King Darius
    Darius I of Persia
    Darius I , also known as Darius the Great, was the third king of kings of the Achaemenid Empire...

     says: A Persian
    Persian people
    The Persian people are part of the Iranian peoples who speak the modern Persian language and closely akin Iranian dialects and languages. The origin of the ethnic Iranian/Persian peoples are traced to the Ancient Iranian peoples, who were part of the ancient Indo-Iranians and themselves part of...

     named Vaumisa, my servant, I sent into Armenia
    Armenia
    Armenia , officially the Republic of Armenia , is a landlocked mountainous country in the Caucasus region of Eurasia...

    , and I said unto him: 'Go, smite that host which is in revolt, and does not acknowledge me.' Then Vaumisa went forth. When he had come to Armenia
    Armenia
    Armenia , officially the Republic of Armenia , is a landlocked mountainous country in the Caucasus region of Eurasia...

    , the rebels assembled and advanced against Vaumisa to give him battle. At a place in Assyria
    Assyria
    Assyria was a Semitic Akkadian kingdom, extant as a nation state from the mid–23rd century BC to 608 BC centred on the Upper Tigris river, in northern Mesopotamia , that came to rule regional empires a number of times through history. It was named for its original capital, the ancient city of Assur...

     called Izalâ they joined battle. Ahuramazda brought me help; by the grace of Ahuramazda did my army utterly overthrow that rebel host. On the fifteenth day of the month Anâmaka
    Anâmaka
    The month of Anâmaka is one of twelve months in the old Iranian calendar believed to be used in the Persian Empire before the Islamic conquest of Iran. Anâmaka starts on December 17....

     (31 December 522 BC) the battle was fought by them.

  • (30) King Darius
    Darius I of Persia
    Darius I , also known as Darius the Great, was the third king of kings of the Achaemenid Empire...

     says: The rebels assembled a second time and advanced against Vaumisa to give him battle. At a place in Armenia
    Armenia
    Armenia , officially the Republic of Armenia , is a landlocked mountainous country in the Caucasus region of Eurasia...

     called Autiyâra they joined battle. Ahuramazda brought me help; by the grace of Ahuramazda did my army utterly overthrow that rebel host. At the end of the month Thûravâhara (11 June 521 BC) the battle was fought by them. Then Vaumisa waited for me in Armenia
    Armenia
    Armenia , officially the Republic of Armenia , is a landlocked mountainous country in the Caucasus region of Eurasia...

    , until I came into Armenia
    Armenia
    Armenia , officially the Republic of Armenia , is a landlocked mountainous country in the Caucasus region of Eurasia...

    .

End of the revolt of the Medes

  • (31) King Darius
    Darius I of Persia
    Darius I , also known as Darius the Great, was the third king of kings of the Achaemenid Empire...

     says: Then I went forth from Babylon
    Babylon
    Babylon was an Akkadian city-state of ancient Mesopotamia, the remains of which are found in present-day Al Hillah, Babil Province, Iraq, about 85 kilometers south of Baghdad...

     and came into Media
    Medes
    The MedesThe Medes...

    . When I had come to Media
    Medes
    The MedesThe Medes...

    , that Phraortes
    Phraortes
    Phraortes , son of Diyako, was the second king of the Median Empire....

     [Fravartiš], who called himself king in Media
    Medes
    The MedesThe Medes...

    , came against me unto a city in Media
    Medes
    The MedesThe Medes...

     called Kunduruš (Kangâvar?) to offer battle. Then we joined battle. Ahuramazda brought me help; by the grace of Ahuramazda did my army utterly overthrow that rebel host. On the twenty-fifth day of the month Adukanaiša(8 May 521 BC) we fought the battle.

  • (32) King Darius
    Darius I of Persia
    Darius I , also known as Darius the Great, was the third king of kings of the Achaemenid Empire...

     says: Thereupon that Phraortes
    Phraortes
    Phraortes , son of Diyako, was the second king of the Median Empire....

     fled thence with a few horseman to a district in Media
    Medes
    The MedesThe Medes...

     called Rhagae [Ragâ]. Then I sent an army in pursuit. Phraortes
    Phraortes
    Phraortes , son of Diyako, was the second king of the Median Empire....

     was taken and brought unto me. I cut off his nose, his ears, and his tongue, and I put out one eye, and he was kept in fetters at my palace entrance, and all the people beheld him. Then did I crucify him in Ecbatana
    Ecbatana
    Ecbatana is supposed to be the capital of Astyages , which was taken by the Persian emperor Cyrus the Great in the sixth year of Nabonidus...

     [Hagmatâna]; and the men who were his foremost followers, those at Ecbatana
    Ecbatana
    Ecbatana is supposed to be the capital of Astyages , which was taken by the Persian emperor Cyrus the Great in the sixth year of Nabonidus...

     within the fortress, I flayed and hung out their hides, stuffed with straw.

  • (33) King Darius
    Darius I of Persia
    Darius I , also known as Darius the Great, was the third king of kings of the Achaemenid Empire...

     says: A man named Tritantaechmes
    Tritantaechmes
    Tritantaechmes was king of Sagartians who ruled in Arbela .He was killed by Darius of Achaemenids....

     [Ciçataxma], a Sagartian, revolted from me, saying to his people: 'I am king in Sagartia
    Sagartia
    Sagartia is a genus of sea anemones in the family Sagartiidae. The genus was first described by Philip Henry Gosse in 1855 and the image is his painting of several species found in British waters included in his book, A history of the British sea-anemones and corals. -Species:The following species...

     [Asagarta], of the family of Cyaxares
    Cyaxares
    Cyaxares, Cyaxares the Great or Hvakhshathra , the son of King Phraortes, was the first king of Media. According to Herodotus, Cyaxares, grandson of Deioces, had a far greater military reputation than his father or grandfather, therefore he is often being described as the first official Median...

    .' Then I sent forth a Persian and a Median
    Medes
    The MedesThe Medes...

     army. A Mede named Takhmaspâda, my servant, I made their leader, and I said unto him: 'Go, smite that host which is in revolt, and does not acknowledge me.' Thereupon Takhmaspâda went forth with the army, and he fought a battle with Tritantaechmes
    Tritantaechmes
    Tritantaechmes was king of Sagartians who ruled in Arbela .He was killed by Darius of Achaemenids....

    . Ahuramazda brought me help; by the grace of Ahuramazda my army utterly defeated that rebel host, and they seized Tritantaechmes
    Tritantaechmes
    Tritantaechmes was king of Sagartians who ruled in Arbela .He was killed by Darius of Achaemenids....

     and brought him unto me. Afterwards I cut off both his nose and ears, and put out one eye, he was kept bound at my palace entrance, all the people saw him. Afterwards I crucified him in Arbela
    Arbela
    Arbela may refer to:*An important city in ancient Jordan, located on the site of modern Irbid, Jordan*The ancient name of the city of Arbil in northern Iraq*Ancient Jewish settlement in Galilee, near the modern moshav Arbel, Israel....

    .

  • (34) King Darius
    Darius I of Persia
    Darius I , also known as Darius the Great, was the third king of kings of the Achaemenid Empire...

     says: This is what was done by me in Media
    Medes
    The MedesThe Medes...

    .

Revolt of the Parthians

  • (35) King Darius
    Darius I of Persia
    Darius I , also known as Darius the Great, was the third king of kings of the Achaemenid Empire...

     says: The Parthians [Parthava] and Hyrcanians [Varkâna] revolted from me, and they declared themselves on the side of Phraortes
    Phraortes
    Phraortes , son of Diyako, was the second king of the Median Empire....

     [Fravarta]. My father Hystaspes
    Hystaspes
    Vishtaspa, Hellenized as Hystaspes , may refer to:* Vishtaspa , the first patron of Zoroaster...

     was in Parthia
    Parthia
    Parthia is a region of north-eastern Iran, best known for having been the political and cultural base of the Arsacid dynasty, rulers of the Parthian Empire....

    ; and the people forsook him; they became rebellious. Then Hystaspes
    Hystaspes
    Vishtaspa, Hellenized as Hystaspes , may refer to:* Vishtaspa , the first patron of Zoroaster...

     [Vištâspa] marched forth with the troops which had remained faithful. At a city in Parthia
    Parthia
    Parthia is a region of north-eastern Iran, best known for having been the political and cultural base of the Arsacid dynasty, rulers of the Parthian Empire....

     called Višpauzâtiš he fought a battle with the Parthians. Ahuramazda brought me help; by the grace of Ahuramazda my army utterly defeated that rebel host. On the second day of the month Viyaxana (8 March 521) the battle was fought by them.

Column three

  • (36) King Darius says: Then did I send a Persian army unto Hystaspes [Vištâspa] from Rhagae [Ragâ]. When that army reached Hystaspes, he marched forth with the host. At a city in Parthia called Patigrabanâ
    Patigrabana
    Patigrabana was a historical city in Parthia. It is known of only from the Behistun Inscription.According to that text, Patigrabana is where Hystaspes – father of Darius I and Achaemenid governor of Parthia – fought a battle against Parthian and Hyrcanian rebels supporting one Phraortes...

     he gave battle to the rebels. Ahuramazda brought me help; by the grace of Ahuramazda Hystaspes utterly defeated that rebel host. On the first day of the month Garmapada (11 July 521) the battle was fought by them.
  • (37) King Darius says: Then was the province mine. This is what was done by me in Parthia.

Frâda Revolt of Frâda of Margiana

  • (38) King Darius says: The province called Margiana [Marguš] revolted against me. A certain Margian named Frâda they made their leader. Then sent I against him a Persian named Dâdarši, my servant, who was satrap of Bactria [Bâxtriya], and I said unto him: 'Go, smite that host which does not acknowledge me.' Then Dâdarši went forth with the army, and gave battle to the Margians. Ahuramazda brought me help; by the grace of Ahuramazda my army utterly overthrew that rebel host. Of the twenty-third day of the month Âçiyâdiya (28 December 521) was the battle fought by them.
  • (39) King Darius says: Then was the province mine. This is what was done by me in Bactria.

Revolt of Vahyazdâta of Persia

  • (40) King Darius [Dâryavuš] says: A certain man named Vahyazdâta dwelt in a city called Târavâ in a district in Persia called Vautiyâ. This man rebelled for the second time in Persia, and thus he spoke unto the people: 'I am Smerdis [Bardiya], the son of Cyrus [Kûruš].' Then the Persian people who were in the palace fell away from allegiance. They revolted from me and went over to that Vahyazdâta. He became king in Persia.

  • (41) King Darius says: Then did I send out the Persian and the Median army which was with me. A Persian named Artavardiya, my servant, I made their leader. The rest of the Persian army came unto me in Media
    Medes
    The MedesThe Medes...

    . Then went Artavardiya with the army unto Persia. When he came to Persia, at a city in Persia called Rakhâ, that Vahyazdâta, who called himself Smerdis, advanced with the army against Artavardiya to give him battle. They then fought the battle. Ahuramazda brought me help; by the grace of Ahuramazda my host utterly overthrew the army of Vahyazdâta. On the twelfth day of the month Thûravâhara (24 May 521) was the battle fought by them.

  • (42) King Darius says: Then that Vahyazdâta fled thence with a few horsemen unto Pishiyâuvâda. From that place he went forth with an army a second time against Artavardiya to give him battle. At a mountain called Parga they fought the battle. Ahuramazda brought me help; by the grace of Ahuramazda my host utterly overthrew the army of Vahyazdâta. On the fifth day of the month Garmapada (15 July 521) was the battle fought by them. And they seized that Vahyazdâta, and the men who were his chief followers were also seized.

  • (43) King Darius says: Then did I crucify that Vahyazdâta and the men who were his chief followers in a city in Persia called Uvâdaicaya.

  • (44) King Darius says: This is what was done by me in Persia.

  • (45) King Darius says: That Vahyazdâta, who called himself Smerdis, sent men to Arachosia
    Arachosia
    Arachosia is the Latinized form of the Greek name of an Achaemenid and Seleucid governorate in the eastern part of their respective empires, around modern-day southern Afghanistan. The Greek term "Arachosia" corresponds to the Iranian land of Harauti which was between Kandahar in Afghanistan and...

     [Harauvati] against a Persian named Vivâna, my servant, the satrap
    Satrap
    Satrap was the name given to the governors of the provinces of the ancient Median and Achaemenid Empires and in several of their successors, such as the Sassanid Empire and the Hellenistic empires....

     of Arachosia. He appointed a certain man to be their leader, and thus he spoke to him, saying: 'Go smite Vivâna and the host which acknowledges king Darius!' Then that army that Vahyazdâta had sent marched against Vivâna to give him battle. At a fortress called Kapiša-kaniš [= Kandahar
    Kandahar
    Kandahar is the second largest city in Afghanistan, with a population of about 512,200 as of 2011. It is the capital of Kandahar Province, located in the south of the country at about 1,005 m above sea level...

     ] they fought the battle. Ahuramazda brought me help; by the grace of Ahuramazda my army utterly overthrew that rebel host. On the thirteenth day of the month Anâmaka (29 December 522) was the battle fought by them.

  • (46) King Darius says: The rebels assembled a second time and went out against Vivâna to give him battle. At a place called Gandutava they fought a battle. Ahuramazda brought me help; by the grace of Ahuramazda my army utterly overthrew that rebel host. On the seventh day of the month Viyaxana (21 February 521) the battle was fought by them.

  • (47) King Darius says: The man who was commander of that army that Vahyazdâta had sent forth against Vivâna fled thence with a few horsemen. They went to a fortress in Arachosia called Aršâdâ. Then Vivâna with the army marched after them on foot. There he seized him, and he slew the men who were his chief followers.

  • (48) King Darius says: Then was the province mine. This is what was done by me in Arachosia.

Arakha Second Babylonian revolt

  • (49) King Darius says: While I was in Persia and in Media, the Babylonians revolted from me a second time. A certain man named Arakha, an Armenian, son of Haldita, rebelled in Babylon. At a place called Dubâla, he lied unto the people, saying: 'I am Nebuchadnezzar, the son of Nabonidus.' Then did the Babylonian people revolt from me and they went over to that Arakha. He seized Babylon, he became king in Babylon.

  • (50) King Darius says: Then did I send an army unto Babylon. A Persian named Intaphrenes [Vidafarnâ], my servant, I appointed as their leader, and thus I spoke unto them: 'Go, smite that Babylonian host which does not acknowledge me.' Then Intaphrenes marched with the army unto Babylon. Ahuramazda brought me help; by the grace of Ahuramazda Intaphrenes overthrew the Babylonians and brought over the people unto me. On the twenty-second day of the month Markâsanaš (27 November) they seized that Arakha who called himself Nebuchadnezzar, and the men who were his chief followers. Then I made a decree, saying: 'Let that Arakha and the men who were his chief followers be crucified in Babylon!'

Summary

  • (52) King Darius says: This is what I have done. By the grace of Ahuramazda have I always acted. After I became king, I fought nineteen battles in a single year and by the grace of Ahuramazda I overthrew nine kings and I made them captive.
  • One was named Gaumâta, the Magian; he lied, saying 'I am Smerdis [Bardiya], the son of Cyrus [Kûruš].' He made Persia to revolt.
  • Another was named ššina, the Elam
    Elam
    Elam was an ancient civilization located in what is now southwest Iran. Elam was centered in the far west and the southwest of modern-day Iran, stretching from the lowlands of Khuzestan and Ilam Province, as well as a small part of southern Iraq...

    ite [Ûvjiya]; he lied, saying: 'I am king the king of Elam.' He made Elam to revolt.
  • Another was named Nidintu-Bêl [Naditabaira], the Babylonia
    Babylonia
    Babylonia was an ancient cultural region in central-southern Mesopotamia , with Babylon as its capital. Babylonia emerged as a major power when Hammurabi Babylonia was an ancient cultural region in central-southern Mesopotamia (present-day Iraq), with Babylon as its capital. Babylonia emerged as...

    n [Bâbiruviya]; he lied, saying: 'I am Nebuchadnezzar
    Nebuchadnezzar
    Nebuchadnezzar was the name of several kings of Babylonia.* Nebuchadnezzar I, who ruled the Babylonian Empire in the 12th century BC* Nebuchadnezzar II , the Babylonian ruler mentioned in the biblical Book of Daniel...

     [Nabukudracara], the son of Nabonidus
    Nabonidus
    Nabonidus was the last king of the Neo-Babylonian Empire, reigning from 556-539 BCE.-Historiography on Nabonidus:...

     [Nabunaita].' He made Babylon
    Babylon
    Babylon was an Akkadian city-state of ancient Mesopotamia, the remains of which are found in present-day Al Hillah, Babil Province, Iraq, about 85 kilometers south of Baghdad...

     to revolt.
  • Another was named Martiya, the Persian; he lied, saying: 'I am Ummanniš, the king of Elam
    Elam
    Elam was an ancient civilization located in what is now southwest Iran. Elam was centered in the far west and the southwest of modern-day Iran, stretching from the lowlands of Khuzestan and Ilam Province, as well as a small part of southern Iraq...

    .' He made Elam to revolt.
  • Another was Phraortes
    Phraortes
    Phraortes , son of Diyako, was the second king of the Median Empire....

     [Fravartiš], the Mede [Mâda]; he lied, saying: 'I am Khshathrita, of the dynasty of Cyaxares
    Cyaxares
    Cyaxares, Cyaxares the Great or Hvakhshathra , the son of King Phraortes, was the first king of Media. According to Herodotus, Cyaxares, grandson of Deioces, had a far greater military reputation than his father or grandfather, therefore he is often being described as the first official Median...

     [Uvaxštra].' He made Media to revolt.
  • Another was Tritantaechmes
    Tritantaechmes
    Tritantaechmes was king of Sagartians who ruled in Arbela .He was killed by Darius of Achaemenids....

     [Ciçataxma], the Sagartia
    Sagartia
    Sagartia is a genus of sea anemones in the family Sagartiidae. The genus was first described by Philip Henry Gosse in 1855 and the image is his painting of several species found in British waters included in his book, A history of the British sea-anemones and corals. -Species:The following species...

    n [Asagartiya]; he lied, saying: 'I am king in Sagartia, of the dynasty of Cyaxares
    Cyaxares
    Cyaxares, Cyaxares the Great or Hvakhshathra , the son of King Phraortes, was the first king of Media. According to Herodotus, Cyaxares, grandson of Deioces, had a far greater military reputation than his father or grandfather, therefore he is often being described as the first official Median...

     [Uvaxštra].' He made Sagartia to revolt.
  • Another was named Frâda, of Margiana; he lied, saying: 'I am king of Margiana [Marguš].' He made Margiana to revolt.
  • Another was Vahyazdâta, a Persian; he lied, saying: 'I am Smerdis [Bardiya], the son of Cyrus [Kûruš].' He made Persia to revolt.
  • Another was Arakha, an Armenia
    Armenia
    Armenia , officially the Republic of Armenia , is a landlocked mountainous country in the Caucasus region of Eurasia...

    n [Arminiya]; he lied, saying: 'I am Nebuchadnezzar
    Nebuchadnezzar
    Nebuchadnezzar was the name of several kings of Babylonia.* Nebuchadnezzar I, who ruled the Babylonian Empire in the 12th century BC* Nebuchadnezzar II , the Babylonian ruler mentioned in the biblical Book of Daniel...

    , the son of Nabonidus
    Nabonidus
    Nabonidus was the last king of the Neo-Babylonian Empire, reigning from 556-539 BCE.-Historiography on Nabonidus:...

    .' He made Babylon
    Babylon
    Babylon was an Akkadian city-state of ancient Mesopotamia, the remains of which are found in present-day Al Hillah, Babil Province, Iraq, about 85 kilometers south of Baghdad...

     to revolt.

  • (53) King Darius says: These nine king did I capture in these wars.

  • (54) King Darius says: As to these provinces which revolted, lies made them revolt, so that they deceived the people. Then Ahuramazda delivered them into my hand; and I did unto them according to my will.

  • (55) King Darius says: You who shall be king hereafter, protect yourself vigorously from lies; punish the liars well, if thus you shall think, 'May my country be secure!'

Affirmation of the truth of the record

  • (56) King Darius says: This is what I have done, by the grace of Ahuramazda have I always acted. Whosoever shall read this inscription hereafter, let that which I have done be believed. You must not hold it to be lies.

  • (57) King Darius says: I call Ahuramazda to witness that is true and not lies; all of it have I done in a single year.

  • (58) King Darius says: By the grace of Ahuramazda I did much more, which is not graven in this inscription. On this account it has not been inscribed lest he who shall read this inscription hereafter should then hold that which has been done by me to be excessive and not believe it and takes it to be lies.

Affirmation that it is pious to make known the record

  • (59) King Darius says: Those who were the former kings, as long as they lived, by them was not done thus as by the favor of Ahuramazda was done by me in one and the same year.

  • (60) King Darius says: Now let what has been done by me convince you. For the sake of the people, do not conceal it. If you do not conceal this edict but if you publish it to the world, then may Ahuramazda be your friend, may your family be numerous, and may you live long.

  • (61) King Darius says: If you conceal this edict and do not publish it to the world, may Ahuramazda slay you and may your house cease.

  • (62) King Darius says: This is what I have done in one single year; by the grace of Ahuramazda have I always acted. Ahuramazda brought me help, and the other gods, all that there are.

The importance of righteousness

  • (63) King Darius says: On this account Ahuramazda brought me help, and all the other gods, all that there are, because I was not wicked, nor was I a liar, nor was I a despot, neither I nor any of my family. I have ruled according to righteousness. Neither to the weak nor to the powerful did I do wrong. Whosoever helped my house, him I favored; he who was hostile, him I destroyed.

  • (64) King Darius says: You who may be king hereafter, whosoever shall be a liar or a rebel, or shall not be friendly, punish him!

Blessings and curses

  • (65) King Darius says: You who shall hereafter see this tablet, which I have written, or these sculptures, do not destroy them, but preserve them so long as you live!

  • (66) King Darius says: If you shall behold this inscription or these sculptures, and shall not destroy them, but shall preserve them as long as your line endures, then may Ahuramazda be your friend, and may your family be numerous. Live long, and may Ahuramazda make fortunate whatsoever you do.

  • (67) King Darius says: If you shall behold this inscription or these sculptures, and shall destroy them and shall not preserve them so long as your line endures, may Ahuramazda slay you, may your family come to nought, and may Ahuramazda destroy whatever you do!

  • (68) King Darius says: These are the men who were with me when I slew Gaumâta the Magian [maguš], who was called Smerdis [Bardiya]; then these men helped me as my followers:
  • Intaphrenes [Vidafarnâ], son of Vayâspâra, a Persian;
  • Otanes [Utâna], son of Thukhra [Thuxra], a Persian;
  • Gobryas [Gaubaruva], son of Mardonius [Marduniya], a Persian;
  • Hydarnes [Vidarna], son of Bagâbigna, a Persian;
  • Megabyzus [Bagabuxša], son of Dâtuvahya, a Persian;
  • Ardumaniš, son of Vakauka, a Persian.

  • (69) King Darius says: You who may be king hereafter, protect the family of these men.

  • (70) King Darius says: By the grace of Ahuramazda this is the inscription which I have made. Besides, it was in Aryan script, and it was composed on clay tablet
    Clay tablet
    In the Ancient Near East, clay tablets were used as a writing medium, especially for writing in cuneiform, throughout the Bronze Age and well into the Iron Age....

    s and on parchment
    Parchment
    Parchment is a thin material made from calfskin, sheepskin or goatskin, often split. Its most common use was as a material for writing on, for documents, notes, or the pages of a book, codex or manuscript. It is distinct from leather in that parchment is limed but not tanned; therefore, it is very...

    . Besides, a sculptured figure of myself I made. Besides, I made my lineage. And it was inscribed and was read off before me. Afterwards this inscription I sent off everywhere among the province
    Province
    A province is a territorial unit, almost always an administrative division, within a country or state.-Etymology:The English word "province" is attested since about 1330 and derives from the 13th-century Old French "province," which itself comes from the Latin word "provincia," which referred to...

    s. The people unitedly worked upon it.

A new rebellion on Elam (Autumn 521)

  • (71) King Darius says: The following is what I did in the second and third year of my rule. The province called Elam [Ûvja] revolted from me. An Elam
    Elam
    Elam was an ancient civilization located in what is now southwest Iran. Elam was centered in the far west and the southwest of modern-day Iran, stretching from the lowlands of Khuzestan and Ilam Province, as well as a small part of southern Iraq...

    ite named Atamaita they made their leader. Then I sent an army unto Elam. A Persian named Gobryas [Gaubaruva], my servant, I made their leader. Then Gobryas set forth with the army; he delivered battle against the Elamites. Then Gobryas destroyed many of the host and that Atamaita, their leader, he captured, and he brought him unto me, and I killed him. Then the province became mine.

  • (72) King Darius says: Those Elam
    Elam
    Elam was an ancient civilization located in what is now southwest Iran. Elam was centered in the far west and the southwest of modern-day Iran, stretching from the lowlands of Khuzestan and Ilam Province, as well as a small part of southern Iraq...

    ites were faithless and Ahuramazda was not worshipped by them. I worshipped Ahuramazda; by the grace of Ahuramazda I did unto them according to my will.

  • (73) King Darius says: Whoso shall worship Ahuramazda, divine blessing will be upon him, both while living and when dead.

War against the Scythians (520/519)

  • (74) King Darius says: Afterwards with an army I went off to Scythia
    Scythia
    In antiquity, Scythian or Scyths were terms used by the Greeks to refer to certain Iranian groups of horse-riding nomadic pastoralists who dwelt on the Pontic-Caspian steppe...

    , after the Scythians who wear the pointed cap. These Scythians went from me. When I arrived at the river, I crossed beyond it then with all my army. Afterwards, I smote the Scythians exceedingly; [one of their leaders] I took captive; he was led bound to me, and I killed him. [Another] chief of them, by name Skunkha, they seized and led to me. Then I made another their chief, as was my desire. Then the province became mine.

  • (75) King Darius says: Those Scythians [Sakâ] were faithless and Ahuramazda was not worshipped by them. I worshipped Ahuramazda; by the grace of Ahuramazda I did unto them according to my will.

  • (76) King Darius says: Whoso shall worship Ahuramazda, divine blessing will be upon him, both while living and when dead.